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Prehistoric — Aboriginal 
Pion eer — Mode rn 










Eslablishmeni of a Covernment in a Wilderness — The First Officials — Their Weslnfard 
Journey — Sworn in at Navajo Springs — Building a Capital City — Early Agriculture 
— Ross Browne's Estimate of Arizona and Faith in Her Future 313 



Elections, Officials and Legislatures — McCormiclfs Continued Successes — Establishment 
of Courts — Creation of Counties — Highways — Yuma Land Dispute — A Loyal Peo- 
ple — Fremont's Governorship — Divorces and Lotteries — The Thieving Thirteenth — - 
Bullion Tax Repeal 324 



Troublous Political Times through the Administrations of Governors Zulick, Wolfley, 
Irwin, Hughes and McCord — The Asylum Inquiry — Change of the Capital to 
Phcenix — Lost Laws — Hold-over Muddle — Yuma Prison Labor Contract — New 
Code 336 



The Various Capitols of Arizona Till Dedication of the State House at Phosnix — Admin- 
istrations of Governors Murphy, Brodie, Kibbey and Sloan — Arizona's Song and 
Flower — Raising the Taxes on Mines — Territorial Judges 350 



Enfranchisement Asked in Earliest Territorial Days — A Constitutional Convention that 
Remonetized Silver — Congressional Inspection — The Joint Statehood Peril — The Con- 
stitution and Its Preparation — Taft's Veto of the Recall — Statehood Gained — Terri- 
torial Legislators 361 




Jeffersonian Simplicity MaTked the Inauguralion of Governor Hunt — Perpetual Legis- 
latures and Man's Referendum Submissions — The Cuvernor's Opposition to Capital 
Punishment — How Delay Affected the Federal Judgeship — Popular Election of Sen- 
ators 375 



Decline and Fall of Arizona Gambling — Character of the Professional Gambler — Early 
Efforts Toward Prohibition and Final Success — Female Suffrage and Its Effect upon 
Politics — Non-alcoholic Baptism of the Battleship "Arizona" 383 



Prospectors Ever in the Vanguard of Civilization — Wealth that has Come Through a 
"Grubstake" — "Lost Mines" of the Southwest — The Miner Party — Fraudulent 
Mining Schemes — Arizona Diamonds that Came from Africa — Qiiijotoa's 
Boom 388 



Mohave was First in the North — The Old Vulture — Romance of the Silver King — Ed. 
Schieffelin and the Discovery of Tombstone — Riches of the United Verde — Desert 
Bonanzas — How the Vekol Was Found 399 



The History of the Globe Section — Miami's Recent Development — Ray's Mines and 
Haydens Reduction Works — Clifton, a Pioneer Copper Producer — Bisbee's Real 
Discoverer — Growth of the Camp — Mining for a Meteor — Copper Production . .415 



Long Effort and Millions of Dollars Expended on the Salt River Project — Electric Power 
Generation — Roosevelt Dedicates the Roosevelt Dam — Yuma Well Served from the 
Laguna Dam — Storage Plans for the Gila River Valley 431 




Conifcops, Topical and Otherrvise — Slocking of the Arizona Ranges — Sheep and Their 
Faithful Shepherds — Antagonism of the Two Stock Divisions — Elk Imported from 
W})oming — Rise and Decline of the Arizona Ostrich Breeding Industry 445 



The Church a Great Pioneering Force — John D. Lee Long a Refugee in the Grand 
Canon — Settlements in Northern Arizona — Missionary^ Work of Jacob Hamblin — 
Founding a Slake in the Little Colorado Valley — Communities Established at Lehi, 
Mesa, Saint David and on the Gila 450 



Popular Administration of Justice at Many Points — Phoenix as a "Wild West" ToTvn — 
Globe's Hanging Tree — The Bisbee Massacre — Heath Lynching at Tombstone — 
"Bad Men" and Frontier Sheriffs — Commodore Omens — Pete Gabriel and Joe 
Phy 458 



The Great Wham Robbery and Its Political Complications — Gribble and Barney Martin 
Murders — A Female Bandit — Train Robberies that Proved Unprofitable — Jim 
Parkers Path to the Gallows — Burt Alvord and the Cochise Train Robbery. . . .471 



The Earps and Their Career at Tombstone — What It Cost to Take Sheep into Pleasant 
Valley — Justice as Rough Hewn on the Frontier — Arizona Rangers and Their Good 
Work — Arizona's Penitentiaries — End of the Wild West Era 480 



How the Work of the Missions Was Taken Up — Establishment of the Diocese of Tucson 
— Entrance of the Episcopal Church — Bishop Kendrick's Good Deeds — Early 
Protestant Missionaries — Foundation of the Public School System — The University 
and Normal Schools 492 




Beginnings of Arizona Journalism at Tubac and Fort Whipple — Trvo Journalistic Duels 
that Were Bloodless — How Editor Bagg Evened an Old Score — Nervspapers Known 
in Every Section — Hopes and Ideals of the Frontier Scribes 500 



Participation of the "Rough Riders" in the War With Spain — Honor to the Flag of the 
Arizona Squadron — Captain O'Neill and the Monument at Prescolt — The First Ter- 
ritorial /nfantrv — National Guard of Arizona and Its Service on the Field 512 



Possible Benefit of Harsh Natural Conditions — Few Grants Made in Arizona— The No- 
torious Peralta-Reavis Fraud and How It Was Uncovered — Work of the Court of 
Private Land Claims — Railwav Subsidp Grants — Modern Surveys 529 



Visits to Arizona Made by Hayes, McKinley, Roosevelt and Taft — Expositions, Fairs 
and Fiestas — How Shark Island Swallowed Arizonans — Santa Teresa's Power — 
Clifton Foundlings — Arizona's Subdivisions — Utah's Aspirations — Census and As- 
sessment Figures 541 



Northwestern Arizona — Development Along the Little Colorado — Effect of Railroad Con- 
struction — Flagstaff's Observatory — Yuma and the River Towns — Yavapai's 
Growth — Conflagrations at Prescolt and Jerome — The Dam Break at Walnut 
Grove 553 



Settlement of the Salt River Valley — Foundation and Civic Advancement of Phcenix — 
First Mails and Schools — How Tempe and Mesa Came into Being — Florence and 
Its Neighborhood — Towns of the Upper Gila Valley and Early Indian Tribu- 
lation 5 65 




Tucson, from Mexican Da^s to Modern Times — Arrival of the Railroad- — Telegraphing 
the Pope — Current History) of Tombstone and Bisbee — Nogales, Successor to the 
Hopes of Calabasas — War on the Border — Globe and Miami 577 



Chas. D. Poslon — Wm. H. Kirkland — Peter R. Brady — Fritz Contzen — Estevan Ochoa 
— Samuel Hughes — Thomas Hughes — L. C. Hughes — S. R. DeLong — /. B. Allen 
— Fred C. Hughes — C. B. Stocking — R. N. Leatherivood — S. H. Drachman — £. 
N. Fish — /. S. Mansfeld — W. C. Greene — Col. Kosterlitskv — Pauline Cushman — 
Pioneer Society 592 



R. C. McCormick—Sol. Barth—C. B. Genung—J. H. Lee—Ed. Peck— Jack Swilling 
— Darrell Duppa — Abe. Frank — Al. Sieber — Tom Fitch — C. H. Cray — Michael 
IVormser — E. F. Kellner — The Pioneers' Home and Its Inmates 608 

Arizona — The Youngest State 



Establishmeni of a Covernmenl in a Wilderness — The First Officials — Their Westivard 
Journey — Stvom in at Navajo Springs — Building a Capital Ci'/p — Earl}; Agriculture 
— Ross Browne's Estimate of Arizona and Faith in Her Future. 

Just as the land of Arizona is unlike any other land, so was the foundation 
of the government of her commonwealth. Ordinarily, governments are organ- 
ized on the primary basis of population, the governing center placed in the most 
populous section of the new administrative unit. Very different it was here. 

The capital was established on the northernmost edge of white settlement. 
Geographically it was in the center of the new territory, a point probably con- 
sidered by its founders. It was in the midst of a beautifi;l, forested, mountain- 
oixs district, but the time was snowy midwinter. The loealit.y was far from the 
main continental thoroughfare. Tucson, the only town within the territory, 
lay distant more than 250 miles, over a roadless. Apache-infested wilderness. 
Bright must have been the hopeful vision of the founders of our state. 

Arizona was given a separate territorial government for a number of reasons, 
the least of them the very manifest one of the needs of the neglected people. 
The Confederacy alread3^ had recognized the existence of a Territory of Ari- 
zona, though with very different area, embracing about the southern two-fifths 
of the present New Mexico and Arizona. This, at least, was a precedent. As 
a war measure it was considered advisable to have a center of federal authority 
thrown between the South and the Pacific Coast. But a weighty reason for 
organization was that a number of politicians, some of them "lame ducks" still 
in Congress (Gurley and Goodwin) wanted office and saw possibilities of fame 
and wealth in a far-off section whence had come reports of riches in silver and 
gold and which might prove another California. Not that these politicians 
were not a decent sort. They were that and more. Thej' were men of sturdy 
character, patriotism and energj' and, best of all, had faith in their mission and 
hope in its successful outcome. 


The act organizing the temporary government for the Territory of Arizona 
was approved by the President February 24, 1863. It set off the western half 
of New Mexico to be 
Vol. n— 1 



. . . erected into a tempoi-ary government by the name of the Territory of Arizona: 
Provided, that nothing contained in the provisions of this act shall be construed to prohibit 
the Congress of the United States from dividing said territory or changing its boundaries 
in such manner and at such time as it may deem proper : Provided, further, that said govern- 
ment shall be maintained and continued until such time as the people residing in said 
territory shall, with the consent of Congi-ess, form a state government, republican in form, 
as prescribed in the Constitution of the United States, and apply for and obtain admission 
into the Union as a state, on an equal footing with the original states. 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, that the government hereby authorized shall consist 
of an executive, a legislative and a judicial power. The executive power shall be vested in a 
governor. The legislative power shall consist of a council of nine members, and a house of 
representatives of eighteen. The judicial power shall be vested in a Supreme Court, to consist 
of three judges, and such inferior courts as the legislative council may by law prescribe; 
there shall alto be a secretary, a marshal, a district attorney, and a surveyor general for said 
territory, who, together with the governor and judges of the Supreme Court, shall be appointed 
by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and the term of office 
for each, the manner of their appointment, and the powers, duties, and the compensation of 
the governor, legislative assembly, judges of the Supreme Court, secretary, marshal, district 
attorney, and surveyor general aforesaid, with their clerks, draughtsmen, deputies, and 
sergeants-at-arms, shall be such as are conferred upon the same officers by the act organizing 
the territorial government of New Mexico, which subordinate officers shall be appointed in 
the same manner and not exceed in number those created by said act and acts amendatory 
thereto, together with all legislative enactments of the Territory of New Mexico not incon- 
sistent with the provisions of this act, are hereby extended to and continued in force in the 
said Territory of Arizona, until repealed or amended by future legislation: Provided, that 
no salary shall be due or paid the officers created by this act until they have entered upon 
the duties of their respective offices within the said territory. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, that there shall neither be slavery nor involuntary 
servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the 
parties shall have been duly convicted ; and all acts and parts of acts, either of Congress 
or of the Territory of New Mexico, establishing, regulating, or in any way recognizing the 
relation of master and slave in said territory are hereby repealed. , 


The tentative list of officials made up for the new territory by a caucus of 
the prospective appointees in Washington was accepted by President Lincoln 
without change. In March, 1863, appointment was made of the following- 
named: Governor, John A. Gurley of Ohio; Secretary, Richard C. McCormick 
of New York; Chief Justice, John N. Goodwin of Maine; Associate Justices, 
"Wm. T. Howell of Michigan, Jos. P. Allyn of Connecticut; District Attorney, 
John Titus of Pennsylvania; Marshal, Milton B. Duffield of California (or New 
York) ; Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Chas. D. Poston of Arizona, who was 
credited to Kentucky. Before the party of officials started West, there had been 
several changes. August 18 Governor Gurley died, after a long illness that had 
delayed matters, and on the 21st to the place was appointed Goodwin. In turn, 
his position was filled by the appointment of Wm. F. Turner of Iowa. Then 
Mr. Titus was made chief justice of Utah and Almon Gage of New York was 
placed in the office vacated. May 26 Levi Bashford was appointed surveyor 

About August 27 Governor Goodwin left New York for the West, accom- 
panied by Secretai-y McCormick and Judge Allyn, a short stay being made at 
Cincinnati to pick up any threads of business that might have been left by 
Gurley. Government transportation was provided from Fort Leavenworth, 


which was left September 26, the party by that time enlarged by the addition 
of Howell, Gage and Bashford. Judge Turner overtook the wagons at Fort 

Poston, probably with his mining and political interests in mind, preferred 
to go around by San Francisco, from which point he was accompanied by the 
new marshal and by J. Ross Browne, the noted California writer, who had some 
sort of official connection with the Department of the Interior. They sailed 
on the old steamer Senator for San Pedro, December 5, 1863, in company with 
Ammi "White, Indian agent at the Pima villages, and two of his wards, Antonio 
Azul, chief of the Pimas, and Francisco, an interpreter. Antonio apparently 
had been taken northward that on his return he might properly impress his 
people with the wondei-s of the civilization of the whites. With him had been 
Iretaba, chief of the Mojaves, who is recorded as having made a sensation in 
New York and Washington. Browne and Poston, a part of the time with a 
military escort, toured the southern part of the new territory, the former accumu- 
lating material for his interesting book on Arizona, and it was some time before 
Poston joined his fellow officials at the seat of government. 

Some private chronicles of the time are to the effect that the original destina- 
tion of the main official party was Tucson, the largest settlement in the new 
territory and the most logical site for the capital. Yet designation of Tucson as 
the capital had been stricken out of the enabling act. The town was considered 
more or less of a hotbed of secession and therefore entitled to little considera- 
tion. From private sources the author has learned that Goodwin and his cabinet 
were still in doubt concerning their destination when they arrived, November 
14, at Santa Fe. There, it is told, they proved willing listeners when General 
Carleton suggested that they strike out into the wilderness of Central Arizona 
and there, pi-otected by a military post he was establishing, erect a new capital 
city that should be wholly American, without i\Iexican or secession influences, 
within a land wherein rich discoveries had been made, and which, favored by 
abundant water and timber and by a delightful climate, would seem destined 
to soon fill with a high class of American residents. 


The entry of the new land was attended with some degree of pomp and 
circumstance. There was a military escort, commanded by Lieut. Col. J. Fran- 
cisco Chaves of the First New Mexico Volunteer Cavalry, with a detachment 
of ten men of Troop E of his regiment, under Capt. Rafael Chacon, and 
a detachment of the Eleventh Missouri Volunteer Cavalry, under Capt. J. H. 
Butcher, the last-named, with twenty-five men, ordered from station at Los 
Pinos. Colonel Chaves includes in the list of his command two companies of 
the First California Infantry, but these probably were those sent on before. 
The dignitaries rode in three "ambulances" and the impedimenta, official sup- 
plies, provisions and forage were in sixty-six mule-drawn wagons. Old Fort 
Wingate was reached December 13. 

Thence, according to Colonel Chaves, the route was along the "Camino del 
Obispo," so named because of the passage over it of Bishop Zubiria of Durango. 
who was going to baptize the Zuiii Indians. A description of the road given by 
the colonel is not attractive and he remarked upon the arduous circumstances 


that must have attended the bishop in 1833, with the first carriage that had 
ever gone over the trail. In addition to the ordinary difficulties of the almost 
unbroken path\\'aj-, there was necessity for continual vigilance against possible 
assaults of Apaches and Navajos. Snow banks were encountered and frequently 
there were long stretches without wood or water or possible camping places for 
the expedition, encumbered as it was with many wagons and animals. On the 
27th it was more or less guessed that the parallel of 109 degrees, west longitude, 
had been passed. In order to make sure, the party journeyed nearly two days 
more, a distance of about forty miles, to Navajo Springs, noted by Chaves as a 
couple of miles south of the present railroad station of that name. 

Fully assured that the land of promise had been reached, the expedition 
halted, on the afternoon of December 29, 1863, for the formal organization of 
the Territory of Arizona. 


The officials were sworn in by the chief justice. In accordance with the 
customs of the time, champagne was produced and a health was drunk to the 
success of the new political subdivision. The proclamation of the President 
was read and Secretary McCormick, to whom was delegated the honor of rais- 
ing the flag, made a brief address, as follows : 

Gentlemen — As the properly qualified officer, it becomes my duty to inaugurate the pro- 
ceedings of the day. After a long and trying journey, we have arrived within the limits of the 
Territory of Arizona. These broad plains and hills form a part of the district over which 
as the representatives of the United States we are to establish a civil government. Happily, 
although claimed by those now in hostility to the federal arms, we take possession of the 
territory without resort to military force. The flag which I hoist in token of our authority 
is no new and untried banner. For nearly a century it has been the recognized, the honored, 
the loved emblem of law and liberty. From Canada to Mexico, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, millions of strong arms are raised in its defense, and above all efforts of foreign or 
domestic foes it is destined to live untarnished and transcendent. 

As the flag rose upon the extemporized staff there were three hearty cheers. 
Prayer then was offered by H. W. Read. 

The governor and others made short addresses and the speeches were trans- 
lated into Spanish by Interpreter Hadley, for the benefit of the New Mexican 

Governor Goodwin's first act was the issuance of a proclamation of his inten- 
tion to organize a territorial government in accordance with the provisions of 
the organic act. A preliminary census would be taken, judicial districts would 
be formed and an election would be called to provide a legislature and to fill 
local offices. In these the assistance of all citizens was asked to sustain his 
efforts to establish a government, "whereby the security of life and property 
will be maintained throughout the limits of the territory and its various 
resources be rapidly and successfully developed." It was stated that the seat 
of government for the present would be at or near Fort Whipple. 

At Volunteer Spring, near San Francisco Mountain, Secretaiy McCormick 
and Judge Allyn, with a squad of the volunteers, left the main party and 
arrived at Fort AVhipple, at the Little Chino Valley camp, January 17, 1864. 
The main pai-ty arrived at noon, January 22. The second party had some little 


trouble on the way at Rattlesnake oi- Hell Canon, fifteen miles nortlieast of 
Whipple. Captain Chacon, riding in advance with his men, came upon a small 
party of Indians, "Yalapais" (Hualpais or Tontos), who refused to obey the 
captain's order to accompany him to camp and who, charged with having 
drawn knives, were fired upon, two of them being killed. 


General Carleton had Ix^en making investigation of the new land. The 
previous summer he had ordered Capt. N. J. Pishon, Co. D, First California 
Cavalry, from Fort Craig, to proceed as an escort for Surveyor-Geueral Clark 
to the newly-discovered gold fields near where Prescott now stands. The captain 
was directed on arrival to have his men prospect the gulches and to wash gold 
and to report the amount of gold each secured, in order that people might not 
be deceived or inveigled into a distant country without knowing well what 
they might expect to find. The general continued, "If the country is as rich 
as reported — and of this I have no doubt — there will on your return be a 
revolution in matters here which no man now can ever dream of." The order 
recited that on Pishon 's return two companies of California troops would be 
sent to establish a post in the lieart of the gold region, so the commanding 
officer was directed to have an eye out for the best location for such a post. 

Concerning this expedition and a few collateral features, herewith is printed 
a letter to the editor from A. F. Banta, one of the few living pioneei-s who have 
personal recollections on the subject. Though official records sustaining this 
contention have not been found, Banta insists that General Carleton had 
ordered a watch kept on the Walker party, suspected of conspiring on behalf of 
the Confederacy. Information sustaining this view, Banta tells, was furnished 
by A. C. Benedict, a good Union man, who had joined in Colorado. Now, to 
quote Banta: 

About this time Bob Groom and two companions reneheil Fort Union on tlie trail of the 
Walker party. All three were arrested and placed in the guard house. Being a personal 
friend of Senator McDougal of California, Groom wrote the senator at Washington, stating 
his predicament, and asked the senator's help. The senator called upon Secretary Stanton 
and presented the ease, but was told by Stanton that there was "but one way your friend 
can obtain his release; he must take the oath of allegiance to the United States; otherwise 
he remains under guard till the close of the war. ' ' The senator informed Bob of the secretary 's 
decision, and rather than lie in confinement for an indefinite time, Bob took the oath. General 
Carleton, being apprised of the above facts, sent word to Bob Groom to call upon him at Santa 
Fe. Carleton said to Groom, "I understand you desire to join the Walker party.'' Bob 
replied that that was his original intention. The general said, "I am sending a troop of 
cavalry out to ascertain the location of the party and to verify certain rumors and I would 
like you to accompany the troop as guide under pay for your services." This troop was 
(Captain Pishon 's company of the First California A^olunteer Cavalry. Surveyor-General 
(Jlark and Pishon were intimate friends. Clark accom])anied Pishon in a civil capacity, or 
merely as a citizen. Pishon and Groom climbed the San Francisco Mountains and with a 
glass scanned the horizon to the southward. It was at this point the old emigrant trail was 
left. From their elevation on the mountain they could see the country where Prescott is now 
situated and the heavy timbered country south of it. With the glass both Bob and Pishon 
were pretty sure they could see smoke. They reached Granite Creek and made camp beneath 
a large jiine tree about where the court house at Prescott now stands. Camp \vas made between 
.■! an,l 4 o'clock in the afternoon in the month of .Julv, ISI!,'?. 


Hearing the report of a gun up Granite Creek, Bob went cautiously up that way to 
investigate, expecting to find the Walker party or Apaches. He found Capt. Pauline Weaver 
and a Dutchman. To Bob 's questions about a party of miners, Weaver said he had ' ' not 
seen a living soul in the country outside himself, the Dutchman, and Apaches; but yesterday 
I was up this mountain and I saw a smoke over east there and I know it was not an Apache 
smoke ; perhaps the people you are looking for made the smoke. ' ' Although the ' ' smoke ' ' 
was not more than ten or twelve miles distant, old Captain Weaver, who had lived with the 
Indians since 1841, was so independent or so indifferent that he didn't care enough about 
the matter to look up the party of whites whose smokes he had seen many times. Pishon 
made his way over to ' ' Walker 's Gulch, ' ' where he found that party. Bob remained here with 
the miners. Clark investigated the mining situation, etc., while Pishon had an interview 
with Benedict to ascertain, if possible, the present and future intentions of the Joe Walker 

Captain Pishon "s orders were to find the Walker party. If the party was not permanently 
located to follow it, and if it should swing around towards the Eio Grande and Texas, to arrest 
the whole party when it reached the Eio Grande, and confine the bunch at Fort Seldon or 
Craig. If permanently located, then to select a site for a military camp as near the Walker 
party as was consistent. Pishon selected a site near where Walker Gulch enters the Agua 
Fria, about where King S. Woolsey put up the first house in Northern Arizona, but now known 
as Bowers' Eanch, fourteen mUes southeast of Prescott. This done. Captain Pishon returned 
to New Mexico, passing through Albuquerque in August, 1863, enroute to Santa Fe. 

Soon after receiving Pishon 's report, Carleton ordered a large expedition out to establish 
Fort Whipple at the site selected, or, in the discretion of the commanding officer, at some other 
site near the Walker party. The transportation and military supplies for this expedition 
were made up at Fort Union, which place it left on the 5th of October, 1863, with orders 
to rendezvous at Fort Wingate. The outfit from Union consisted of sixty mule teams, six 
yoke of cattle to the wagon. Moore was head wagonmaster. I joined the outfit at Albuquerque 
as "buUwhacker" and drove one of the big teams until I was assigned to drive the doctor's 
ambulance after reaching Jacob's Well, west of the Zuiii VUlage. We had 500 head of beef 
cattle and 1,800 head of Navajo sheep for mutton. These sheep had been captured by Kit 
Carson 's command, then fighting the Navajos. The personnel of the command, which left 
(old) Fort Wingate November 4, 1863, consisted of two companies of the First California 
Volunteer Infantry. Captains Hargrave of " C " and Benson of " F, " Lieutenants Nelson, 
Taylor and Pomeroy, Major Willis, commanding, Doctor Lieb and wife (the first white woman 
to locate in Northern Arizona), Cajstaiii Pishon and a detachment of fifteen men, as guides 
for the expedition. In due time the outfit reached Chino Valley and Major Willis decided to 
establish the fort at that point, which was done on the 20th day of December, 1863. Our 
expedition made so plain a trail that the Goodwin party could easily foUow it and needed 
no guide. 


Banta's story of the establishment of Fort Whipple is sufficient in itself. 
The military records tell that Major Edw. B'. Willis, First California Volunteer 
Infantry, with Co. C, Capt. J. P. Hargrave, and Co. F, Capt. Henry JI. Ben- 
son, left Wingate November 7, 1863, and marched to Fort Whipple, 3-40 miles, 
arriving December 7, though Co. F may have been delayed, as its arrival date 
is set down as December 21. Co. F remained at Clark, or Whipple, till the fol- 
lowing July, but Hargraves' command was at Whipple till muster out, late in 
the following year. Chaves, after a stay of a couple of months, returned with 
Butcher and Chacon to Wingate, where he took command. A detachment of 
New Mexican volunteers, under Captain Thompson, was at Whipple late in 

The population of this section about the time of the governor's arrival was 
not inconsiderable. Conner writes: "In November, 1863, men were arriving 


by the hundreds. John Dickson and I counted arrivals up to 800 and then 
gave it up." Major Willis estimated the mining population around Prescott at 
1,500 and in the Mojave country at nearly 1,000. 

The post in little Chino Valley was a busy one, both before and after the 
governor's arrival. Major Willis had called a council of 100 Hualpais, who 
had agreed to the major's announcement that he would shoot any Indian caught 
stealing. The Miner of a subsequent date called the Hualpai "a poor, degraded 
Indian, without spirit and many think not chargeable with any of the outrages 
committed." The Pinal Apaches were found very different, abounding in 
pluck and audacity. Fifteen of them had robbed King Woolsey, on his Agua 
Fria ranch, of thirty head of cattle. At the time he was called, "one of our 
most daring and skillful Indian fighters, and believes fully, as he has good 
reason to, in the extermination policy." Already Woolsey had been at the 
head of a punitive expedition against the Apaches, in which he had slaughtered 
twenty or more. 

Indian news for years constituted the main feature of journalism in northern 
Arizona. This, from the first issue of the Miner, of March, 1864, is a fair 
example of the news of the period : 

On Saturday afternoon Messrs. Vickroy and Smith, of the Lower Hesiampa diggings, 
waited upon Secretary McCormick vpith a request from the people of that district for military 
protection. They reported that on Wednesday a very large body of Apaches had entered the district 
and killed eight of the miners, five Mexicans, and that some twenty more were missing. The 
secretary immediately solicited Captain Pishon, commanding in the absence of Major Willis, 
to send a force to the Hesiampa, and at nightfall, by order of the captain, twenty of Captain 
Butcher's Missouri volunteers were upon the road. Messrs. Vickroy and Smith expressed 
much satisfaction with the prompt response to their appeal. It is their opinion that the Apaches 
meditate a severe and continued campaign against the miners on the Hesiampa and at Weaver. 


It is doubtful if very much was done at the Little Chino Valley camp in 
the way of government, though Marshal Duffield, on arrival, busied himself 
arranging for a census. Secretary McCormick had evolved a great seal, thus 
described at the time : 

"The design, that of a stalwart miner, standing by his wheel-barrow, with 
pick and shovel in hand, the upturned 'paying dirt' at his feet, and the 
auriferous hills behind him, with the motto 'Ditat Deus' (God enriches), forms 
an appropriate and striking combination. Objection has been made to the 
wheel-barrow and short-handled shovel, but both are used in our mines, and 
are thus properly introduced." The "auriferous hills behind" have been 
understood to represent the San Francisco Peaks (which are not auriferous), 
but old timers fix the locality of the pictured scene as "Seal Mountain," on 
the Hassayampa River, near Walnut Grove. 

Governor Goodwin seems to have been active with intelligent appreciation 
of the difficulties of his office and of the necessity for early organization. With 
a military escort he toured the valleys of the Verde and Salinas, probably 
reaching as far down as the present site of Phoenix. At one point the party 
surprised a raneheria, within which were killed five Indians and where two 
Indians were wounded. But trouble was not leaden-footed in its pursuit of 



the governor. It overtook him at least as early as May 18, 1864, when he moved 
the seat of government to the brand new town of Preseott, instead of to Tucson 
or La Paz, each of which believed the capital its own by right. Then it 
should be remembered that a veiy large part of the population was of southern 
bias — while Goodwin, of course, was a strong upholder of the President and his 


Conner tells that the first improvements on Granite Creek in 1864 were a 
cabin and a corral, built by Van Smith, who cared for the animals of new 

That in the center is the one designed by Secretary McCormick. A similar one, without 
the wheelbarrow, also was found on some early-day docximents. The one on the left was 
generally used iu the territorial period, though that on the right was officially countenanced 
around 1890. 

arrivals. His first herder, Joseph Crosthwaite, was killed by Indians within 
one hundred yards of where the buildings of the later Fort Whipple were built. 
Half of the stampeded herd of 160 animals ran toward the Preseott woods, 
where Conner was helping Bob Groom lay off the new townsite, and tlien 
returned to Smith's corral. The other half circled easterly. The raiding 
Indians, on reaching Lynx Creek, ran across a Mr. Moore, Sam C. ililler and 
Dr. J. T. Alsap, gave them a running battle to an old mining cabin, added their 
three animals to the fleeing herd and "passed on like the wind, leaving Miller 
shot twice through the same leg. ' ' 

According to Conner, Miller Valley, on the outskirts of tlie later Preseott 
townsite, was located in three small land claims in June, 186:1 by himself and 
Jake and Sam Miller. 

Preseott itself was organized May 30, 1864. at a public meeting held on 
Granite Creek. In the record of the event is fairlv set forth that the name 



was given "in honor of the eminent American writer and standard authority 
iipon Azt€C and Spanish-American history." The names given the streets 
were in keeping with the spirit of the gathering and to this day commemorate 
the deeds of the early pioneers and the services of the first territorial officials. 

There had been a change, May 18, from the Little Chino Valley site to a 
new Port Whipple site, where the post now is, on ground secured from Van C. 
Smith. Smith, Hezekiah Brooks and Bob Groom were named as commissioners 
to lay off the new town. Groom acting as surveyor. Smith was appointed the 
first sheriff of Yavapai County. 

The initial settlement in Prescott appeared merely to have been by virtue 
of squatters' rights, so on November 6, 1866, the Legislature passed a memorial 
to Congress asking a donation of 320 acres of land as a townsite, reciting that 
the tract already had been platted into lots. 

George Bernard claimed to have been the first postmaster, with his office 
under a tree. The first mail was from California, brought through by way of 
La Paz by a contractor named Grant. 

The old capitol on Gurley Street was built of pine logs by Van Smith and 
Christy in 1864, and in its upper story, July 25, 1865, was held the first meeting 
of the first Masonic lodge organized within Arizona. The old log mansion of 
the first governor, in West Prescott, also was built in 1864 by Raible and Blair, 
though Banta names Loren Jenks as the contractor. About the same time was 
built an adobe, near the corner of Goodwin and Montezuma streets, owned by 
Michael Wormser. However, the first building erected within the corporate 
limits of the present Prescott was a log hut, still standing near Granite Creek 
in Goose Flat, later known as Old Fort Misery and for years the home of Judge 
Howard. In this house was held the first district court. This was the first 
social center of the community. 

The first family to locate in Prescott is said to have been that of Joseph 
Ehle, who came with his wife and daughters early in 1864, thougli the Leib 
family also must have been in the vicinity. One of the Ehle girls, Mary, was 
married in November, 1864, to J. A. Dickson, the ceremony being performed 
by Governor Goodwin. In the following January was born ^Mollie Simmons, 
probably the first white child of Northern Arizona nativity. 

Miss Hall has written that j\Ii-s. Ehle brought to Prescott its first chickens, 
of Black Spanish strain, its first cat, from whose progeny a kitten was sold to 
a miner for an ounce of gold dust, and the first hives of honey bees, estimated 
to have cost $50 a stand. Mrs. Ehle found that bacon sold for 75 cents a pound 
in gold dust and that flour was held at $44 a sack in greenbacks. Sugar and 
lard each cost above 50 cents a pound. 

Fannie B. Stephens, the first person to be given credentials as a school 
teacher in Northern Arizona, passed away in Los Angeles early in 1915. She 
taught in Prescott in 1864, in a primitive log hut on South Granite Street near 
Carleton, where she had onl3' about six pupils. Her teaching experience was 
brief. Women were few and wives were in demand in those days and she soon 
was married to Lewis A. Stephens and with him went to the Stephens ranch 
at the Point of Rocks, where thereafter she was in the midst of a number of 
exciting Apache episodes. 

Prescott was a distinclivelv American town from the ver\- start and at no 


time in its history lias it had any considerable number of Mexicans within its 
population. The architecture at no time accepted the Spanish-Moorish type so 
general in the towns further to the southward. 

Elk, deer and antelope were common in Northern Arizona at the time of the 
white man's coming. Wm. H. Hardy told that it would not be uncommon to 
see 300 deer or antelope in a day's ride and that three crack shots left Preseott 
on one occasion and in three days killed a four-horse wagon load of game. 

Hardy, who crossed the Colorado River Jauuai-y 2, 1864, told that that 
winter was an exceptionally severe one. Thomas Matthews, William King and 
Ned Morris, miners from Lynx Creek, bound for Port Mojave after pi'ovisions, 
were storm-bound in Williamson Valley and would have perished had they not 
followed the trail of a large band of antelope, leading to a lower altitude. The 
following winter, on December 2, Hardy at Fort Whipple built what he believed 
was the first sleigh ever known in Arizona. A fortnight later a party of soldiers 
came into Whipple in hard plight. On the road from the San Francisco peaks 
their horses had died and the men escaped only by making snowshoes out of 
the horsehide. 

The American settlement of the Verde Valley began in January, 1865, when 
a party of men left Preseott to see if good farming land susceptible to irrigation 
could not be found on the river. At that time agricultural products brought 
high prices. Barley and wheat cost $20 per hundred and corn $2 more. There- 
fore the rewards of husbandry would be great if success were attained. The 
party of agricultural explorers consisted of James M. Swetnam, now a practic- 
ing physician in Phoenix, William L. Osborn, uncle of Arizona's present secre- 
tary of state, Clayton M. Ralston, Henry D. Morse, Jack Remstein, Thomas 
Ruff, later a prosperous Phoenix rancher, Ed A. Boblette, James Parish and 
James Robinson. At that time the only ranch east of Preseott was that of 
King S. Woolsey, in the Agua Fria Valley, twenty-five miles distant from Pres- 
eott and about half way to the Verde Valley. 

A site was determined upon by this first body of men near the mouth of 
Clear Creek and a return was made to Preseott. In February, with six loaded 
wagons drawn by oxen, a party of nineteen started from the capital, but divided 
on reaching the river. Swetnam and nine others camped at the original site 
selected, and Parish and the others on a point above where irrigation water 
would have to be taken from the Verde River. The Swetnam party dug a ditch 
from Clear Creek, only to find that it had been laid out with its end a trifle 
higher than its mouth. But the water finally was secured and land was cleared 
and broken, and in May over 200 acres had been planted in grain and garden 
stuff. That summer the pioneers lived royally, their own products supplemented 
by flour secured in Preseott at $30 per hundred, and bacon at 75 cents per 
pound. In August the first load of barley was taken to Preseott, headed and 
thrashed by hand, and was sold at Whipple for $17 per 100 pounds. 

J. Ross Browne, who made a trip through Southern Arizona in December, 
1863, in the following year, wrote an extremely interesting book concerning his 
travels, entitling it "The Apache Country." The writer was one of the early 




day literary men of California and wrote a number of works that now seem 
to have disappeared from any but antiquarian libraries, but which were well 
worthy of more enduring fame. 

His trip happened to be at a critical point of Arizona history — just as the 
territorial government had been formed, but while the American settlement was 
to be found only in a few scattered mining camps and along the stage routes. 
As the author very tersely puts it, ' ' the melancholy fact can not be denied that 
Arizona has never yet had a population of over 3,000 and not a very good one 
at that." Even after his return he expressed a belief in the future of the 
wild and rather desolate country he had passed through and his final observa- 
tions are well worth reprinting : 

I telieve Arizona to be a territory wonderfully rich in minerals, but subject to greater 
drawbacks than any of our territorial possessions. It will be many years before its mineral 
resources can be fully and fairly developed. Immigration must be encouraged by increased 
military protection ; capital must be expended without the hope of immediate and extraordinary 
returns ; civil law must be established on a firm basis, and facilities of communication fostered 
by legislation of Congress. 

No country that I have yet visited presents so many striking anomalies as Arizona. With 
millions of acres of the finest arable lands, there was not at the time of our visit a single farm 
under cultivation in the territory; with the richest gold and silver mines, paper money is the 
common currency; with forts innumerable, there is scarcely any protection to life and property; 
with extensive pastures, there is little or no stock; with the finest natural roads, traveling is 
beset with difficulties ; with rivers through every valley, a stranger may die of thirst. Hay is 
cut with a hoe, and wood with a spade or mattock. In January one enjoys the luxury of a 
bath as under a tropical sun, and sleeps under double blankets at night There are towns 
without inhabitants, and deserts extensively populated ; vegetation where there is no soil and 
soil where there is no vegetation. Snow is seen where it is never seen to fall, and ice forms 
where it never snows. There are Indians the most docile in North America, yet travelers are 
murdered daily by Indians the most barbarous on earth. The Mexicans have driven the 
Papagos from their southern homes, and now seek protection from the Apaches in the Papago 
villages. Fifteen hundred Apache warriors, the most cowardly of the Indian tribes in Arizona, 
beaten in every fight by the Pimas, Maricopas and Papagos, keep these and all other Indians 
closed up as in a corral; and the same Apaches have desolated a country inhabited by 120,000 
Mexicans. Mines without miners and forts without soldiers are common. Politicians without 
policy, traders without trade, storekeepers without stores, teamsters without teams, and all 
without means, form the mass of the white population. 



Elections, Officials and Legislatures — McCormick's Continued Successes — Establishment 
of Courts — Creation of Counties — Highways — Yuma Land Dispute — A Lo^al Peo- 
ple — Fremont's Governorship — Divorces and Lotteries — The Thieving Thirteenth — 
Bullion Tax Repeal. 

JNIay 26, 1864, an election was called by Governor Goodwin, to be held July 
18. Poston, who was well-known in the South, was elected delegate to Congress, 
on a platform that called for support of the Union. He was opposed by W. H. 
Bradshaw, a democrat. Charles Leib, a Union maJi, also polled some votes. 
The campaign was not devoid of bitterness, there being claims that Po-ston even 
had "rung in" Papago Indian voters. Poston later admitted that he did little 
in Congress, wherein he likened himself to a tadpole among frogs. Congress 
was concerned in little but the war and its results. The Arizona delegate was 
given gratifying attention when he took the floor to talk on irrigation and secured 
an appropriation for a canal on the Mojave reservation. Extended reference 
to Poston 's service will be found in a special chapter elsewhere in this volume. 

The law was established in Arizona by the assignment of the judges to sta- 
tions. Howell was given the first district, with his court at Tucson. AH.^'n the 
second, at La Paz, and Turner the third, at Prescott. 

Till a bond issue later was floated, little money was available for public uses, 
outside of the Federal pay roll. Up to November 1, 1865, the total receipts of 
the territorial treasui-er had been only $1,189.06, nearly all turned in by the 
four counties. 

The members of the Legislature, of whom a list will be found elsewhere, had 
been elected more or less at large. In the code adopted was made a division of 
the territory into counties, named after Indian tribes of their localities, namely, 
Mohave (probably an unintentional anglicizing of the Spanish ]\Iojave), with 
county seat at Mojave City; Yuma (the only one that has preserved its 
boundaries to this day), with county seat at La Paz; Pima, embracing the 
Gadsen Purchase, south of the Gila, with county seat at Tucson ; and Yavapai, 
north of the Gila and covering more than half the territory "s area, with county 
seat at Prescott. 

The governors of the eai'ly days, in order, were : John N. Goodwin, from 
August 21, 1863; R. C. McCormick, from April 10, 1866; A. P. K. Safford, from 
April 7, 1869, and John P. Hoyt, from April 5, 1877, till the coming of Fre- 
mont in 1878. The secretaries for the same period were ]McCormick under 
Goodwin, T. P. T. Cartter under IMeCormiek, and Coles Bashford and John P. 


Hoyt under Safford. As the Presidents during this period were Lincoln, 
Johnson, Grant and Hayes, all were republican. The Federal judges appointed 
before 1878, the territory having an allotment of three, were W. P. Turner 
(chief justice), W. T. Howell, J. P. Allyn, H. F. Backus, II. H. Carter, John 
Titus (chief justice), Isliam Reavis, C. A. Tweed and De Forest Porter. The 
last named remained in office from 1873 till 1881, an exceptionally long term 
for the times. 


Governor Goodwin followed Poston in Congress, despite strong opposition 
from both the delegate, whose strength had singularly waned, and Judge Allyn, 
whose animosity, according to several private letters of the period, was per- 
sonal. But Goodwin received 707 votes, Allyn, 376, and Poston, only 260. 

The office of delegate still remained in the official family at the third elec- 
tion, whereat was chosen Coles Bashford, a former Governor of Michigan, who 
had been serving at attorney general. He received 1,009 votes. Chas. D. 
Poston again unsuccessfully tried his strength with the voters, receiving 518 
votes, and Samuel Adams tailed with 168 votes. 

In 1868, the official family was endorsed again by the voters, for McCormick 
passed from the office of governor to that of delegate. He received 1,237 votes, 
while his opponents, John A. Rush and Adams respectively had only 836 and 
32 votes. Poston complained with bitterness that McCormick had traded the 
capital for the vote of Pima County. This contention was sustained to a degi-ee 
by the fact that the capital was moved, though assuredly not on any strength 
from Northern Arizona that might have been controlled by McCormick. 

In 1870 McCormick was re-elected, receiving 1,882 votes, over Peter R. 
Brady, who, though a democrat of notable standing, received only 832. In 
1872 McCormick again was elected, apparently with no opposition, for 2,522 
votes are credited to him, which would have meant not far from the ordinary 
voting strength of the territory. 

There was a change in 1874. It is evident that political lines had not been 
severely drawn and that the personal popularity of the candidates had counted 
for much. With the retirement of McCormick, a democrat became delegate in 
the person of Hiram S. Stevens, whose vote was 1,442, compared with the vote 
of his republican adversaries, C. C. Bean, 1,076, and John Smith, 571. A 
story has come down concerning the novel way in which Stevens is said to 
have forwarded his candidacy by distribiiting $25,000 among the gamblers 
of Arizona to bet upon him, the gamblers to take the winnings and he to take 
back his capital. A gambler was a political force in those daj^s, and it is 
probable that they threw much influence towards Stevens in order to win the 
money, and it is entirely probable also that Stevens received back every cent 
of his investment. Stevens was re-elected in 1876, though it was a rather 
narrow squeeze, probably because he could not use his scheme twice. He was 
opposed by two exceptionally strong men, "Wm. H. Hardy, the Mohave County 
pioneer, a republican, and Granville H. Ourj% who had always handsomely 
represented the southern element. Stevens won, but his vote was only 1,194, 
Hardy receiving 1,099 votes and Oury, 1,007. 


In 1878 the struggle for Congress was a sort of free-for-all, participated in 
by Stevens, John G. Campbell, a Yavapai County stockman, King S. Woolsey, 
the noted Indian fighter, and A. E. Davis. Campbell was elected, with 1,452 
votes, then following Davis, 1,097, Stevens, 1,090, and Woolsey, 822. It is a 
very odd fact that though Campbell served his term in Congress, it was found 
after his death that he had never been a citizen of the United States. He had 
presumed that citizenship had been given by his father, but in this was in error. 

The first law passed by the new Legislative Assemblj', approved October 
1, 1864, authorized the governor to appoint a commissioner to prepare and 
report a code of laws for the use and consideration of the Legislature. As such 
commissioner was appointed Judge Wm. T. Howell, to whom later was paid 
the sum of $2,500. The Howell code for several years thereafter was the law 
of the land and still is considered by lawyers a legal compilation of high merit 

Possibly coming to the assistance of some harassed debtor, the Legislature 
enacted "that no indebtedness or liability incurred ... or judgment 
recovered . . . against any person prior to his arrival in this territory 
shall be binding or have any effect whatever or be in any way enforced in any 
court in this territory for the term of four years from the date of the passage 
of this act." The act was repealed the following year. 

That the history of Arizona even at that time was considered of some value 
was indicated by official approval of the incorporation of the Arizona Historical 
Society, whereof the members were Secretaiy McCormick, W. Claude Jones, 
Allen L. Anderson, Gilbert W. Hawkins, King S. Woolsey, Henry 0. Bigelow, 
A. M. White, Charles A. Curtiss, James S. Giles, James Garvin, Richard Gird, 
T. J. Bidewell, Edward D. Tuttle, WiUiam Walter and Samuel Todd. The 
object of the society was set forth as being the collection and preservation of 
all historical facts, manuscripts, documents, records and memoirs relating to 
the history of this territory, geological and mineralogical specimens, geograph- 
ical maps and information, Indian curiosities and antiquities, and objects of 
natural histoiy. 


Then as now highways were of large importance in the public estimation. 
The only way in which the territory could get good roads seemed to have been 
by farming out the thoroughfares. So a number of toll-road companies were 
licensed. One, the Arizona-Central Road Company, was to build from La Paz 
to Weaver and was authorized to collect 4 cents a mile from each two-horse 
wagon drawn over it. This company was authorized also to operate its toll 
road as far as a point not less than one mile from the Town of Prescott. Another 
corporation, in which appeared the names of several of the legislators, was the 
Tucson, Poso Verde and Libertad Road Company. George Lount, Albert 0. 
Noyes and Hezekiah Brooks were granted the privilege of constructing a toll 
road between the mouth of Bill Williams Fork and Prescott, their corpora- 
tion to be known as the Santa Maria Wagon Road Company. Still another, 
the Mojave and Prescott Toll-Road Company, headed by Rufus E. Farrington, 
was to build from Fort Mojave to Prescott. The first north-and-south thor- 
oughfare was contemplated by the Prescott, Walnut Grove and Pima Road 
Company, whieli was authorized to build southward to the Pima villages, with 


a branch to the Town of Weaver, and to collect 5 cents a mile. The list of 
incorporators included Bob Groom, Richard Gird, R. C. McCormick, J. T. Alsap, 
Jackson MeCracken, Jack Swilling and King S. Woolsey. To the eastward 
Edmund W. Wells, King S. Woolsey and others, constituting the Prescott and 
Port Wingate Road Company, were given the exclusive privilege to construct 
and operate a toll road from Prescott to Port Wingate. 

A ferry franchise was granted to Samuel Todd, giving him exclusive right 
on the Colorado River at Mojave City. A similar franchise was granted to 
WiUiam D. Bradshaw at La Paz. 

Railroads also were held in esteem. Henry Sage, Richard Gird and a half 
dozen others were authorized to construct and operate a railroad from the 
Castle Dome mines to Castle Dome City and were to have a passenger tariff 
of 10 cents a mile. Another corporation, the Arizona Railroad Company, had 
an official flavor in that it was headed by John N. Goodwin and Richard C. 
McCormick. Its aspirations wei-e ambitious, to connect Guaj'mas and other 
Pacific ports, through Tubac, with Tucson and thence to the Town of La Pa^, 
with an exclusive right to locate a line of road across the territory. 


Possibly dissatisfied with the operations of the regular army, authorization 
was given the governor for raising not over six companies of rangers, not to 
exceed 600 men, to be employed in a campaign against hostile Apaches. The 
expense was to be met by the issuance of $100,000 in territorial bonds to bear 
10 per cent interest and to run for twenty years. The governor, King S. 
Woolsey and John Capron were appointed commissioners to carry out the 
provisions of the act. Goodwin and Woolsey went to San Prancisco, but could 
not sell these bonds. From the territorial funds was appropriated the sum 
of $1,480 payable to A. M. White, R. C. McCormick, P. McCannon and Thomas 
Hodges "for money and supplies furnished in the late Indian campaign con- 
ducted by the citizens of this Territory." Money for the first necessities of 
the territorial government was provided by a bond issue of $15,000, repayable 
in three years and bearing 10 per cent interest. Delegate Poston by resolution 
was asked to procure from the central government 500 stand of Springfield 
rifled muskets, caliber 58, of the latest improved type, sufficient for the purpose 
of arming and equipping a battalion of Arizona rangers for active service 
against the Apaches and other hostile Indian tribes. Thanks were extended 
to Lieut. -Col. King S. Woolsey in a concurrent resolution with having, "with 
great pei-severanee and personal sacrifice, raised and led against the Apaches 
during the present year three several expeditions, composed of citizen volun- 
teers, who, like their commander, had spent their time and means and up to 
this time had been entirely unrecompensed therefor." It is added that "these 
expeditions have been highly beneficial to the people, not only in taking the 
lives of a number of Apaches and destroying the crops in their country, but 
also by adding largely to the geological and mineralogieal knowledge of the 
country." A similar resolution expressed appreciation of the services of Capt. 
T. T. Tidball of the Pifth Infantry, California Volunteers, whose various suc- 
cessful expeditions against the barbarous Apaches were considered as meriting 
the highest expression of approbation. 



According to the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, x-atified in 1848, a part of 
the boundary between the contracting republics was defined as a line drawn 
from the middle of the Gila River where it unites with the Colorado to a 
point on the Pacific Ocean one marine league south of the port of San Diego. 
This line constituted the southern boundary of California when admitted into 
the Union as a state in 1850. Complication thereupon was threatened, for a 
tract of 150 acres, within which much of the present town of Yuma now lies, 
thus would appear to have been lost, as the division line between California 
and the Territory of New Mexico extended over to the southward of the 
Colorado River, which at that point has a noi-thern bend. This difficulty 
was appreciated as early as the First Legislature of Arizona, which asked that 
Congress annex this tract to Arizona, providing the State of California re- 
linquish her right to it. In the memorial was recited the fact that this small 
tract of land had become an important commercial point, that it was opposite 
Fort Yuma and remote from any California civil govemment, of little impor- 
tance to California and of vast consequence to Arizona and that if annexed to 
Arizona the benefit of civil govemment would be immediately extended over 
it from Arizona City, which lay adjoining it. 

In 1877 Congi-ess was memorialized to add to the territorj''s expanse the 
southwestern portion of New Mexico, including the area embraced within Grant 
County, which, it was claimed, had interests that brought its people veiy close 
to Arizona in a commercial and social w'aj'. 

The First Legislature was in session forty -three days and passed forty of the 
122 bills introduced. The pages at the session were John and Neri Osborn, 
both now residents in Phcenix. A son of the latter now is Arizona's secretary 
of state, after following in his sire's footsteps to the extent of acting as page 
in Arizona's Twentieth Territorial Legislature. At the first session, Secre- 
tary McCormick made the pages more appreciative by paying them in great 
sheets of "shinplasters, " wherein the sections, when cut apart, each had a value 
of 5 cents. 


The first county of Arizona to be created by legislative enactment was that 
of Pah-Ute in December, 1865, by the first act approved in the second terri- 
torial legislative session. The boundaries of the county were described as 
commencing at a point on the Colorado River known as Roaring Rapids ; thence 
due east to the line of 113 deg. 20 min. west longitude; thence north, along 
said line of longitude, to its point of intersection with the 37th parallel of 
iiorth latitude; thence west, along said parallel of latitude, to a point where 
the boundary line between the State of California and the Territory of Arizona 
strikes said 37th parallel of latitude ; thence southeasterly, along said boundary 
line, to a point due west from saiH Roaring Rapids; thence due east to said 
Roaring Rapids and point of beginning. CallviUe was created the seat of 
justice and the governor was authorized to appoint the necessary county offi- 
cers. The new subdivision was taken entirely from Slohave County. It may 
be noted that its boundaries were entirely arbitrary and not natural and the 
greater part of the new county's area lay in what now is the southern point 

Council: 1, K. S. Woolsey, president; 2, J. P. Hargrave; 3, L. 

Stevens: 4, J. M. Reiiondo; 
Davis: 8, W. Zeckendorf; 

R. DeLong; 
P. R. Brady. 

6, J. G. Campbell; 

House: 10. J. T. Alsap, speaker: 11, G. H. Ourv: 12, F. Jl. Griffin; 
13, A. L. Moeller; 14, S. Purdv, Jr.; 15, G. H. Stevens; 16, R. H. Kellv: 
17, J. M. Elias; 18, W. J. O'Neil; 19, H. Richards; 20, S. W. Wood; 
21, J. Montgomeiy; 22, A. Rickman; 23, S. H. Drachman; 24, C. P. Head; 
25. G. Brooke; 26. H. Goldberg; 27. L. Basbford: 28. W. .1. Tompkins, 
sergeant-at-arms. Council; 29, .T. T. Phy, sergeant-at-arms. House. 


of the State of Nevada. October 1, 1867, the county seat was moved to Saint 
Thomas. November 5, 1866, a protest was sent by memorial to Congress against 
the setting off to the State of Nevada of that part west of the Colorado. The grant 
of this tract to Nevada under the terms of a congressional act approved May 
5, 1866, had been conditioned upon similar acceptance by the Legislature of 
Nevada. This was done January 18, 1867. Without effect, the Arizona Legis- 
lature twice petitioned Congress to rescind its action, alleging "it is the unani- 
mous wish of the inhabitants of Pah-Ute and Mohave Counties and indeed of all 
the constituents of your memorialists that the territoiy in question should 
remain with Arizona ; for the convenient transaction of official and other business 
and on every account they greatly desire it." But Congress proved obdurate 
and Nevada refused to give up the strip and the County of Pah-Ute, deprived 
of most of her area, finally was wiped out by the Legislature in 1871. At first, 
it was claimed that Saint George and a very wide strip of southern Utah 
really belonged to Arizona. 


Though, naturally, Confederate sympathizers were numerous within Ari- 
zona, the territory as a whole appeared generally to have remained loyal in 
thought and in legislative action. This in all probability largely was due to 
the influence of the discharged California volunteers, I'ugged and forceful 
men, who were distributed through all the settlements, early taking a prom- 
inent place in the administration of affairs. This loyalty had formal expression 
in the Second Legislature, which in December, 1865, passed a resolution ex- 
pressing joy at the successful termination of the war, sympathy with those whose 
homes had been made desolate and gratitude to Almighty God for his pro- 
tection in the trying hour. Unswerving support was pledged to the reconstruc- 
tion plans of President Johnson and pride was expressed in the deeds of Gen. 
Ulysses S. Grant. About the same time was recorded a concurrent resolution 
of regret over the death of Abraham Lincoln. The legislators made record of 
their abhorrence of "the dastardly act which deprived the nation of the 
valuable life of Abraham Lincoln, when his great statesmanship and noble 
character had won the confidence and applause of the civilized world ; . . . . 
that here, where civil law was first established by the generous consideration 
of his administration, as elsewhere upon the continent, which owes so much 
to his honest and persistent devotion to liberty, to justice and to the govern- 
ment of the people, his name is honored and revered as that of a true patriot, 
a profound ruler and a magnanimous and unselfish man, whose highest motive 
\vas the public good, and whose consistent career has elevated the dignity, 
brightened the renown and enriched the history of the Republic." 


The work of the following sessions of the legislatures can be briefed : The 
third session in 1866 created the offices of district (county) attorney and of 
territorial auditor. In the fourth session, 1867, the capital was moved to Tucson ; 
resolutions were passed criticising General McDowell and asking that Arizona 
be made a separate military- department. In 1868 was an act establishing a 
territorial prison at Phoenix; creation was made of the offices of territorial 


attorney general and county surveyor, and much attention was given to the 
public schools. The prison act was not carried out. Then annual sessions of 
the Legislature vpere abandoned. The next, the sixth, was held in 1871. The 
county seat of Yuma County was transferred fi-om La Paz to Arizona City; 
the County of Maricopa was created from southern Yavapai, north of the Gila 
and west of the San Carlos River; the Legislature repealed the act creating 
Pah-Ute County, and attached to Mohave County the balance left within Ari- 
zona. In 1873, in addition to the divorce acts and other matters considered 
elsewhere, the name of Arizona City was changed to "Yuma," Maricopa County 
was given a part of Pima County, and General Crook was commended. Gov- 
ernor Safford was authorized to publish an immigration pamphlet. Pinal 
County was created in the session of 1875 from parts of Pima, Maricopa and 
Yavapai counties, including Globe. A bullion tax was levied on the mining 
product, and the capital was "permanently" located at Tucson. Despite this 
last action, the ninth session, two years later, transferred the capital back to 
Preseott, effective after the Legislature's adjournment. In 1877, also, the 
county seat of Mohave County was changed to Mineral Park; amendment was 
made of the northern boundary line of Maricopa County; the City of Tucson 
was incorporated; authorization was given for the organization of a company 
of volunteers to fight Indians; a memorial was passed asking for the addition 
to Arizona of Grant County, New Mexico. 


John C. Fremont, "The Pathfinder of the Rockies," was appointed Gov- 
ernor of Arizona June 12, 1878, the post secured by his friends from President 
Hayes to relieve pressing financial necessities. The new governor and family 
were welcomed most hospitably into the really delightful society of Preseott 
and, without cost, were provided a weU-fumished home, a pleasant cottage, on 
the site of the present city library. The governor's salary was a meager one 
and old accounts were pressing, so Fremont, a born promoter, looked for other 
ways for adding to his income. He became mixed in various local mining 
schemes, in which he was charged with having received commissions. It soon 
was told that, though testy in manner, he could be swayed easily and that a trio 
of Preseott lawyers had much to do in the direction of his attitude toward legis- 
lation and general administrative work. There can be no doubt that he con- 
sidered himself far too large for the position he occupied. Though he held 
office nearly four years, he was much of the time in the East, though ostensibly 
on Arizona public business. In October, 1881, Territorial Secretary Gosper 
addressed the secretary of the interior, "recommending either to you or to 
Congress that the regularly appointed governor of this territory be required 
to return to his post of duty, or be asked to step aside and permit some other 
gentleman to take his place and feel at liberty to act without restraint." In 
the same communication Gosper referred with feeling to the local sentiment 
against carpetbag officials. Delegate John G. Campbell in Washington per- 
sonally voiced the antagonistic feeling that had grown up in Arizona toward 
Fremont. Finally the governor was given the alternative of returning to hia 
field of duty or of resigning. He resigned. He died in New York, in 1890, 
still impecunious. 


Governor Fremont gained a deep insight into frontier politics through the 
fact that he had two rather notable legislatures on his hands. In the tenth, 
which: met in 1879, a very interesting bill, which he favored and signed, estab- 
lished and legalized a scheme on the same lines as the Louisiana Lottery, with 
a "rake-off" provided for the territory. But Congress had a veto right on all 
territorial legislation, and so the grand plans came to naught. In this session 
was created the County of Apache, out of a great strip cut from the eastern 
part of Yavapai, "Mother of Counties." Snowflake was the first county seat, 
but there was transfer later to Springerville and then to St. Johns. The Legis- 
lature petitioned Congress to finally settle all Arizona land grant claims by 
positive enactment, but suggested that title to mines be not included, as evi- 
dently not intended by the language of the Spanish and Mexican deeds of grant. 


A couple of weeks after the organization of the First Territorial Legislature, 
the governor's second approval of a bill was that of one granting a divorce to 
John G. Capron of the First Judicial District, who, as set forth in the act, four 
years before, "by fraudulent concealment of criminal facts," was induced to 
many one Sarah Rosser, and the act further recited that "notwithstanding the 
strongest legal causes exist for annulling said marriage, there is no law of 
divorce existing in this Territory." For the same reason Elliott Coues (later 
distinguished as a writer on the Southwest) was divorced from one Sarah A. 
Richardson and a divorce was granted between Mary Catherine Mounce and 
Absalom Mounce. 

Possibly the most conspicuous example of the legislative divorce evil in 
Arizona was afforded by the passage in the Legislature of 1873 of an act divorc- 
ing Anson P. K. Safford, a resident of the County of Pima, from his wife, Jennie 
L. T. Safford. "Whatever were the circumstances of the misunderstanding 
between the couple or any degree of justice that might have attended the decree, 
there must be recorded the glaring fact that the plaintiff in the ease was none 
other than the governor of the territory. 

The Tenth Legislature distinguished itself by the passage of what for years 
was known as the Omnibus Divorce Bill. This bill carried an act. No. 9, 
approved by Governor Fremont on February 7, 1879, forever releasing from the 
bonds of matrimony, with permission for both parties to marry again, no less 
than fifteen couples. The list follows: 

Olive Augusta Middleton of Maricopa County from William Middleton; 
William P'indley Smith of Yuma from Eudora Virginia Smith ; George Sarriek of 
Pinal County from Ann J. Sarriek; Sarah Jane Munds of Yavapai from Wil- 
liam M. Munds; Henry G. Lively of Maricopa County from Martha E. Lively; 
Lilly E. Janes of Yuma County from J. Clifford Janes; Lidia Jane Russell of 
Mohave County from George Russell ; John J. Gosper of Yavapai County from 
Waitie E. Gosper; Candelaria Arnold of Mohave County from William F. 
Arnold; Smith R. Turner of Pima County from Lucinda Turner; Anna Atkin- 
son of Yavapai County from Alex Atkinson ; Samuel Dennis of Yavapai County 
from Benina Dennis; Jane Holmsley from Joel E. Holmsley; Mary Jane Pend- 
well of Yavapai County from Elanson Strange Pendvvell ; Josephine Waite of 
Yavapai County from Nathan W. Waite. During the same session other acts 


divorced Anne Kelly from Daniel Kelly and Mary I. Showers of Yavapai County 
i'roni Andrew J. Showers. 

Down at the bottom of these most extraordinary proceedings is said to have 
been the fine Italian hand of Thomas Fitch, who happened at that time to have 
made Arizona one of his many "permanent" abiding places. He was elected 
to the Legislature, wherein he filled the post of chairman of the Judiciary 
Committee of the House. The start of it all is understood to have been around 
the paragraph that gave release to William F. Smith, noted as a resident of 
Yuma. In i-eality Smith was a prominent California phj'sician, who had made 
onl.y a brief visit to Yuma intent upon divorce. Another verj' conspicuous 
beneficiary was John J. Gosper, who at that time occupied the position of 
Secretary of Arizona Territory. Gosper had left a wife behind in Nebraska, 
where he also had held ofSce, and he wanted to remarry, which he did soon after 
the legislative decree in his favor. 

It would appear that the divorces granted were legal enough, for the 
Supreme Court of the Territory of Oregon had held valid an Oregon divorce 
bill, passed in 1852. The Supreme Court of the United States affirmed this 
decision, taking occasion to refer to the fact that in England. divorce originally 
was a prerogative of Parliament and that legislative assemblies of the colonies 
had followed this example. The Forty-ninth Congress prohibited the granting 
of divorces by territorial legislatures. 


In the Legislature of 1879, IMaricopa County was represented by John A. 
Alsap and J. D. Rumberg, the latter a famous teller of stories and owner of 
a ([uarter section of land a short distance northwest of the Phoenix townsite on 
the Black Caiion road. Having lost some money on the lack of speed of a pony 
he had favored in betting, he introduced a bill prohibiting horse racing in 
Arizona. It is probable that the measure was seriously presented, but it was 
not taken in that spirit. One after another the members from the various coun- 
ties arose solemnly to express their belief in the merit of the bill, but to state in 
sadness that their own counties were not quite ready for the reform. So, county 
l)y county, every subdivision was exempted from the provisions of the measure, 
except Maricopa. Then Alsap came to his feet. He stated that he was fully 
aware of the demoralization caused by horse racing, but, in deference to the 
prejudices of his constituents, he was constrained to ask still further elimina- 
tion, that of all Maricopa County, except a certain quarter section, the descrip- 
tion of which exactly fitted Rumberg 's ranch. Thus the bill was passed, though 
it never was printed in the statutes. 

^luch in. the way of constructive legislation was done in the session of 1881. 
On hand, provided with a well-stuffed "sack," was a large representation of 
the citizenship of Tombstone, wlio after a couple of failures, managed to secure 
the creation of the County of Cochise. This was fought by Tucson, which had 
been doing very well indeed as a supplj' point for the new mining camp, where- 
from had lieen coming as high as 100 mining claim notices a day for recording 
and wherefrom the sheriff had been drawing fees said to have run up to $25,000 
a year. With much less trouble were created the counties of Graham and Gila, 
with seats of government, respectively, at Safford and Globe. Incorporations 

i:u\i;i;.\(»Ks of akizoxa 


also were granted to the towns of Phoenix, Prescott and Tombstoue. This ses- 
sion, the eleventh, was the first to have twelve members in the Council and 
twenty-four in the Assembly. 


The next Governor of Arizona, appointed March 8, 1881, to succeed Fremont, 
was Frederick A. Tritle. A Pennsylvanian by birth, he hailed from Virginia 
City, Nevada, where he had been in business as a stock broker. He had been 
a member of the Legislative Council in Nevada and had been an unsuccessful 
candidate for governor of the Sagebrush State. His Arizona appointment was 
at the instance of his old friend, Senator John P. Jones of Nevada. At once 
he became an enthusiastic Arizonan and gave strong assistance in securing 
capital to work her mines. He was a man of large social gifts. While on an 
eastern trip, and in attendance at a formal banquet in Boston, he put Arizona 
l)efore the people of the Hub in a manner that won liim applause after the first 
shock had passed. The first toast was, "The Governor of the Oldest Common- 
wealth to the Youngest." Governor Bullock of Massachusetts rose to respond. 
While Bullock was fussing with his spectacles, Tritle quickly came to his feet 
and, in most felicitous manner, thanked the astonished Bostonians for the honor 
that had been done Arizona in calling upon him, as the representative of the 
oldest commonwealth of the nation, to welcome the governor of the young State 
of Massachusetts — and then he told how Arizona had population and a degree 
of government and civilization long before the first wild Indian roamed the 
bleak forests of New England. 

The twelfth session extended eastward the boundary of ^Mohave County, to 
include all of Yavapai County west of Kanab Wash and north of the Grand 
Caiion, provided for the funding of some bonds, offered subsidies to a few rail- 
roads, recreated the office of attorney-general and changed the county seat of 
Graham to Solomonville, an action overturned by a eoTinty referendum vote 
of 1915, that gave the courthouse back to Safford. 

The one thing that brought the Twelfth Legislature out of dullness was the 
action taken in repeal of the bullion tax law. Both parties had declared against 
repeal and it may be said that eveiy partisan legislator was pledged to let the 
law stand. But the repeal bill slid through both houses in some mysterious 
fashion. Attending on the session were a couple of prosperous-looking gentle- 
men who, on the evidence of an old resident of Tombstone, left that camp with 
$26,000 in greenbacks for which they were to render no accounting. The invest- 
ment was a good one — for the raining companies. Yet the price was high, for 
President C. P. Huntington of the Southern Pacific a few years later publicly 
set the price of an Arizona Legislature at around .'f;4,000. 


The Legislature of 1885 variously was known as the "Thieving Thirteenth" 
or the "Bloody Thirteenth," though the thieving may have been confined to 
recklessness with the taxpayers' money and it is not of record that there was 
bloodshed. It started off with a couple of weeks of delay in organization, the 
political parties and opposing interests being evenly divided. This gave the 
private secretary to Governor Tritle ample time to get out the fii*st really 


comprehensive message to the Legislature that ever had been known in the 
territory. The deadlock finally was broken by compromise, in -which the com- 
mitteeships and patronage were adjusted in a remarkable showing of amity. 
Never was a session quite so good to Prescott, where about $80,000 was disbursed 
in the charges of clerk hire and printing alone. There were forty-one committee 
clerks. It is probable that no other Arizona Legislature ever surpassed the 
thirteenth in the high intelligence of its personnel, and all the members were 
good sports and spenders. A councilman-at-large, who lived just across the 
street from the eapitol, put in a mileage bill for transportation to and from the 
farthest corner of the territory, whereupon Bob Connell, a saloonkeeper and a man 
filled with hatred of "silk-stockings," forthwith put in a charge for a single half- 
mile, where he really was entitled to two miles. Bob thereafter was made chairman 
of the specially created committee on hydrography, whereof the clerk had no work 
save that of drawing $4 a day from Territorial Secretary VanArman. The for- 
mer home of Governor Fremont was fitted up as a club by the generous business 
men of Prescott, all for the benefit of the legislators. 

The great issues of the session were over an attempt to re-enaet the bullion 
tax, and an effort to create the County of Sierra Bonita, whereof Willcox was to 
be the seat of government. The bullion tax was not re-established and Sierra 
Bonta died by only one vote. There also was trouble over a biU carrying a sub- 
sidy for construction of a connecting railroad between the county seats of 
Yavapai and Maricopa counties, but this failed through the action of DeForest 
Porter, representative from Maricopa, who secreted the original bill, his opposi- 
tion based upon the wishes of his constituents. Subsidies were authorized, how- 
ever, for railroads from the Santa Fe to Prescott ($292,000) and from the 
Southern Pacific to Phoenix ($200,000). The usual efforts to move the capital 
from Prescott at this session were sidetracked by a liberal distribution of terri- 
torial moneys to other towns. Tucson was given appropriation for the founda- 
tion of a university, Phamix received an insane asylum (insane theretofore had 
been sent to Stockton, Cal. ) , Tempe was given a normal school and Yuma a levee. 
The session was notably prolific of memorials to Congress, the most important 
being one praying for the purchase from Mexico of land that would embrace 
a port on the Gulf of California. This movement has been repeated many times 
since, despite a provision of the Mexican Constitution that makes death the 
punishment for any attempted shrinkage of Mexican territory. 

There was some talk of criminal prosecution of certain members of the Thir- 
teenth, and Editor John ilarion and a few other witnesses were called before 
the next grand jury to testify concerning the appropriations and particularly 
the method used iu farming out the clerkships to figureheads. But nothing was 
done. It was feared that any fuss raised would lose Prescott the capital. Then. 
Prescott had absorbed most of the money, anyhow. 


Grant Oury, who for a term had represented Arizona in a Confederate Con- 
gress, and who had latterly sought similar honor at Washington, finally achieved 
this ambition in 1880, when he was elected to the office of delegate over JI. W 
Stewart, republican, by a majority of about 400, in a total vote of 7,700. Oury 


was re-elected in 1882, when lie received 6,121 votes, his opponent. Judge De 
Forest Porter, receiving about 5,200. 

Just to show that personality still counted, a republican was elected in 1884, 
C. C. Bean, a pioneer mining man of Yavapai County, who was opposed by 
C. P. Head of the same county, one of the leading merchants of Prescott and 
a man of notably high standing. Bean's vote was 6,820 and Head's 5,671. 

In 1886 democracy came back and remained in the saddle for many years 
thereafter. This was the year of the advent, territorially speaking, of Marcus 
A. Smith, who had served with distinction as district attorney of Cochise County. 
Bean ran again, but was beaten decisively, the vote standing. Smith 6,355, Bean 
4,472. In 1888 Smith was re-elected by a vote of 7,686, compared with 5,832 
for Thos. F. Wilson of Tucson. Smith's majority mainly came out of the Salt 
and Gila River valleys, where he made the campaign on opposition to a con- 
gressional act seeking to establish a Court of Private Land Claims. 



Troublous Political Times through the Administrations of Governors Zulick, Wolflev, 
Irwin, Hughes and McCord — The As'^lum Inquiry — Change of the Capital to 
Phcenix — Lost Laws — Hold-over Muddle — Yuma Prison Labor Contract — A'eii' 

There was a change of national administration ilarch 4, 1885, when Grover 
Cleveland was seated as President. Great was the rejoicing among the demo- 
crats of Arizona. At Phoenix the world was invited to a celebration. There 
was keen rivalry for the offices. But the governorship went to a very dark 
horse, and not an Arizonan at that, to C. Meyer Zulick of New Jersey, a former 
New York political associate and personal friend of Cleveland. It is not 
improbable that Zulick, one of the cleverest of politicians, had indicated a 
desire for recognition, but the date of appointment, in the fall, found him 
seventy miles below the international line, at Nacozai'i, Sonora, where he had 
been sent to straighten out the financial difficulties of some Newark, N. J., 
clients, who had mines in the locality. The news was sent him by W. K. Meade 
of Tombstone, whose office of United States marshal had floated to him on the 
same tide. The messenger was M. T. Donovan, who later told how he found 
the future Governor of Arizona a prisoner, hostage for the payment of his 
company's debts and how, at 2 a. m. Zulick was smuggled from his quarters. 
But the great news was not broken till the buckboard had been driven across 
the line, near where Douglas now stands. 

As territorial secretary there was appointment of Jas. A. Bayard, son of the 
secretaiy of state. On hand Governor Zulick fouud problems of state well 
worth attention. He was besieged with applications for office and had diffi- 
culty in getting the jobs away from the republican occupants, who had some 
rights of tenure on the basis of confirmation by the territorial council for a 
two-year term. Possibly the most difficult job of elimination was that of the 
board of directors of the insane asylum, which lately had completed construc- 
tion of an asylum building near Phoenix. The governor utilized an act em- 
powering appointment of an honorarj^ board of directors, which proved to be 
an investigating committee. This body returned twelve accusations against 
Directors Stewart, Lincoln and Hatch, particularly covering the sale, at too 
low a price, of $100,000 in bonds voted by the Thirteenth Legislature. At a 
hearing in Preseott, the board members refused to acknowledge the authority 
of the governor or to produce their books. Governor Zulick, thereupon over- 
ruling all objections to his status as inquisitor and judge, found the defendants 


guilty and, on May 15, 1886, ordered their removal. The members refused to 
accept dismissal but finally, under a decree of coui't, were ousted on November 
23. The governor was more than severe in his summing up the whole trans- 
action. Much else there was of stoi-my contention during tlie administration, 
most of it due to the warring democratic factions, a dispute that soon gi-ew 
to have serious personal feeling, but it would take more than a pamphlet to 
set all of it forth. 


The Fourteenth Legislature was so very different that it was dubbed in 
Preseott "The Measly Fourteenth." It is a fact, however, that a number of 
the members really were prostrated with the measles and mumps. One of the 
first things done was kill an act of the former Legislature that had granted 
Patrick Hamilton, one of the period's most brilliant writers, an appropriation 
of $5,000 a year for salary and expenses as commissioner of immigration. The 
session now may be especially remembered by its creation of the Live Stock 
Sanitary Board, through which Arizona since has been kept free of stock 
disease and of olden-time range "i-ustling." 

Governor Zulick refused to acknowledge the power of the Legislature to 
transfer his power of pardon and declined to honor the provisions of an act of 
the Thirteenth Legislature creating a board of pardons. The act had been 
passed on recommendation of Governor Trifle. 

A side notation of this period concerns Fred Smith, son of a prominent 
Virginia politician, who had been appointed receiver of the Tucson land office 
during a time of unusual reclamation activity. After a season of large social 
activity, Smith disappeared, his accounts short about $30,000. A part of the 
money was repaid the Government and Congress authorized the crediting of 
sums paid Smith by settlers. Nearly fourteen years later. Smith's bondsmen, 
most of them Phoenix residents, were compelled to pay the balance, under an 
order of the Supreme Court of the United States. 


The end of the Zulick administration was a veritable whirl of political 
incident. After the election of 1888 it became evident that Preseott 's hold 
on the capital, maintained through the years at the cost of many sacrifices and 
trades, at last was slipping. The Fifteenth Legislature began its session in 
Preseott January 21, 1889. Some of the members claimed they had been met 
even with hostility by the local population, for there was evidence that removal 
had been determined upon both by a legislative majority and the governor. 
January 26 the governor's signature was affixed to Act No. 1, which declared, 
that "on and after the 4th day of February, in the year of Our Lord Eighteen 
Hundred and Eighty-nine, the permanent seat of government and capital of 
this Territory shall be, and the same is hereby located and established at the 
City of Phoenix, in the County of Maricopa." Then there was recess till 
February 7. Then there was a joyous junket around by Los Angeles, with 
Pullmans and enfei-fainment furnished at the expense of a number of patriotic 
citizens of Phoenix. There was a nearer and cheaper mode of transportation, 
by stage, between the two cities, but railroad transportation for legislators in 


those happy days was by pass. Indeed, it had come to the point where the 
annual transportation given by the Southern Pacific and Santa Pe had become 
considered a part of the legislator's legitimate emoluments of office. Possibly 
this was costly to the companies, but it saved them much adverse legislation 
that descended upon them in later, passless, days. 

At Phoenix the refreshed statesmen met in pleasant halls fitted up on the 
upper story of the new city hall, wherein most of the main floor was given over 
to the offices of the governor and secretary and to the territorial library. 

Among the acts passed at the fifteenth session, possibly the most notable 
was that making train robbery a crime punishable by death. There was pro- 
hibition of the carrying of deadly weapons in towns, a subsidy of $3,000 was 
offered for the development of any artesian well, Gila County was given the 
northern part of Tonto Basin at the expense of Yavapai, tax exemption was 
offered for six years to any railroad that should be built to the Grand Canon, 
ability to read and write the English language was made a necessity for hold- 
ing office, provision was made for securing a capitol site in Phoenix, with S. M. 
Franklin, C. W. Johnstone and T. D. Hammond as commissioners, and au- 
thorization was given for the assembling and for the costs of a statehood 

Also to be considered are the "Lost Laws," eleven bills that had been put 
away by Governor Zulick in the closing days of the session and that later were 
brought to light and to be certified as laws by the new secretary, N. 0. Murphy, 
on the ground that they had remained with the governor ten days during a 
session of the Legislature, without adverse action on the part of the executive. 
Few of the eleven were of importance. There was an abortive sort of Sunday- 
closing act, one for compulsory school attendance, and a university appropria- 
tion act. 

That a political grudge may have long life is shown by the action of the 
Second State Legislative Senate of Arizona, which in January, 1915, rejected 
a House joint resolution inviting C. Meyer Zulick to visit Arizona. The reso- 
lution and Zulick himself were denounced by State Senator Morris Goldwater 
of Prescott, who detailed all the circumstances that led to Prescott's loss of the 
capital. It was charged that the removal largely was due to the presence of 
"a sack of money sent to the Hon. J. H. Carpenter, to be used where it would 
do the most good." Goldwater detailed also how he had fought in the demo- 
cratic conventions at the time against endorsement of the Zulick administration 
and how his policy had remained constant unto the latter days. So the resolu- 
tion was defeated. 


President Harrison took office March 4, 1889. This event had much to do 
with the fortunes of Governor Zulick and affected veiy materially the actions 
of the Fifteenth Legislature, wherein the republicans had control of both 
houses, with Chas. R. Drake of Tucson President of the Council and John Y. T. 
Smith of PhcBnix Speaker of the House. March 22, for political advantage, 
remembering a few of his initiatory experiences, the governor nominated a full 
set of territorial officials from among his own particular following. These nomi- 
nations all were rejected by the Council, for telegrams had been pouring in 


on the President depicting the woeful conditions of his party in Arizona and 
asking immediate action on gubernatorial appointment. So, early in April, 
Zulick was notified of his removal and to the place, through the influence of 
Secretary Noble of the Interior Department, was appointed Lewis Wolfley, a 
Yavapai County mining man and surveyor. Wolfley started from Washington 
for home as soon as he was assured of appointment. Telegrams awaited his 
coming at every station and he was well advised of conditions that had developed 
within the territorial government. 

From a republican viewpoint, the situation in Phoenix was a serious one. 
Governor Zulick, ever mentally active, had made the astounding announcement 
that he would refuse to recognize the legality of a session of the Legislature 
that extended over a period of sixty days, all inclusive, dated from the time 
of the legal assembly of the body. In this he was sustained by the language of 
a congressional act that may, however, have applied merely to the compensa- 
tion of the members. But the republicans claimed that the intent of the act 
was to cover working days and not elapsed time. They wanted to claim the 
time they had spent on the Los Angeles ti-ip. Zulick insisted that there could 
have been no legal business after March 22. The democrats, save only a few, 
quit the session. The republicans held on, adjourning from day to day, awaiting 
the coming of Wolfley. 

The new governor arrived April 8, with his appointments fairly well deter- 
mined. The last of them were confirmed April 11 and then the belated adjourn- 
ment was taken. 


For some time thereafter Arizona rejoiced in possession of two sets of offi- 
cials, de facto and de jure, for the democratic incumbents refused to surrender. 
The question went into the courts especially upon the rights of Thomas Hughes, 
the Wolfley appointee as auditor, confirmed April 8. The new attorney gen- 
eral, Clark Churchill, urged that previous legislatures, back to the eleventh, 
had passed the sixty-consecutive-day limit without dispute and in the addi- 
tional days had enacted much legislation of importance. The session of the 
eleventh, in 1881, was after Congress had extended the limitation from forty 
days, the legislative session at the time New Mexico was formed. 

Though succeeding legislatures never dared another such experiment, Ari- 
zona court decisions rather favored the republican side, but on grounds outside 
the main sixty-day contention. The republicans gained control of the treasury 
and the democratic officeholders were left without funds, a condition somewhat 
shared by the territorial government at large, for the appropriation bill had 
also been left in dubious shape. Governor Wolfley appealed to the President 
and Congress for help, instancing that he was powerless to exercise any aiithority 
at the penitentiary, "where the Territorial Prison Board are now actually in 
default to the territorial treasury about .$6,000, which they acknowledge, and 
one of their number has absconded." This was a reference to "Little Steve," 
Secretary Geo. H. Stevens of the board, who had made good his escape to 
British Columbia. The muddle at large was settled by a gradual withdrawal 
of the harassed democratic officials, who found no pleasure in official life to 
which no pay was attached. Some of them were given their claimed emolument 
by subsequent democratic legislatures. 


Having cleared away the M'reckage, Wolfley's admiBistratiou rau more 
smoothly, though soon complicated by the starting of an administration organ 
at Phoenix, the Republican, into which went a large part of the official salary 


The election of 1890 was a disastrous one to the republicans in Arizona. 
Mark Smith was elected congi-essman over Geo. W. Cheyney of Tucson and 
a democratic Legislature was chosen. In this Legislature, the sixteenth (in 
1891), C. Meyer Zulick was seated as councilman from Maricopa County, which 
in the lower house was represented by T. E. Farish and L. H. Chalmers, all 
democrats. The Republican's job office had turned out an elaboi-ate pamphlet, 
on Arizona's Resources, just in time, as Commissioner of Iimuigration John A. 
Black had his office taken from under him by the second act of the session. 
The third abolished the office of territorial geologist. The fourth, killing fiestas 
by prohibiting gambling within them, was novel in that it was supported by 
the regular gambling fraternity of the territory, represented by one of their 
number, Fred G. Hughes, President of the Council. The Friday following the 
first day of February was established as Arbor Day. Possibly in prophetic 
hope of the next national election, the governor was given power to remove 
any of his or his predecessor's appointees when he thought the public interests 
might be subserved. A maximum railroad fare of 6 cents a mile was ordered. 
Materially affecting construction of a railroad through Prescott from Ash Fork 
to Phoenix was a bill passed giving a tax exemption for twenty years. Presi- 
dent Harrison had vetoed a subsidy bill before this, much to the distress of 
the people of Yavapai and ilaricopa counties. Right here may be stated the 
fact that the Harrison Act of Congress, limiting the indebtedness to whioli the 
tei-ritories miglit subject themselves, was the best safeguard ever known by 
the lean treasury of Arizona. The Sixteenth Legislature did much to purify 
elections by passage of the Australian ballot law, which, with slight modifica- 
tion, still is in efiiect. Statehood seemed so near that provision was made for a 
constitutional convention and for the election and pay for the delegates, who 
were to assemble in PhcBnix in September, 1891. Gila County was given more 
of Tonto Basin. A military code was adopted. Authorization was given for the 
maintenance of a force of rangers. A start on the road to prohibition was 
denial of liquor to drunkards or minors. Creation was made of a board of rail- 
road commissioners and provision was made for an exhibit at the Chicago Fair. 

Possibly the best work of the Wolfley administration was the funding of the 
territorial bonds, which had been a rather complicated and heavy burden, draw- 
ing interest generally at 7 per cent or more. In the Legislature of 1895 this 
service was given appreciation by a vote of $5,000 to ex-Governor Wolfley, to 
pay his expenses in connection with the funding, whereby, in the language of 
the bill, "the Territory has been saved $59,006.40 in annual interest." The bill 
was vetoed by Governor Hughes, but was passed, notwithstanding. 


Temperamentally, Governor Wolfley was hardly fit for the trials and irrita- 
tions of his office. He was a man of positive, rugged character, who tolerated no 



argumeut concerning his convictions. He wrote altogether too many letters to 
the secretary of the interior concerning the administration of Arizona affairs, 
and finally was removed from ofSce. One of the principal causes for his removal 
is said to have been the official character he gave his newspaper. After leaving 
the office of governor, WoMey devoted himself to an irrigation project near 
Gila Bend. When constniction had been almost completed, the dam was swept 
away by a flood, and in the resulting expense Wolfley lost control of the enter- 
prise. There was much litigation, carried to the Supreme Court of the United 
States, decided adversely to Wolfley's interests. Thereupon, he distinguished 
himself by addressing the national House of Representatives, demanding the 
impeachment of the justices of the Supreme Court, possibly one of the most 
extraordinary applications ever presented to Congress. This application was 
made in good faith and was supported by a printed petition and argument. 
Nothing was done with the matter, much to Wolfley's disgust. He died in Los 
Angeles in September, 1910, from injuries received in a street car accident, and 
his body was taken to Prescott for burial. . 


Tlie new governor of Arizona was John N. Irwin (rep.) of Iowa, the last 
executive to be appointed from outside of the limits of the territory. He was 
rather a distinguished man in his own bailiwick, and at one time in his career 
was minister to Denmark. But in Arizona, according to the ideas of the times, 
he was far from satisfactory as an executive. Possibly this was reflected in a 
remark said to have been made by him, "I would sooner be a constable in peace 
than a governor in hell." He started in with the idea that a political millennium 
could be reached here by the simple process of appointing many democrats to 
office. As a result, he had the support of neither party. Himself a man of 
unblemished probity, several of his appointees fell under suspicion, and his 
prison warden had investigation by a Yuma County grand jury on a cliarge of 
taking away the furniture from the superintendent's house when he departed 
from the job. In the leading offices of his administration he gathered some .strong 
men, including William Herring of Tombstone as attorney-general, William 
Christy of Phoenix as treasurer, and Thomas Hughes of Tucson as auditor. 
M. P. Freeman of Tucson was made chancellor of the imiversity. Governor Irwin 
spent a considerable part of his short term out of the territory, dropping the 
burdens of the government on the capable shoulders of Secretary N. O. Murphy. 

Secretary Murphy came to the office of governor in legitimate line of succes- 
sion in May, 1892, in his place as secretary being appointed N. A. Morford, 
owner of the Phcenix Herald. Murphy's term was short, however, for in the fall 
of that year Grover Cleveland was elected President. 

In tlie 1892 election Mark Smith again went to Congress by a substantial 
plurality of votes over W. G. Stewart, the republican nominee. 

Governor Murphy, however, had most to do with the Seventeenth Legislature 
of 1893, which body met February 13 and adjourned April 13. Its first act 
was the offering of a reward of $5,000 for the capture, dead or alive, of the 
Apache Kid. Provision was made for a reform school at Flagstaff, the building 
to be consti-ucted and the school to be maintained by general tax. 



The new democratic governor was Louis C. Hughes of Tucson, appointed 
April 5, 1893. This appointment, so near the date of the inauguration of the 
new President, might indicate a degree of harmony in the territorial democratic 
ranks. It was very much otherwise, however; a battle for the office had been 
going on for months, with many participants. Hughes was decidedly at outs 
with the majority of the central committee, which was headed by a Tucson gam- 
bler. Hughes was an early-day advocate of woman suffrage, prohibition and the 
suppression of gambling, and thus managed to secure much support both in 
Arizona and in the East. It was told that the final straw which gave him the 
of&ce was the presentation to the President of a photograph that showed the 
chairman of the central committee busily engaged in dealing faro with a mixed 
racial clientele before him. So Hughes was appointed in time to avoid compli- 
cations such as had been known before. 

The new territorial secretary was C. M. Bruce. One of the most notable 
appointments made by Hughes was that of F. J. Heney of Tucson as attorney- 
general. For a while it was understood that Hene.y might be considered the 
government of Arizona, but this condition was shaken off b.y Hughes after a short 
time, and Heney was succeeded by T. D. Satterwhite of Tucson. 

The Hughes administration was a stormy one, mainly due to causes within 
his own party. In 1894 an attempt was made to indict him for various alleged 
misfeasances, but he had the active support of a considerable portion of the 
people and continued in command of the situation for several years. 

The eighteenth legislative session started its work by the establishment of 
a board of railroad commissioners. Possibly the most important act of the 
session was that creating a board of territorial control to take up duties there- 
tofore in the hands of separate commissioners for the insane asylum, prison and 
refoim school. This new board, consisting of the governor, auditor and a secre- 
tary, the last named an off-party appointee of the governor, has endured to this 
day, despite biennial attacks upon it as conferring too much power upon the 
executive. An interesting paragraph in the new election law passed was that 
which prohibited candidates from asking any person or persons, dii'ectly or indi- 
rectly, to drink beer or other intoxicating drinks, thus striking directly at an 
electioneering practice that had been both time-honored and expensive. That 
preparedness for defense had consideration in those days was shown by authoriza- 
tion for the formation of the ' ' American Guard, ' ' out of pupils in the high and 
common schools of the territory, a body that should be placed under military 
discipline. The grant to ex-Governor Wolfley has been mentioned heretofore. 
Authorization was given for the establishment and maintenance of high schools 
in school districts or union districts. Political animus is shown in the record of 
an appropriation of $1,222 to the Arizona Gazette Company over the veto of the 
governor, this a printing bill two years old. Classification was made of the 
counties into six di^asions. The governor was authorized to grant paroles. The 
County of Navajo was created out of the western portion of Apache County. 
The governor was authorized to appoint a board of immigration commissioners. 


The Navajo County act was the most exciting feature of the session. There 
was no particular objection to the creation of this county, but, coming up in the 


very last hours of the session, it served as a buhvark behind which to fight the 
removal of the territorial prison from Yuma to Prescott, a change that was 
imminent. In the turmoil which continued till midnight, Speaker Carpenter, 
representing Yuma County, at all interruptions formally observed, "The gentle- 
man from Apache (Crosby) has the floor." Thus for hours the bill was kept 
before the House. At the fateful striking of midnight it had been usual, if 
business remained unfinished, to set the hands of the clock back, or stop the 
clock altogether. An experienced janitor, with stepladder, appeared to perform 
the usual ceremony, but was ordered away by Carpenter, who brought down the 
gavel and declared the House adjourned sine die. This not only killed prison 
removal, but left the appropriation bill unpassed. The territorial auditors, how- 
ever, honored all regular accounts for the succeeding two years and little actual 
damage was done by the omission. 

One of the pleasant measures that passed the Legislature of 1895 was that of 
establishing the office of commissioner of immigration in each of the counties. 
The commissioners were to receive a salary of $50 a month, payable out of the 
county treasury, yet the appointments were to be made by the governor. The 
appointees almost without exception were proprietors of newspapers. The 
administration thus would secure at least one journalistic supporter in each 
county. The boards of supervisors generally failed to provide the necessary 
appropriations, denying the legality of the act. Its legality was established, 
however, in a suit brought by the Maricopa County commissioner, T. C. Jordan. 
But Hughes was removed from office not long thereafter and his idea did him 
little good. 

Another action of the Eighteenth Legislature that had lasting consequences 
was the passage of a memorial to Congress asking "such curative and remedial 
legislation as will protect the holders of all bonds issued under authority of acts 
of the Legislative Assembly, the validity of which has heretofore been acknowl- 
edged, and that you so further legislate as to protect all innocent parties having 
entered into contracts resulting from inducements offered by our territorial 
legislation and relieve the people of the Territory from the disastrous effects that 
must necessarily follow any repudiation of good faith on the part of the 
Territory. ' ' 

The previous election (1894) had resulted in the return of a republican 
congressman, former Governor N. 0. Murphy. It should be stated, however, 
that this was not an indication of republican preponderance, but was due to the 
fact that the vote was divided among three candidates. The democrats had 
nominated John C. Herndon of Prescott, possibly their strongest man. Much 
of the strength that would ordinarily have gone to him was taken by Wm. O. 
O'Neill of Prescott, who had entered the contest as the candidate for the populist 
party, to which he had gone from the republicans. The vote stood: ilurphy, 
5,686; Herndon, 4,773; O'Neill, 3,006. 

Governor Hughes was removed from office IMarch 30, 1896, his political 
enemies at last being successful. His office had been investigated the previous 
July by an inspector of the Interior Department. There had been charges that 
Hughes had worked against the democratic nominee for Congress in the previous 
election and had used undue influence in the Legislature to secure the passage 


of acts that he favored. Governor Hughes held on for two days and then 
surrendered his office to Secretary Bruce. 


The new governor, B. J. Franklin, was nominated the same day that Hughes 
was removed, and was confirmed promptly. He took office April 18. He had 
l)een a resident of Phoenix for five years, engaged in the practice of law. Most 
of his active life had been spent in Kansas City, from where he had been elected 
to Congress in 1876, thereafter serving two ternis. For four years following 
18S.J he was consular agent at Hankow, China. At the time of his appointment 
as governor he was considered a "single standard democrat," something assumed 
to have had influence. 

One of the early acts of the Nineteenth Legislature, which met in January, 
1S97, was the codifying and revising of the laws in relation to live stock. Pro- 
vision was made for the erection of a capitol building, with an initial appropria- 
tion of $100,000, this money to be raised by the sale of bonds. New railroads 
were exempted from taxation for fifteen years, and the Santa Fe was given the 
courtesy of an act under which it was made legal to absorb the Atlantic & Pacific 
Railroad, which soon was to be sold under foreclosure of mortgage. A grant of 
.$3,000 was made to the Society of Arizona Pioneers for the preservation of Ari- 
zona's historical records. This amount later disappeared when under the charge 
of none other than Fred G. Hughes, President of the Territorial Council and also 
an officer of the Pioneer Society, and was one of the reasons why Hughes spent 
a few years in the penitentiary. 

In an effort to find a civic gift acceptable to Flagstaff, the reform school then 
at that city Avas changed into a home for the insane. The reform school idea was 
not lost, however, and a special tax was levied for the establishment of such a 
school at Benson. 

A memorial was passed against the cession by Congress to Utah of that part 
of Arizona lying north of the Grand Caiion, a cession possibility that endured 
up to the date of statehood. There was also a protest against the passage 
through Congress of an act (which was passed) permitting funding of the Pres- 
cott & Arizona Railroad bonds and of the fraudulent Tucson & Globe Narrow 
Gauge Railroad bonds. 

The closing hours of the session were torrid, due to disagreement between 
the House majority and Governor Franklin. The House passed a resolution ask- 
ing an immediate change in the office of governor. But the Council not only 
tabled the resolution, but almost unanimoxisly passed a resolution of confidence 
in Franklin's integrity and abilitj'. The governor had vetoed a number of bills, 
including salary increases to county officials and tax exemptions to beet sugar 
factories, reduction works and irrigation enterprises. Part of the governor's 
unpopularity witli some legislators was due to his charge that it had only needed 
.$2,000 to defeat a legislative bill that contemplated taxation of the net product 
of mines. 

A committee of the Nineteenth Legislature made an investigation of the 
board of control, which, under Hughes, had been charged with gross irregulari- 
ties. It was found that things were wrong in two points, the pardoning of a 


convict from the penitentiaiy to act in a clerical capacity at Yuma and the 
purchase of a tract of land without publicity or advertising. 


About the most unpopular action of the Hughes administration was an agree- 
ment entered into with the State of Arizona Improvement Company, a corpora- 
tion organized by Eugene S. Ives for the digging of a canal from the Colorado 
River above Yuma. It was appreciated that the Yuma country needed such 
a ditch, but the contract would have thrown three-fourths of the expense upon 
the territory. The canal company for ten years was to have the labor of aU 
available convicts, the territory to guard and feed the men and to receive for 
their labor 70 cents a day per man, with the proviso that this remuneration was 
to be received in the form of "water rights" in the canal that was to be dug. 
This did not in any way include the territory as an owner of the canal ; it simply 
gave the right, at a stated price of $20 an aci'e, to purchase water, at the regular 
service price, from the canal company for the irrigation of any lands that 
the territory might then or thereafter control. There was no limitation as to 
the character of the work that the convicts might have been compelled to do. 
They could have been called upon to labor on a railroad if the company so chose. 
Possibly some such idea was in view, for the canal construction would hardly 
take ten years, the term of the contract. The company was about ready to 
proceed with its work when Hughes suddenly retired from office. His suc- 
cessor, B. J. Franklin, absolutelj' refused to recognize the prison contract, uni- 
formly referring to it in terms too forcible to be printed. The company was 
denied a draft of prisoners and suit was brought, which, in the Arizona courts, 
was decided in favor of the company, but which later, in the Supreme Court of 
the United States, went in favor of the territory. Gov. M. H. McCord, who 
followed Franklin, had been citizen member of the territorial board of control 
at the time the canal contract was made. He insisted upon the purchase by the 
corporation of $30,000 worth of maehinerj' as evidence of good faith and then 
turned over about 100 convict laborers. The canal company failed in an effort 
to secure as subsidy from the City of Yuma about 1,000 city lots remaining 
unsold in the possession of the municipality. Some work was done upon a canal 
above Yuma, but soon was stopped. When the prison contract was summed up, 
it was found that the territoi-y had lost through its operation just $13,741. In 
addition, eleven men had escaped from the camps and only four had been 
recaptured. The company, in return, owed the territory, under the contract, 
$7,500 — in water rights. 

In the election of 1896, jMarcus A. Suaith, democrat, was elected delegate to 
Congress, receiving 6,065 votes. His opponents were A. J. Doran, republican, 
and Wm. 0. O'Neill, populist, who received, respectively, 4,049 and 3,695 votes. 


Following the seating of "William McKinley as President in March, 1897, 
Myron H. McCord became governor of Arizona, taking his seat July 29. He had 
been in public life for many years. He had served five terms as member of the 
Legislature of Michigan, and in 1889 was elected a member of Congress from 
Michigan, seated close to William McKinley, a happy circumstance that helped 


materially in assisting him to the office of governor. He came to Arizona in 
1893, bought a farm and soon thereafter entered office again as citizen member 
of the board of control. He was one of the few officials who failed to accept 
dismissal at the hands of Goveimor Franklin, who to his place had named T. J. 
Wolfley, then editor of the Phcenix Republican, and took his protest to the 

Secretary Bruce was succeeded by Chas. H. Akers. A new chief justice 
succeeding A. C. Baker was named June 28, 1897, in the person of Hiram C. 
Truesdale of Minneapolis, who died in Phcenix October 28 of the same year. 
Then to the place was appointed Webster Street of Phcenix, an Arizonan of 
twenty years' standing, but only after a typically ugly Arizona campaign had 
been waged against him. That he finally secured the place has been credited to 
the support of Governor McCord. 

McCord had inherited from Franklin the legacy of the prison contract, which 
had had a favorable decision in the Supreme Court of the territory. He directed 
dismissal of an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States and ordered 
that the contract be carried out after seven additional stipulations had been 
secured by the canal company. This contract was the cause of much disturbing 
argument during McCord 's term, assailed especially by T. E. Parish on behalf 
of the Frnklin administration and, most bitterly, by Wm. 0. 'Neill, represent- 
ing the populists. 

In March and April, 1898, Governor McCord gave the strongest of support 
in the work of organizing an Arizona cowboy regiment for service in the Span- 
ish war, a body later cut down to only two troops of the First United States 
Volunteer Cavalry. Rather fired with the fever of war, the governor then took 
the field himself, and in July secured from his friend, the President, command 
of a regiment of infantry recruited in the Southwest, with three companies 
raised in Arizona. 

Governor McCord had a long and active political life. About the time of 
President Roosevelt's accession he was made United States marshal for Arizona. 
For a while he managed a Phoenix newspaper, but he was in official harness when 
he died, in April, 1908, for two years having been collector of customs at Nogales. 

When McCord marched off to war, his place was filled by the appointment of 
N. 0. Murphy, for the second time made governor of Arizona. His oath of 
office bore date of August 1, 1898 ; a second oath was filed by him July 14, 1899. 

The part taken by Arizona in the Spanish war is told in a separate chapter. 
This service was brief and by the fall time most of the participants were back in 
Arizona, some of them returning to accustomed political activity. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Brodie, mustered out with the First Volunteer Cavalry, 
returning with his arm in a sling from injury by a Spanish bullet, was made 
the republican nominee for delegate to Congress, in opposition to Col. J. P. 
Wilson, democrat. Several other Rough Rider officers were nominated in various 
parts of the territory, but, whatever the ticket, it is notable that not one was 
successful in the November election. 


The Twentieth Legislature met January 16, 1899. It gave a tax exemption 
of fifteen years to water development enterprises ; created the County of Santa 


Cruz out of southern Pima County; gave Chas. D. Poston a pension of $25 a 
month-; authorized a revision of the laws; provided for the completion of the 
territorial eapitol ; gave new railroads a ten-year tax exemption and cut off all 
financial support to the National Guard. An appropriation was made for the 
burial of former Territorial Secretai-y John J. Gosper, who had died, penniless, 
in the Los Angeles County Hospital. 

The doubt concerning the form of appropriation to be expended at Flagstaff 
was resolved finally by turning over the building, grounds and money to the 
normal school board. Thus was started the Northern Arizona Normal School. 

Another memorial was sent to Congress covering especially the Tucson & 
Globe Narrow-Gauge bonds, which were declared fraudulent and without con- 
sideration. Statehood was asked of Congress, more pay for the legislators and 
an appropriation for the survey of a water storage damsite on the Gila River. 
A move to tax the mines more heavily was defeated, it was told, at a cost of only 
$9,000, the mining iight led by H. J. Allen of Jerome. 

Morris Goldwater was elected president of the Council, the choice being 
notable for the reason that his opponent for the honor was none other than 
George W. P. Hunt of Gila County, who seems then to have met about the only 
defeat of Ms political career. As speaker of the House, the unanimous demo- 
cratic choice was Henry F. Ashurst, now one of the Arizona senators. Ashurst 
had served in the House two years before, being elected at the age of only 
twenty-two. 140'! 432 

The Twentieth Legislature authorized the governor to appoint a commission 
of three lawyers with broad authority to "revise the laws and eliminate there- 
from all crude, improper and contradictory matter and also to insert such new 
provisions as they may deem necessary and proper." To this commission Gov- 
ernor Murphy in March, 1899, appointed C. W. Wright of Tucson, J. C. Herndon 
of Prescott, and L. H. Chalmers of Phcenix. The death of Mr. Wright in Decem- 
ber, 1900, caused a vacancy that was filled by the appointment of Judge R. E. 
Sloan of Prescott. The report was submitted to the Twenty-first Legislature, by 
which it was passed with few amendments. 

The republican territorial convention which met in Phoenix, April 30, 1900, 
for the selection of delegates to the national convention, was remarkable mainly 
for the bolt of the Yavapai County delegates, headed by Joseph B. Morrison of 
Prescott, later United States attorney. The bolt immediately followed a call 
for a speech from Robert E. Morrison, then United States attorney. The row 
was really between Isaac T. Stoddard, who was leader of the Yavapai delegation, 
but whose faction had lost in the territory generally to a combination headed 
by ex-Governor McCord and C. H. Akers. 

One of the high lights of Arizona political histoi-y was the territorial demo- 
cratic convention in Ph(pnix, September 12, 1900. From start to finish it was 
a riot, with its membership divided and Vfith two sets of ofiicers upon the opera 
house stage, not to speak of the sheriff and chief of police. The trouble was 
between factions supporting Marcus A. Smith and Col. J. F. Wilson. It resulted 
in the nomination of both and both accepted from the same rostrum, with thanks. 
Wilson would have abandoned the weai-y struggle early had his wife not in- 
formed him that "she'd sooner die than be a quitter." But he did quit a few 
later and, though the democrats were very much split up for Ihe time 


being, Smith was re-elected, just as usual. The republicans in the same year 
nominated as their congressional candidate Governor N. 0. Murphy. 

Till the completion of the capitol building in Phcenix, Arizona's seat of 
government had been on wheels. The government had been inaugurated at 
Navajo Springs in December, 1863, in the midst of a snow storm. There was 
a brief stop at the Chino Valley Springs until Prescott was selected as the 
first real seat of government. 

The meeting place of the First Legislature in the winter of 1864-5 was a 
long one-storied log house on Gurley Street, fronting the north face of the 
plaza. Part of this building still was standing at the time of a Prescott fire 
in 1900. It was told that the structure was built for the occasion, the logs 
hewn by hand ; the roof was covered with shakes and the floor was of whipsawed 
pine. Illumination at night was by tallow candles. The heating arrangements 
were inadequate and the cold wind from the snow-covered hills whistled through 
the illy-chinked crevices between the logs. Yet in this house was adopted the 
Howell Code, the foundation of all subsequent Arizona laws. The second ses- 
sion was in more comfortable quarters, with refreshments very near at hand. 
It was held in the old Montezuma saloon building, with the Council in the upper 
story and the Assembly below. The third session was held in the old court 
house, a two-storied log-and-frame building at the northeast corner of the 
Prescott Plaza. 

October 4, 1867, the permanent seat of government of the territory was 
established at Tucson, to be effective November 1, 1867. Tucson from the first 
had tried to secure the capital. She had lost by a tie vote in the Council in 
1866. Then had been compromise suggestions of La Paz, Walnut Grove, and of 
the establishment of a new capital city, to be named Aztlan, at the mouth of 
the Verde River. At last Tucson was victorious, through the desertion in the 
Assembly of representatives from Pah-Ute and Mohave. The vote stood 5 to 4 
in the Council and 9 to 7 in the Assembly. This was when Poston claimed that 
McCormick sold Prescott out in order to secure the support of the south in his 
congressional aspirations. 

It has been told that the first legislative sessions in Tucson were held in 
Congress Hall, a gambling saloon, but there has been found a record to the effect 
that sessions of the Legislature were held in three locations, in what later was 
called the New Orndorf Hotel, in the Charlelou Block and in a long adobe 
building belonging to TuUy & Ochoa on the south side of Ochoa Street, between 
Convent Street and Stone Avenue. The one wherein the last Tucson session 
was held only lately was demolished. It is told that the members found con- 
venient filing places for papers in chinks opened with their knives between 
the adobe bricks. 

In 1875 a bill was passed to locate the capital permanently at Tucson, but 
it was vetoed by the governor. At the following biennial session there was an 
accession of strength, possibly financial, to the northern side of the Legislature 
and the capital again was changed, to remain at Prescott till shifted to Phoenix 
in 1889. Legislative chambers were found in Curtis Hall in West Prescott. 
The territorial officers were housed in quarters around the city, the governor 
and secretary having chambers in an end of the public school building. Better 




quarters later were provided at the new city hall on the Gurley Street hill, a 
brick structure later used as a school. 

Rather at the instance of the representatives of Yavapai County and as 
one way of keeping the capital at Prescott, the Legislature of 1881, on the 
ground of dissatisfaction with the figures of the federal census, provided for 
a territorial census, to be taken by the supervisors of the several counties and 
to be used in calculating the relative representation to the succeeding Legis- 
lature. Even Governor Tritle at the succeeding legislative session felt it his 
duty to call attention to the dissatisfaction felt throughout the territory over 
the alleged fraudulent returns made by many census marshals. Yavapai in the 
federal census was given a population of about eiglit thousand. In the sup- 
plemental, remedial census, she queerly showed the effects of a sudden sui'ge 
of immigration and was credited with a doubled population, the balance of 
power thus remaining with her, provided Apache and jMohave counties continued 
loyal. It was told that, the invention of the census marshal waning, there were 
brought in a number of bulky hotel registers, secured in San Francisco and 
copied upon the census blanks, as showing residence in miscellaneous voting 
precincts, but mainly to the greater glory of Prescott. To this day this count 
is known as "the bed-bug" census. 

In 1889, Prescott gave up the fight, but resentfully. Money was subscribed 
at Phoenix to pay all of the expenses of moving and (juarters were provided in 
tlie new city hall only barely completed. IMost of the legislators from the south 
went to Prescott around by way of Seligman. Organization was hurriedly 
accomplished and a single bill was passed transferring the capital to Phcenix. 

Soon thereafter an act was passed creating a commission which was to 
choose a site for a permanent capitol building. This commission decided upon 
a tract of ten acres west of the City of Phcenix and at a subsequent legislative 
session their action was approved and funds were provided for beautifying 
the grounds. Act No. 9 of the Nineteenth Legislature, approved March 8, 1897, 
provided for the erection of a capitol building and authorized the issuance of 
$100,000 of 5 per cent territorial bonds to provide the necessary funds. The 
act was approved by Congress, the bonds were .sold and in 1899 consti'uction 
was commenced under Commissioners E. B. Gage, "Walter Talbot and P. H. 
Parker. The total cost of building and furniture was only $1-10,000. Con- 
gressional help was asked, but not received. 

The capitol was dedicated and formally occupied February 24, 1901. The 
orators of the day were Governor N. 0. Murphy, Chief Justice Webster Street 
and President Eugene S. Ives of the Territorial Council, while responses came 
from almost every county. In the evening was a great public reception, whereat 
first was presented the Arizona ode, sung by Mrs. Frank Cox of Phoenix. 

The walls of the capitol are of tufa, a loosely-compacted volcanic ash, 
brought from Kirkland Valley, a hundred miles to the northward. The foun- 
dation is of superb granite, from the hills near Phoenix. The building is of 
strikingly handsome exterior. Within, on the ground and main flooi's, are located 
the offices of the major part of the territory's official staff, the governor on the 
north and the territorial secretary on the south. On tlie third floor are the 
legislative ehambei-s, with about a score of committee rooms and witli broad 
balconies for the public. 




The Various Capitols of Arizona Till Dedication of the State House at PhcEnix — Adn 
isirations of Governors Murphy, Brodie, Kibhe)) and Sloan — Arizona's Song and 
Florver — Raising the Taxes on Mines — Territorial Judges. 

A very material change iu the political situation in Arizona followed assump- 
tion of the presidency by Tlieodore Roosevelt. The possession of a Spanish 
War record no longer was deemed in the least reprehensible. A number of 
Rough Riders thereafter dropped into official positions. 

In the fall of 1901, a strong attack was made upon Chief Justice Webster 
Street, the fight led by several Arizona attorneys of large practice. The attack 
succeeded and in Street's place was named Edward Kent, son of ex-Governor 
Kent of Maine, a Harvard graduate and latterly an assistant United States 
attorney at Denver. His appointment was made possible by an all-around fight 
among Arizona republicans, that had made the appointment of an Arizonan 
almost impossible. He was sworn into the office of chief justice March 28, 1902, 
and held the position until the date of statehood. So from Maine came Ari- 
zona's last, as well as first, chief justice. 

President Roosevelt ran into trouble with the Senate when he sent to that 
august body in 1902 the nomination of Benjamin F. Daniels to be United States 
marshal for Arizona, to succeed McCord, who had been given an ad interim 
appointment in the previous June. Daniels, who had been a peace officer in 
some of the wildest periods of pioneer days in Kansas and Texas, had served 
with distinction as a non-commissioned officer of Rough Riders and was a 
character of keen attraction to the strenuous President. Charges were brought 
up in the Senate concerning early episodes in Daniels' life. No less than thrice 
did the President attempt to secure confirmation, Daniels finally relieving the 
tension by requesting that his name be no longer considered. Soon thereafter, 
he was appointed superintendent of the territorial prison. After the death of 
the principal objector, Senator Hoar, the nomination was renewed and Daniels 
was confirmed and took the office from McCord July 1, 1905. About the same 
time, another Rough Rider, Capt. J. L. B. Alexander of Phoenix, succeeded to 
the office of United States attorney for Arizona, following Frederick Nave, 
the latter, November 7, 1905, receiving appointment to the office of district 

In the same year, Henry Bardshar of Prescott, a former private of Rough 
Riders, succeeded W. M. Morrison as collector of internal revenue for Arizona 


and New Mexico, with offices at Santa Fe. Jerry Millay, a Phcenix lawyer, suc- 
ceeded Daniels as superintendent of the penitentiary. 

In 1902, Robert E. Morrison and J. P. Wilson, respectively, were republican 
and democratic candidates for delegate to Congress. The election went to the 


The Twenty-first Legislature was the first to occupy the new territorial 
capitol of Arizona. It had been tenanted by territorial officials for several 
months, but not till the meeting of the legislative body was there a formal 
house-warming. It occurred February 24, 1901, on the thirty-eighth anni- 
versary of the congressional act creating the Territory of Arizona. The twenty- 
first was remarkable especially for its passage of a new code of laws. The civil 
code was based upon the Texas statutes and the criminal code on that of Cali- 
fornia. Boston's pension was raised. Supervisors were given authority to 
appoint county commissioners of immigration. As the official anthem of the 
Territory of Arizona was adopted a song written by Mrs. Frank Cox and Mrs. 
Elise R. Averill, entitled, "Hail to Arizona! The Sun-Kissed Land." The 
trustees of the various school districts of the territory were required to fur- 
nish copies of the song to the schools. A bond issue of $20,000 was authorized, 
its proceeds to be devoted to an exhibit at the St. Louis Exposition, 1904. A 
committee of six members of the Legislature was appointed to join in a recep- 
tion to President McKinley. The usual memorial was passed in favor of 
statehood. An additional $3,000 was given to the Pioneer Historical Society 
to replace the sum appropriated and then absorbed by Fred G. Hughes. There 
was prohibition of the shooting of antelope within Arizona for ten years. 

In its closing days, the Legislature adopted a new constitution, proposed 
for the prospective State of Arizona and prepared by a committee headed by 
President Ives of the Council. It was read only by title. Its basis was the 
constitution prepared in Phoenix in 1891. Practically additional salary was 
given the governor in a grant of $1,500 per annum, to be expended without 
return of vouchers. This grant later was refused by Governor Brodie. 

A committee consisting of Assemblymen Kimball, Geer and Barker was 
appointed to select an official flower for Arizona from among the flora of the 
territory. On March 18 a report by this committee was accepted designating the 
pure white, waxy flower of the Cereus Giganteus or saguara, by the legislators 
considered the distinctive plant of Arizona. In the State Legislature of 1915 
an attempt was made to alter this designation in favor of the Indian paint- 
brush, but the resolution, though at first favored, finally was dropped on a 
showing from Professor Thornber of the State University that the flower sug- 
gested was in nowise typical of the flora of the state and that the species espe- 
cially suggested was not even known within the confines of Arizona. 


Col. 0. A. Brodie became Governor of Arizona July 1, 1902. Governor 
Murphy's term did not expire until December, but in the spring he had ex- 
pressed a desire to resign, in order that he might attend to his mining business. 
Governor Brodie 's appointees very generally were new in officialdom. They 


included: Attorney-general, E. F. Wells, Prescott; auditor, W. F. Nichols, 
Willeox ; treasurer, I. 31. Christy, Phoenix ; superintendent of public instruction, 
N. G. Layton, Flagstaff ; superintendent of the territorial prison, W. M. Griffith, 
Tucson; adjutant general, Maj. B. W. Leavell, U. S. A., Prescott; captain of 
rangers, T. H. Rynning, Douglas. 

The Twenty-second Legislature met January 19, 1903, with only a small 
minority of republicans in either House. In the Coimcil, of which Eugene S. 
Ives of Yuma County was president, the republicans were led by former Gov- 
ernor J. H. Kibbey. T. T. Powers of Maricopa County was speaker of the 

The most important work of the session, started early and finished late, 
centered around the Cowan bill, designated to take from the territorial secretary 
the incorporation filing fees, said to have been as high as $40,000 a year. The 
bill transferred the incorporation business to the territorial auditor's office, 
turning the fees into the territorial treasury. Though the measure was one of 
justice and of profit to the territory and was warmly supported by the governor 
and a majority of the legislators, it had violent opposition. Councilman Ashurst 
submitted a substitute bill providing for the laying of a franchise tax on all 
corporations and leaving the secretai-y's fees where they were. 

Woman suffrage passed both houses, but was slaughtered in the eleventh 
hour by Governor Brodie. His veto was not upon the basis of the merits of the 
measure, but upon the ground that the subject was one outside Ihe power of 
the Legislature and beyond the limitations of the organic act, which limited 
the franchise to male citizens. The governor pocketed an act which sought to 
repeal one of two years before that provided that tax assessments must be paid 
before appeals were taken to the courts. This repeal especially was fought in the 
interest of the United Verde, which had been raised to an assessment valuation 
of $1,200,000 by Yavapai County supervisors. 

In this Legislature something of a beginning was made on "labor" legisla- 
tion, of which so much latterly has been known in Arizona. Directed particu- 
larly against the companies employing Mexican and contract labor, an act was 
passed prohibiting more than eight hours of labor on underground work in 
mines. Other acts of importance were : Directing that the American flag be 
raised over all schoolhouses ; establishing a tei-ritorial board of health; limiting 
medical practice and shutting out Christian Science px-actitioners ; reorganizing 
the rangers; giving tax exemption for ten years to new railroads; forbidding 
the working of trainmen for more than sixteen hours ; prohibiting the establish- 
ment of saloons within six miles of any public works; exempting storage dams 
and beet sugar factories from taxation for specific periods of time ; calling 
special elections on municipal franchises; prohibiting the use of tokens in the 
payment of wages. 

The transfer of the incorporation fees was interesting in a number of ways. 
The fees had been secured from a previous Legislature by Secretar}- C. H. Akers. 
He had hardly settled into the enjoyment of the income when he was succeeded 
by his bitterest political enemy, Isaac T. Stoddard. Stoddard, a member of the 
"stalwart" wing of the republican party, was persona non grata to the Brodie 
administration, under Roosevelt. Stoddard's position further was weakened by 
his attempts to hold the large fees of his office and to defeat the Cowan bill. So, 




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on April 1, 1904, he was succeeded by W. F. Nichols, who had been territorial 
auditor. Treasurer I. M. Christy was transferred to be auditor and E. E. Kirk- 
land, an Arizona pioneer, was made treasurer. 

In June, 1903, Secretary Stoddard, acting as governor in the absence of 
Colonel Brodie, took quick action in putting down riots that occurred at Morenei 
in connection with a great strike that had followed the enforcement of the Legis- 
lature's eight-hour law. The national guard, as elsewhere told, was ordered into 
the camp and within a day had restored order. It was later reinforced by a 
strong body of regular ti-oops from Forts Huaehuca and Grant.. The leaders 
of the rioters were punished at the October term of the District Court in Graham 
County, being sentenced to imprisonment in the eountj^ jail and in the peniten- 
tiary. The leader, Lostenneau, died in the penitentiary. 

On December 1, 1903, was opened the Arizona Industrial School at Benson, 
under the superintendeucy of Frank O'Brien, who had been probate judge of 
Cochise County. He has had many successors. For a number of years there was 
relative peace in the institution, when it was managed by James Mahoney of 
Winslow. About the time of statehood it was found that the building had been 
so poorly constructed that it was dangerous for occupancy, and that the site 
offered no facilities for farming or other industries for the inmates. The school 
therefore was moved to Fort Grant, north of Willcox. Several superintendents 
have been dismissed on charges of incompetency or brutality, and not until 
a very late date has the institution ceased to occupy large attention in the public 

The first democratic territorial convention of 1904 declared for William 
Randolph Hearst for the presidency, the only dissonant note in the convention 
being the departure of a contesting Gila County delegation, which refused to 
divide the vote of that county. 

In the earlier republican convention of 1904, the delegates chosen for the 
national convention at Chicago were instructed to support the name of Theodore 
Roosevelt for the presidential nomination. The delegates chosen were headed 
by Governor Brodie and Judge J. H. Kibbey. There had been an attempt to 
send an uninstraeted delegation, but this proved unsuccessful early in the cam- 

The nominations of the leading parties in 1904 for congressman were Marcus 
A. Smith, democrat, and Benjamin A. Fowler of Phoeni.x, republican. Mi'. Fow- 
ler, while standing against joint statehood, in accordance with the expressions 
of both conventions, relied also upon his record as one of the leaders in the 
national irrigation movement, which he especially had served as president of the 
Salt River Valley Water Users' Association. But Smith, as usual, was elected, 
by a vote of 10,394 to 9,522. 

In February, 1905, Eugene A. Tucker was appointed judge of the First 
District, to succeed Judge Geo. R. Davis. This appointment was an unhappy 
one, which Tucker soon was pleased to resign. A photograph is said to have 
been sent to the department of justice showing the judge during court session, 
with his feet on the bench, and smoking a cigar. There were charges also that 
he had been offered a private residence by citizens of Globe in order to 
influence a change of the United States Court session from Solomonville to that 
point. Judge Tucker was relieved from office in October, 1905. In his place 


first was named Paul Jesson of Nebraska, but the position eventually went to 
Frederick Nave, former United States attorney. 

Governor Brodie resigned, effective February 14, 1905, to accept appointment 
as assistant chief of the records and pension bureau of the war department at 
Washington, with the rank of major. His parting was sped most happily. The 
Legislature passed resolutions of esteem, voted him a gift of a handsome saber 
and ordered a portrait to hang in the executive chambers. 

At the time of his appointment. Colonel Brodie had been a resident of Arizona 
practically ever since 1870, when, after graduation from West Point, he joined 
the First United States Cavalry as a second lieutenant and at once was thrown 
into the thick of military operations against the Apaches. He was promoted to 
first lieutenant in May, 1875, and in that rank served as regimental adjutant. 
With his regiment he also fought the Nez Perces in Idaho. At the outbreak of 
the Spanish war he was the leader in the organization of several troops 
of the First Volunteer Cavalry (Rough Riders) and as a major commanded the 
first squadron of that regiment, rendering distinguished service in organization 
and action, until wounded at Las Guasimas, June 24, 1898. Soon thereafter he 
succeeded to the place of lieutenant-colonel of the regiment on the promotion of 
Colonel Roosevelt. 

In the regular army he was successively promoted to be lieutenant-colonel and 
colonel, serving at Washington, San Francisco and other points within the United 
States and in the Philippines. He was retired as colonel in November, 1913, 
having reached the age of 64 and now is resident in Haddonfield, New Jersey. 


Judge Joseph H. Kibbey of Phcenix succeeded to the ofSee of Governor of 
Arizona, sworn March 7, 1905, in the middle of the session of the Twenty-third 
Legislature. He came to Arizona from his native State of Indiana in 1887 
and soon thereafter was appointed a member of the Supreme Court of Arizona, 
wherein he laid the foundation of the irrigation law now generally accepted 
throughout the western states. In private practice he attained high reputation 
as an expert on irrigation law and his plans for the formation of irrigation dis- 
trict associations were adopted by the interior department for all water storage 
enterprises under construction. He served as attorney for the Water Users' 
Association of both the Colorado and Salt River valleys. The governorship was 
offered him without solicitation on his part, after a clash of two factions in 
Washington. Though independent in personal action within his party at the 
time of his appointment, he was chairman of the republican territorial committee 
and had been a delegate to the last National Republican Convention from Arizona. 
He had served under Governor Brodie as attorney-general. 

In his message to the Twenty-third Legislature, Governor Brodie laid especial 
stress upon the necessity of a proper mining tax law. Mines, he found, paid into 
the county and territorial treasuries only $178,000 on an assessment of $4,442,- 
995, while the product of the mines for the year before had been valued at 
$38,700,000. The long struggle to raise the assessments of the mines had a break 
in its monotony in August, 1905, when Governor Kibbey peremptorily requested 
the resignation of A. F. Donau from the territorial board of equalization, which 
by an even vote had failed to raise the assessment on the producing mines of 


Arizona from $4,000,000 to $14,000,000. The same motion came up the following 
day and was passed. It was shown at that time that 120 mining claims in 
Bisbee, comprising some of the greatest producing property in the Southwest, 
had been assessed at only $56,000, that the gross tax valuation of the United 
Verde was only $800,000, and that the Arizona Copper Company paid more 
income tax in Scotland that it did realty tax in Arizona. The board of equaliza- 
tion finished its session with a raise of about $13,000,000 on property generally 
to a gross figure of $57,920,372. 

The Twenty-third Legislature of Arizona began its session at Phoenix January 
16, 1905. It was most prodigal in the granting to itself of an expense account, 
moving a councilman from Maricopa County to the introduction of an amend- 
ment providing that three messengers be appointed to blindfold the Goddess 
of Liberty on the capitol building, two messengers to convey funds from the 
territorial treasury and seventeen clerks from each house to sit in the gallery to 
serve as audience. The payroll at first provided totaled about $350 a day. 

Sixty-nine bills passed the Legislature. Few laws of importance were 
enacted, that of chief interest being the creation of the office of public examiner. 
Large appropriations were given to various territorial institutions. One of its 
earliest acts, designed to correct a remarkable condition that had been known in 
one or two counties, directed that no person should be paid the salary of district 
attorney or be qualified for the office unless he was learned in the law and had 
been admitted to practice. It was made unlawful to furnish tobacco to any one 
under sixteen years of age. An appropriation of $10,000 was made toward the 
cost of a Rough Rider monument at Prescott, an act that had failed in the 
previous Legislature. Establishment was made of the Arizona Territorial Fair. 

The memorials asked for an increase in the number of district judges, pro- 
tested against the annexation to Utah of the Grand Caiion region, sought an 
increase in the salary of governor to at least $6,000 per annum, and asked 
appropriations for the repair of the mission church of San Xavier del Bac and 
a flat sum of $150,000 for the completion of the territorial capitol. 

There was immediate response from Arizona to the ciy of distress that came 
out of San Francisco in April, 1906, at the time of the earthquake and fire, about 
$100,000 being contributed to the relief fund. Acting Governor Nichols, on 
his own responsibility, immediately contributed $5,000, feeling that he would be 
backed by the following Legislature. Maricopa County subscribed $3,000 and 
other counties were not far behind. From Phoenix were sent five carloads of 
cattle on the hoof and several carloads of refrigerated beef and dairy supplies. 
The items of butter and cheese alone donated had an aggregate value of several 
thousand dollars. Single lodges of several secret orders sent as much as $1,000 
each. Later, along the railroad lines provision was made for the feeding of 
refugees bound eastward. 

In the campaign of 1906, Mark Smith again was a candidate for Congress. 
He was successful over his republican opponent, W. F. Cooper of Tucson, by 
2,192 plurality. This election was complicated with the joint statehood fight. 
Those in favor of jointure had a candidate, C. F. Ainsworth of Phcenix, who, 
however, polled only 508 of the 3,141 votes cast in favor of the proposition. 
The vote against joint statehood totaled 13,124. 


The Twenty-fourth Legislature of Arizona met January 21, 1907. In the 
Council were eight republicans and four democrats. The majority elected to the 
presidency A. J. Doran of Yavapai. The House of Representatives had sixteen 
democrats and eight republicans. The speakership went to Neill Bailey of 
Cochise County. This Legislature was notable for a number of economies, more 
or less enforced. Theretofore transportation almost anywhere could be had by 
any legislator or his friends. A national law had cut off this incidental endow- 
ment, however, and hence much more of the session was devoted to real legisla- 
tive business than ever before had been known, and junketing ti'ips were fewer. 
Governor Kibbey also had given public notification that the common graft of 
rewarding political service by legislative appointment to clerkships must be 

The Legislature unanimously passed a resolution of sympathy with the City 
of San Francisco in connection with the schooling of oriental children, an inter- 
national question on which California and the President then were clashing. The 
republican majority of the Coi;ncil, after thinking the matter over, reconsidered 
its action and killed the resolution. There was a strong change in sentiment from 
the previous Legislature, for a bill absolutely prohibiting gambling passed by 
a vote of every member of the Council and all but two members of the House 
and immediately was signed by the goveimor, to take effect April 1. Another 
moral reform bill prohibited the presence of women or minors in any drinking 


The greatest struggle of the session Avas over mine taxation, which Governor 
Kibbey declared was far too low. He urged the taxation of mines on much the 
same basis as other property and declared against a proposal to re-enact the old 
bullion tax bill, which would refer only to the net mining product, a basis that 
would fluctuate according to the price of copper and according to the desires of 
any copper trust that happened to be manipulating the market. The mining 
interests were strong enough to block any such plans as outlined by the governor 
and, largely as a bluff, in the latter days of the session was passed a bullion tax 
bill which, for taxation purposes, fixed the value of a mine at 25 per cent of 
the value of its gross product of bullion. This was passed down to the governor 
in the fullest confidence that he would veto it. There was consternation in the 
mining ranks a day or two later, for the governor, instead of filing the measure 
away as was in his power, made it a law and advised the Legislature that while 
the bill was not one that merited his approval, it still provided a plan whereby a 
larger income could be secured the territory from the mines than had been known 
before. The governor stated that two years before the mines with all their 
improvements had been valued at only $2,500,000. This had been i-aised to 
.$14,000,000 and under the new law it could be figured that the amount would 
approximate $20,000,000. 

Indeterminate sentences were authorized for the punishment of persons con- 
victed of crimes. There was the creation of a sheep sanitary commission. 
Authorization was made for the removal of the ten-itorial prison from Yuma to 
Florence, an act that had only slight opposition from Yuma, which had rather 
fired of the prison and its consequent notoriety. 


111 the memorials the legislators sought aii increase of compensation for 
themselves, with the statement that $4 a day hardly paid their hotel bills. 
Appropriation was asked to control the flood waters of the Gila River in Graham 
County, and of $1,000,000 for the building of a storage reseiToir at San Carlos. 
There was a protest against the granting of permission to any railroad to build 
through this San Carlos damsite and over an order of the secretary of the interior 
directing the removal of drift fences on the international boundary'. Congress 
again was petitioned to help finish the capitol. 

For years the Santa Fe was fought by Ralph Cameron, and in the main 
successfully. The corporation, owning a railroad to the caiion and a hotel on 
its brink, found that the depths of the gorge were controlled by a single man, 
to whom payment had to be made of a dollar for each individual who rode 
down the Bright Angel trail. For years the battle was waged, Cameron rep- 
resented throughout by E. j\[. Doe of Flagstaff. When Cameron's legal hold 
on the trail ran out, he had the county supervisors lease the trail to him. Wlien 
no lease could be made, a bill was introduced in the Twenty-fourth Legislature 
to extend the county's leasing privileges. The bill passed, though fought by 
the railroad interests. Then Governor Kibbey received a telegram from the 
secretary of the interior, suggesting that the bill had provisions at variance 
with the policy of the forestry service and suggesting that he veto it. Kibbey, 
rather resentful over the intrusion of the appointing power in Washington, 
promptly returned the bill to the Legislature without approval and with a copy 
of the telegram annexed. Then the Legislature demonstrated the independence 
of the territory by repassing the bill unanimously, and Cameron still held 
the pass. 

W. F. Nichols was succeeded as territorial secretaiy April 7, 1908, by John 
H. Page, who had been territorial auditor and who in turn was succeeded as 
auditor by Sims Ely, who had been private secretary to the governor. 

In 1908, though the nomination of Taft seemed assured, the fight for seats 
in the republican national convention never was fiercer in Arizona. Gov- 
ernor Kibbey led one faction which advocated instructions to the delegation. 
The other faction of the party fought this suggestion bitterly and succeeded 
at the territorial convention held in Tucson, April 18, in splitting the party 
wide open and in forcing a bolt by the Kibbey supporters. Judge R. E. Sloan 
was named a delegate by both conventions, his companion from the Kibbey wing 
being Hoval E. Smith of Bisbee and from the other convention L. W. Powell 
of Bisbee. 

It is probable that a desire for statehood and consideration for the strength 
of the republican majority in Congress had much to do with the fall election 
in 1908, when, the usual democratic majority overtm-ned, Ralph H. Cameron 
was elected delegate to Congi-ess by a plurality of 708 votes over Marcus A. 
Smith, out of 27,676 cast. Cameron, however, had made a wonderful campaign, 
personally visiting almost every settlement within the territory. 

Governor Kibbey was nominated again in December, 1908. He had made 
many strong enemies, particularly for his siiccessful work in raising taxation 
on the mines of the territory. They were assisted by a republican faction that 
had headquarters in Phoenix, that had fought Kibbey throughout his term. 
As a result confirmation was delayed from time to time till Congress finally 


adjourned without action on the nomination and President Roosevelt had left 
the White House. 


The Twenty-fifth Legislative Assembly of Arizona, the last under the ter- 
ritorial form of government, convened in Phoenix January 18, 1909, the demo- 
crats in control by a large majority despite the choice in the same election of 
a republican for Congress. The republicans only had two members of the 
Council and seven members of the House. George W. P. Hunt of Globe again 
was honored by selection to the office of President of the Council and Sam F. 
Webb of Maricopa County was made the Speaker of the House. Possibly no 
Legislature was more bitterly partisan than was this. A fight was started at 
once upon the territorial administration, which was handicapped by legisla- 
tion in every way possible. The most important of the acts of this sort abolished 
the Arizona Rangers and also the office of territorial examiner. It was charged 
that the Rangers too largely had reflected the ideas of the governor and that 
Territorial Examiner W. C. Foster, later auditor, an accountant of unusual 
ability, had been too active in the past political campaign. Governor Kibbey 
vetoed both bills, but the acts passed notwithstanding. Another act passed 
over the veto of the governor was one that provided that no person should 
register as a voter who could not read any section of the Constitution or who 
could not write his own name. This was directed particularly against the 
Mexican population, which it was claimed generally had voted the republican 

The governor, during the period of the session had almost as much trouble 
with his own party as with the democrats. Resenting the antagonistic political 
activity of J. C. Adams of Phoenix, "Father of the Arizona Fair" and presi- 
dent of the Fair Association since its inauguration four years before, the gov- 
ernor called for his resignation and for that of B. A. Packard of Douglas, 
Adams appealed to the democratic Legislature, which joyously took up the 
fight. The investigation was taken out of the hands of the governor and brought 
into what President Hunt called "the most ridiculous proceeding that ever 
disgraced an Arizona Legislature." At the end of the hearing only twenty- 
three of the thirty-six members voted and the commissioners were declared 
cleared by a vote of 12 to 11. The governor proceeded with his own investiga- 
tion, ignoring that of the Legislature, and as a result Adams, a few days later, 
resigned. He secured reappointment under Governor Sloan. 

Outside of the line of pure politics the Legislature appointed February 12 
as a holiday in honor of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Abraham 
Lincoln; finally established a Pioneers' Home at Prescott, for which there had 
been some years of agitation; created the new County of Greenlee oiit of the 
eastern part of Graham County, the name chosen in honor of Mace Greenlee, 
one of the first prospectors north of the Gila River; removed party emblems 
from election ballots; established the office of territorial historian, and created 
a railroad commission. 

The Legislature of 1909 gave Arizona her first direct primary law, to be 
used in the election the following year. At first there was general complaint 

SixU-entli (iuvenior 

Fittei-ntli Govi-nioi- 



that it simply compelled the candidate to make two campaigns at double cost 
of one and that altogether too many candidates went into the running. 

The spring of that year was one of the wettest ever known. Railroad con- 
nection with Maricopa was interrupted about a score of times by breaks in 
the GUa and Salt River bridges. For a while the capitol itself was surrounded 
by a flood that came from Cave Creek. All the streams of the territory were 
at flood and immense damage was done transportation lines and irrigation 

Governor Kibbey's troubles did not end with the Legislature. President 
Taft was besieged by adverse influences, corporate or partisan, concerning the 
Arizona governorship. Kibbey was not very keen on reappointment, for he 
wanted to resume the practice of law as soon as possible, but at the same time 
would have liked the honor of having been the last territorial governor. It 
is probable that he used little or no influence in his own behalf. 

As a result he was retired, though with all honors and with the appoint- 
ment as his successor of Judge R. E. Sloan, probably the man he himself would 
have designated had the choice of a successor been left to him. The appoint- 
ment of Judge Sloan was done amicably enough, but there was positive bratality 
in the manner in which the secretary of the interior, April 4, telegraphed Ter- 
ritorial Secretary John H. Page requesting his resignation "in the interest of 
party harmony." Page, a Roosevelt appointee, had been only a year in olBce 
and in nowise was he offensively connected with any territorial faction. In 
his place was appointed Geo. U. Young. 

It is probable that no governor ever left office in Arizona with greater popu- 
larity among his subordinates than did Kibbey. This popularity had sub- 
stantial expression in the presentation of a chest of silver from the penitentiary 
employes, a cut-glass water service from the asylum force, a loving cup from the 
late Rangers, a punch bowl from the normal school and a watch from his offi- 
cial associates at the capitol. Governor Kibbey is said to have refused the 
proffer by President Taft of a position as justice on the bench of the Arizona 
Supreme Court. 


Richard E. Sloan was inaugurated as governor of Arizona in the executive 
chambers of the capitol May 1, 1909, introduced by retiring Governor Kibbey, 
who offered his best wishes for a successful administration. Governor Sloan 
replied in compliment to his predecessor and particularly spoke of the statehood 
that was imminent and the preparation for it that was necessary. John B. 
Wright of Tucson, to be attorney-general, was the new governor's first ap- 

To the place vacated by Governor Sloan on the bench of the Supreme Court 
appointment was made of E. jM. Doe of Flagstaff, who was endorsed especially 
by Congressman Cameron. Ernest W. Lewis of Phoenix was made associate 
justice to fill the place at Globe made vacant by the resignation of Frederick 
Nave, April 1. 

Territorial changes were made the easier by reason of the break about that 
time between Roosevelt and Taft and the pruning out of the Roosevelt appointees 
continued down the line till only a few postmasters remained of all of the old 


federal force within Arizona. In due course of time United States Attorney 
J. L. B. Alexander and United States Blarslial B. F. Daniels, both former Rough 
Riders, were dropped and in their places appointment was made, respectively, of 
Jos. E. Morrison of Bisbee and Chas. A. Overlock of Douglas. Daniels was made 
an Indian agent in Wisconsin, but soon found the new job distasteful, so quit. 

The appointments made by Governor Kibbey in March, 1909, included j\Iu1- 
ford Winsor as territorial historian. Winsor was a democrat, one of the officers 
of the Legislature. The historian idea was his o-^^ti. When he had secured the 
support of a majority of the Legislature, he went to the governor with the infor- 
mation that the bill would pass if the appointment Aveut to himself. Governor 
Kibbey favored the creation of the office and hence approved the bill, even though 
it forced an appointment vipon him. The agreement covering the appointment 
did not affect Governor Sloan, who, soon after he assumed executive duties, 
dropped Winsor and to the place appointed Miss Sharlot M. Hall. The lady for 
years had specialized on the subject of Arizona historj-. She had written much 
concerning the pioneer period of the territory and had published a volume of 
poetry wherein especially was celebrated the beauty and the romance she found 
within the Southwest. Miss Hall continued in office until the date of statehood. 
Thereafter the position has been filled by Thos. E. Farish, a pioneer of both 
California and Arizona, a democratic leader and a writer of long experience. 


Since and including 1886, the following appointments were made to the 
Territorial Supreme Court, annexed being the date either of appointment or of 

J. C. Shields (C. J.), January 4, 1886; W. W. Porter, January 4, 1886; 
W. H. Barnes, January 5, 1886; James H. Wright (C. J.), April 28, 1887; 
Jos. H. Kibbey, oath August 19, 1889; Richard E. Sloan, January 13, 1890; 
Henry C. Gooding (C. J.), oath ilay 7, 1890; Edward W. Wells, oath March 5, 
1891; A. C. Baker (C. J.), oath May 24, 1893; John J. Hawkins, October 2, 
1893; Owen T. Rouse, October 2, 1893; J. D. Bethune, January 14, 1895; H. C. 
Truesdale (C. J.), September 4, 1897 ; Geo. R. Davis, September 4, 1897 ; Fletcher 
M. Doan, September 4, 1897; Richard E. Sloan, September 4, 1897; Webster 
Street (C. J.), oath November 15, 1897; Edward Kent (C. J.). May 28, 1902; 
John H. Campbell, March 22, 1905; Eugene A. Tucker, oath April 1, 1905; 
Frederick A. Nave, oath November 17, 1905 ; Ernest W. Lewis, November 8, 
1909 ; Edward M. Doe, November 8, 1909. 



Enfranchisement Asked in Earliest Territorial Da\)S — A Constitutional Convention that 
Remonetized Silver — Congressional Inspection — The Joint Statehood Peril — The Con- 
stitution and Its Preparation — Taft's Veto of the Recall — Statehood Gained — Terri- 
torial Legislators. 

There was talk of statehood for Arizona awaj' back in 1872, Avhen Richard 
C. McCormick, late governor, was delegate, an office taken as a stepping stone 
to a senatorship. Succeeding delegates kept up the agitation, which started 
when Arizona was credited with a population of only about 12,000, with very 
few payers of taxes. 

In 1883, Delegate Grant Oury introduced a bill for the admission to state- 
hood of the Territory of Arizona. Several years later Delegate C. C. Bean had 
a liill to the same efi'ect that also died in the committee of territories and there- 
after Delegate Marcus A. Smith kept hammering away on the same line till 
statehood became rather an obsession on the part of Arizona orators and poli- 
ticians. Arizona's demand for enfranchisement resounded from the political 
rostrums at every recurring campaign and was found in every party platform. 
Delegations of loyal citizens paid their own way to Washington to argue with 
the committees of Congress and, in rare instances, even with Congress itself, 
for the statehood bills once in a while were reported out of the committee ou 
territories. One of the Smith bills, presenting a full constitution, passed the 
House of Representatives and went to the Senate in June, 1892, only to die in 
committee. The following year, in December, with the same favoring political 
conditions in the popular branch, Smith's annual statehood bill reached the 
Senate in December, to be pocketed once more. That same session Carey of 
Utah varied the monotony a bit by a Senate bill for the admission of Arizona, 
New Mexico, Oklahoma and Utah and something of this same sort bobbed up in 
the Senate the following year. Delegate Oakes Murphy in 1895, without suc- 
cess, offered his republican associates a statehood measure, and then, switching 
back to the democracy. Smith, again in office, in the 1897 Congress failed in 
an effort to pull a bill out of committee. His democratic successor, J. F. Wilson, 
had no better success on the same line in 1899. 

The Legislature of 1889 called a constitutional convention of forty-two mem- 
bers, who were to be elected in November, to meet in Phoenix on the first Tues- 
day of January, 1890. Tlie constitution framed was to be submitted to the 
electors in such manner as the convention might decide. But this movement 
seems to have gone little further. 




Arizona's first constitutional convention was a volunteer sort of affair, in 
September, 1891, the delegates being elected from all parts of the territory 
without regard to political affiliations. A really remarkable body of men as- 
sembled in Phoenix, practically every member distinguished for ability or char- 
acter (some for both), nearly all with prior legislative experience. They were: 
W. A. Rowe, H. N. Alexander, Geo. W. Cheyney, Marshall H. "Williams, Marcus 
A. Smith, Wm. H. Barnes, Frank Hereford, J. W. Anderson, Alonzo Bailey, 
Ben M. Crawford, Thomas Davis, Foster S. Dennis, Thomas Gates, W. A. Hartt, 
John Hunt, William Herring, T. C. Jordan, Art McDonald, Thos. G. Norris, 
A. M. Patterson, J. F. Wilson. Rowe was elected president and Allen C. Ber- 
nard of Tucson was secretary. 

The work was finished October 2, 1891, and was submitted to the people 
together with an address and argument in its behalf specially prepared by a 
committee of seven members. On the whole, the constitution prepared "read 
well," though later consideration developed many items that might have devel- 
oped serious legal consequences. For instance, while especially claiming natural 
streams and lakes as the property of the state and specifically denj'ing the 
doctrine of riparian rights, several paragraphs expressly countenanced an 
appropriation of water for "sale" or "rental," by corporations or ditch or 
reservoir owners, all in contrast with the present just practice of yoking the 
water with the land, inseparably. 

Just about that time there was much tribulation in the West over the de- 
monetization of silver and the single gold standard. Loyally, in keeping with 
the spirit of the many stump speeches of the members, there was inserted a 
provision that, "The gold and silver coin of the United States shall be equally 
a legal tender for all debts and obligations contracted in this state, any con- 
tract to the contrary notwithstanding." Owing to the state of the public mind 
at the time, this attempted support of contract repudiations and defiance of the 
monetary standard set by the nation passed almost without comment at home, 
but was not unnoticed when the document went to Congress as a part of a 
statehood biU. The constitution was accepted in Arizona by a vote of 5,440 
to 2,282. 

One of the early statehood conventions met in Phoenix November 27, 1893, 
with delegates present from all save Yavapai, Mohave and Coconino counties, 
which wanted delay till the succeeding January. Chas. W. Wright of Tucson 
was chairman of the organization and Chas. F. Hofi' of Tucson, secretary. The 
convention adopted resolutions and memorialized Congress on behalf of state- 
hood, incidentally giving large praise to Arizona and prophesying much con- 
cerning her future. A committee was appointed, headed by Governor Murphy, 
to proceed to Washington and lobby for statehood. 

A statehood boom was launched in Phoenix October 26, 1901, at a general 
territorial gathering, called by Governor Murphy, with 130 representative 
citizens present. A. J. Doran of Prescott was made chairman. The meeting 
was attended by Governor Miguel Otero of New Mexico and a notable address 
was made by Col. J. Francisco Chaves, whose first visit to Arizona had been in 
1855 and who, in 1863, participated in the organization of the territorial gov- 
ernment. There was selected a delegation to proceed to Washington to lobby 



for statehood, including W. J. Murphy of Phoenix, Wm. C. Greene of San 
Pedro, E. B. Gage of Congress, John Lawler of Prescott, John Btockman of 
Pearce and Dr. L. W. Mix of Nogales. 


The House of Representatives in 1902 passed and sent to the Senate a bill 
for the admission of Oklahoma, New Mexico and Arizona, but the measure 
still was under discussion when the Senate adjourned in March, 1903. The 
Senate opposition was led by Senator Beveridge. A visit was made to New 
Mexico and Arizona in 1902 by Senator Beveridge and colleagues of the Sen- 
atorial Sub-committee on Statehood. The party spent three days looking over 
the territory and at a number of points took some testimony. The chairman 
came prepared to see Arizona at its worst. He almost omitted consideration 
of the great mining and irrigation enterprises, but took good care not to miss 
the gambling and all aspects of urban depravity. He wanted to be informed 
particularly about the Indian and Mexican population and he saw the cactus 
rather than the alfalfa fields, and the barren hills rather than the mines that 
in them lay. He assumed that the territory was under the domination of the 
mining corporations. So the report of the committee on its return to Washing- 
ton was adverse, unless statehood were taken in combination with New Mexico. 

A second committee came in October, 1,903, headed by Wm. Randolph 
Hearst, composed mainly of democratic statesmen, who made the southwestern 
welkin ring with oratory and who found nothing displeasing at any point 
visited. In October, 1905, still a third party of investigation, mainly republi- 
can, went through the territory, led by Congressman Tawney, particularly 
eonsideringthe plan of joint statehood. It is told that most of the party started 
out with the idea that joint statehood might be a good thing, but that in the 
end every member practically was pledged against the proposed plan. It is to 
be deplored that some of them, including Tawney, did not keep to this deter- 
mination and that they let politics sway them in the final vote. 

When there was evolved the compromise measure under which Arizona and 
New Mexico were to be made into a state jointly, the news was telegraphed to 
the Arizona Legislature by Representative Smith, February 4, 1903. Immedi- 
ately was returned an answer declaring Arizona unalterably opposed to the 
joint-state plan. Notwithstanding this action a concurrent resolution passed 
the council February 27, reciting that Arizona under certain conditions would 
be willing to enter statehood jointly with New Mexico. This gave a glorious 
opportunity to the Assembly, which repudiated an assumption that it had joined 
in the resolution and which advised Congressman Smith that Arizona always 
would fight against any policy wherein she might lose her name, identity and 


There was a grand melee over statehood in the Congress of 1904, with separate 
statehood bills for each of the territories still remaining outside the pale. The 
House Committee on Territories, finally, in despair, dropped upon the Hoiise 
a bill to admit Oklahoma in combination with Indian Territory, and to join 
Arizona with New Mexico. This measure Chairman Hamilton managed to drive 


through within a few hours, almost without debate, despite the opposition of 
Arizona's congressman and that of a number of citizens then in "Washington, 
working for statehood. Delegate Rodey of New ]\Iexieo accepted the coiniDromisL' 
and later became an enthusiastic supporter of joint statehood. In the Senate, 
Senator Foraker, who then materialized as a strong friend of Arizona, with the 
help of Senator Bard, succeeded, though by the narrowest margin, in having the 
bill amended to permit each territory to have a voice on the joint proposition. 
This amendment the House refused and the bill went into the discard for the 

Januarj' 20, 1906, Chairman Hamilton reintroduced his bill of the previous 
session and succeeded in getting it through the House on the 25th, despite the 
agonized cries of the Arizonans, by a vote of 195 to 150. Much was made of the 
fact that President Roosevelt, probably through the influence of Senator Beve- 
ridge, had been quoted as advocating the joint measure. Then came a giant 
struggle in the Senate, where Beveridge still was standing pat on jointure. He 
had flooded the Southwest with pamphlets containing his speech of the previous 
session on "Arizona the Great," for "Arizona" was to be the name of the 
conjoined communities, possibly the most unpalatable section to the New Mex- 
icans, who were getting to like the proposition otherwise. Foraker, welcoming 
an opportunity to defy the national administration, led again in an attempt to 
.secure a vote from the communities interested and again succeeded. The bill 
went back to the House and was accepted as amended. Then the question was 
put squarely up to the voters of the two territories, though with a provision that 
the election in Arizona be held under the law of two years before, in order 
to permit the vote of the Mexicans, who had been disfranchised, to a large extent, 
by passage of an educational test bill. 

President Roosevelt, brought to view the matter from tlie Beveridge stand- 
point, in a message to Congress, thus stated his ideas : 

1 leconimend that Imlian Territory and Oklahoma be admitted as one state and that New 
Mexico and Arizona be admitted as one state. There is obligation ujion us to treat territorial 
subdivisions, which are matters of convenience only, as binding us on the question of admission 
to statehood. Nothing has taken up more time in Congress during the past few years than 
the question as to the statehood to be granted to the four territories above mentioned, and after 
careful consideration of all that has been developed in the discussions of the question I recom- 
mend that they be immediately admitted as two states. There is no justification for further 
delay; and the advisability of making four territories into two states has been clearly estab- 
lished. In some of the territories the legislative assemblies issue licenses for gambling. The 
Congress sliould by law forbid this practice, the harmful results of which are obvious at a 

Despite the attitude of the President. Governor Kibbej' and the federal 
officials of Arizona still stood firm in their opposition to jointure. Charges were 
filed against the governor in this connection, but were dismissed at a glance by 
the President, who sustained the independence of the Arizonans. The proposed 
joint state would have had a northern line 603 miles long and an area of 262,300 
square miles, second only to Texas. The census population of the two states in 
1900 was: Arizona. 122,931; New Mexico, 195,310. Arizona had gained 106 
per cent in ten years and New Mexico only 27 per cent. 



The resultant compaigu was a warm one indeed, considering how few in 
reality were the joint-statehood supporters in Arizona. There had been a terri- 
torial convention, at which had been formed an Anti-Joint Statehood League, 
there had been resolutions of opposition from the Legislature, county boards of 
supervisors, city councils, boards of trade, bar associations, women's clubs, the 
press association, the miners' association, religious conventions and from a score 
of public gatherings. Yet the supporters wired Washington their fears of elec- 
tion corruption. The election was the regular one in November, 1906. The votes 
cast totaled 24,097, of which 3,141 were in the affirmative and 16,265 in the 
negative. No less than 4,691 voters failed to vote on the statehood question. 
The joint-statehood candidate for Congress, C. P. Ainsworth, received only 508 
votes, compared with 11,101 for Smith (dem.) and 8,909 for Cooper (rep.). In 
New IMexico the vote stood: for joint statehood, 26,195; against, 14,735. Thus 
there was a gross majority in the negative of all votes cast in l)oth territories. 

The near escape from joint statehood had the effect of rather stilling the 
clamor for enfranchisement for a year or so thereafter. In the succeeding 
national conventions of both great parties there were declarations advocating 
statehood for the territories. 

President Taft visited Arizona in October, 1909, and then made public his 
sympathy with the aspirations of the Arizonans. But he warned against any 
such constitution as that of Oklahoma, which he described as "a zoological gar- 
den of cranks." Chairman Hamilton of the Committee on Territories 
introduced a new bill that gave separate statehood to Arizona and New Mexico. 
The bill, as finally agreed upon, passed the Senate June 16, 1910, and the House 
two days later. 

There were celebrations in every town of the two territories, in which old 
scores were buried. Even with pleasure was received a telegram from Senator 
Beveridge, who sent congratulations and best wishes. Congressman Cameron 
and Governor Sloan particularly were honored in the public demonstrations. 


That fall the only regular election in Arizona was in the new County of 
Greenlee, for all officials elsewhere held over till the date of statehood. On June 
27 an apportionment had been made and an election was called, under the old 
election law, for the naming of fifty-two delegates to a constitutional convention. 
This election, held September 12, showed very clearly the leaning of the voters 
of Arizona toward most advanced forms of popular government. It resulted 
not only in a general democratic sweep, but in a strong endorsement of the 
initiative, referendum and recall, against which the voters of the state had been 
warned by President Taft. The republicans nominated their strongest men, but 
were left in a hopeless minority, with only eleven votes in the convention. 

The delegates were: Cochise County, E. E. Ellinwood, Thomas Feeney, John 
Bolan, A. P. Parsons, R. B. Sims, P. P. Connelly, E. A. Tovrea, D. L. Cunning- 
ham, C. M. Roberts, S. B. Bradner ; Coconino, Edward M. Doe, C. 0. Hutchinson : 
Gila, Alfred Kinney, G. W. P. Hunt, Jolin Langdon; Graham, Lamar Cobb, 
W. T. Webb, Mit Simms, A. U. Tuthill, A. R. Lynch; Maricopa. J. P. Orme, 
A. C. Baker, R. B. Mouer, Orrin Standage, P. A. Jones, Sidney P. Osborn, 


Lysander Cassidy, J. E. Crutchfield, Alfred Franklin; jMohave, Henry Lovin; 
Navajo, William Morgan, James Seott; Pima, S. L. Kingan, W. F. Cooper, C. C. 
Jacome, George Puscli, J. C. White; Pinal, Thomas Wills, E. W. Coker; Santa 
Cruz, Bi'acey Curtis; Yuma, Mulford Winsor, Fred Ingraham, E. L. Short; 
Yavapai, H. R. Wood, Morris Goldwater, M. G. Cunniff, A. M. Jones, A. A. 
Moore, E. W. Wells. 

The convention began October 10, the expense of its session, and of the 
preceding election, met by an appropriation of $100,000 made by Congress. 
Geo. W. P. Hunt at Globe, was made president of the convention. The session 
lasted till December 10. It was notable particularly for the efforts made toward 
the insertion of radical labor legislation. While much considered beneficial 
to labor and incidentally restrictive of the encroachments of capital found 
insertion in the Constitution, most of the radical measures proposed eventually 
were rejected. Failure met strong efforts made to introduce woman suffrage 
and prohibition. Within the document, however, were placed, despite the 
efforts of the minority, many "progressive" features borrowed from Oklahoma, 
including the initiative, referendum and recall, the last embracing judges, a 
feature that had bitterest opposition, in view of the known position on the sub- 
ject by President Taft. Even the chaplain grew apprehensive and one morn- 
ing prayed, "and, Lord, we hope that President Taft will not turn down the 
Constitution for a little thing like the initiative and referendum; Lord, don't 
let him be so narrow and partisan as to refuse us self-government." But the 
recall went into the Constitution by a vote of 38 to 9. The completed document 
comprised about 25,000 words. On the last day of the session it was read in its 
entirety and adopted by a vote of 40 to 12. 

Delegate Langdon of Gila Countj^ was the only republican who voted for 
the Constitution or who signed the document. Delegate E. E. Elliuwood of 
Cochise County and Delegate A. M. Tuthill of Graham County were the only 
democrats who refused to sign. The republicans had evolved a scheme for sign- 
ing under their names "We disapprove," but this move was blocked by the 
democratic majority in ordering that nothing should be placed upon the docu- 
ment save the bare names of the members signing and the names of the counties 
represented. Delegate E. M. Doe of Coconino County, one of the Federal Dis- 
trict judges, protested, demanding his right to sign and at the same time to be 
set right with posterity, but Delegate Pai-sons protested against disfigiiring what 
he termed "the greatest and grandest document since the Declaration of liuk-- 
pendenee. " Delegates Orme and Franklin of Maricopa County, who had been 
opposed to all radical measures, signed with the majority. 


The Constitution repeatedly has been characterized as legislative to a 
remarkable degree. The preamble is brief, "We, the people of the State of 
Arizona, grateful to Almighty God for our liberty, do ordain this Constitu- 
tion." The ordinary features of similar documents generally are followed, 
with respect to the designation of the three co-ordinate branches of government, 
the l)oundaries of the state and the outlining of a general official scheme. The 
Declaration of Rights begins with an unusual expression: "A recurrence to 
riiiKhiincntal ]>riiiciplcs is essential to the security of individual rights and the 


perpetuity of free government." The National Constitution is acknowledged, 
as are the fundamentals of protecting life, liberty and property, free speech 
and free publication. No law granting irrevocably any privilege, franchise or 
immunity shall be enacted. No religious qualifications shall be required and no 
public moneys shall go to any denominational institution. It is significant that 
in the habeas corpus paragraph there was failure to enact the whole of the 
national provision permitting suspension at times of riot or rebellion. The 
military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power. The right of an 
individual to bear arms shall not be impaired, but nothing in this section shall 
be construed as authorizing individuals or corporations to organize, maintain 
or employ an armed body of men. 

It is provided that the people reserve the power to propose laws and amend- 
ments to the Constitution and to enact or reject such laws and amendments at 
the polls independently of the Legislature as well as the right to approve or 
reject any act of the Legislature. Under the initiative, 10 per cent of the electors 
may propose a measure and 15 per cent may propose an amendment to the Con- 
stitution. Only 5 per cent of the electors may call for the referendum of any 
measure enacted by the Legislature. The governor may not veto initiative or 
referendum measures approved by a majority of the electors. 

Every public officer (including judges) was made subject to recall upon 
the filing of a petition equaling 25 per cent of the number of votes cast at the 
hist preceding general election. Such petition shall not be circulated against 
any officer until he has been in office for six months, save that a member of the 
Legislature may be proceeded against within five days from the beginning of 
the first session after his election. The direct primary law is continued in 

In the legislative branch, apportionment is made among the fourteen coun- 
ties of a Senate of nineteen members and a House of Representatives of twenty- 
five members. Legislators must be 25 years old and have lived in the county 
of election at least three years. No person holding any Federal or state offiee 
shall be a member of the Legislature. Legislators shall receive $7 a day and 
20 cents mileage. No person holding public offiee may accept free transpor- 

The governor was given a salary of $4,000 per annum, secretary of state 
.$3,500, auditor $3,000, treasurer $3,000, attorney general $2,500, superintendent 
of public instruction $2,500. There was created a Supreme Court of three 
judges, each receiving $5,000, and County Superior Court judges at from 
$3,000 to $4,000. 

Perfect toleration of religious sentiment shall be secured to every inhabitant. 
Polygamous marriages are forever prohibited. Prohibition is made forever of 
the sale or giving of intoxicating liquors to Indians. All title to United States 
land or those of Indian tribes is disclaimed. Assumption is made of all the 
debts of the Territory of Arizona and of the several counties. Provision must 
be made for the maintenance of public schools, which shall be conducted in 
English. No law shall be passed abridging the right of suffrage on account of 
race, color or previous condition of servitude. All officers must read, write, 
.speak and understand the English language. 


Secrecy in voting shall be preserved. An elector must be a male citizen, 
aged 21 or more, with at least one year's residence in the state. Bond issues 
and special assessments shall be submitted to a vote of taxpayers, who shall also 
be qualified electors. The Legislature was directed to enact a law providing 
for general publicity of all campaign contributions and expenses. 

For the purpose of obtaining an advisory vote of the people, the Legislature 
shall provide for placing the names of candidates for United States senator on 
the official ballot at the general election next preceding the election of a United 
States senator. 

Exemption from taxation is given all Federal, state, county and municipal 
property, together with buildings used exclusively for religious worship, par- 
sonages, schools, convents, academies. Christian associations, colleges, universi- 
ties, libraries, orphanages, and the property of educational, charitable and 
religious associations not organized for profit. Widows are given exemption of 
$1,000 where the assessment does not exceed $2,000. No county, city or school 
district may become indebted more than 4 per cent of its taxable property. 

The provisions of the Enabling Act concerning school lands are accepted, 
and all lands are to be held in trust, to be disposed of for the benefit of the 
state under the terms prescribed. No land shall be sold for less than $3 an acre. 

A State Board of Education was created. Schools shall be maintained for 
at least six months each year. Provision was made for a permanent state school 
fund from the sale of public lands granted by the Nation. 

One of the longest sections of the Constitution is that which relates to cor- 
porations, for whose government a corporation commission has been provided. 
Records of all public service corporations and banks and of all corporations 
which may have stock for sale shall be subject to inquisition by the commission. 
Bank stockholders shall be held responsible for all debts of their corporation to 
the extent of the value of their stock therein, in addition to the amount uivested 
in such stock. All managers and officers of banks shall be held responsible for 
deposits received after knowledge of the fact that their institution is insolvent. 
Monopolies and trusts shall not be allowed. The corporation commission has 
power to prescribe classifications and rates and may prescribe forms of con- 
tracts and sj^stems of keeping accounts. Each corporation doing business in 
the state shall pay an annual registration fee. Public service corporations shall 
have the right to construct and operate lines connecting any points and to 
cross, intersect or connect with an3' lines of another similar corporation, and 
shall exchange cars or messages. 

The militia in organization, equipment and discipline shall conform to the 
regulations of the United States Army. 

The common law doctrine of riparian water rights shall not obtain. 

Eight hours and no more shall constitute a lawful day's work on behalf of 
the state or any political subdivision thereof. No child under the age of 1-t 
years shall be employed during school time and no child under 16 shall be 
emploj'ed in mines or in other hazardous occupation. It shall be unlawful to 
require of employees of a corporation any contract of release from liability on 
account of personal injury. The common law doctrine of fellow servant is for- 
ever abrogated. The Legislature was directed to enact an employer's liability 
law as well as a workman's compulsory compensation law. Blacklists are pro- 

»iai*>'". ' wi 

t.."]^^v'--, . 




hibited. Onlj' citizens may be employed on public works. The office of mine 
inspector was established. 

Establishment was made of the office of state examiner, going back to an 
office abolished for political reasons. All justices of the peace and constables 
in cities or towns shall be paid salaries. No minor under the age of 18 shall 
be confined with adult prisoners. 

The great seal of Arizona was given more of an agricultural aspect tlian 
possessed by the seal of the territory. The seal of the Supreme Court of the 
territory was continued for the state, but upon the seals of the Superior Courts 
shall be a vignette of Abraham Lincoln. ' 

"When the Constitution was submitted February 9, 1911, it was ratified by 
an overwhelming majority, 12,187 votes cast for ratification and 3,302 against, 
giving a total vote of 15,4:89 compared with 27,676 cast in 1908. Immediately 
thereafter the opponents of the radical ideas joined with the democracy in a 
prayer to Congress for approval. 


Standing firmly by his previous expressions. President Taft in August vetoed 
the Flood statehood resolution, principally because the Constitution contained 
the provision for judicial recall. A later resolution was approved by the Presi- 
dent, August 21, upon the condition that the electors of Arizona vote out the 
recall at the general fall elections in Arizona and New Mexico. Again was 
rejoicing in every community. Governor Sloan issued a proclamation calling 
for primaries October 2-4 and for a general election December 12, these dates 
leaving Arizona second to New Mexico in the time of completion of preliminary 
details. At the primaries was cast only a light vote. Marcus A. Smith, who 
had so long represented Arizona in Congress, and Heni-j' F. Ashurst of Preseott 
secured the democratic nominations for the senatorial places, to be opposed by 
Congressman Ralph H. Cameron of Flagstaif and H. A. Smith of Bisbee, 
republicans. Cai-1 Hayden, shei-iff of Maricopa County, won the democratic 
nomination for Congress and was opposed by John S. Williams of Tombstone, 
republican. Geo. W. P. Hunt of Globe, president of the constitutional conven- 
tion, won the democratic election for governor over T. F. Weedin of Florence. 
The republican nominee for governor was Judge Ed. W. Wells of Preseott, one 
of the earliest pioneers of Northern Arizona. Sidney P. Osborn, a native son, 
was nominated by the democrats for secretary of state, opposed by .J. F. Cleave- 
laiid of Phoenix, republican. 

The first state election proved a democratic landslide, not a single republican 
being elected to state office, the pluralities over the republican candidates run- 
ning from 500 to 3,500. 

The voters perforce yielded to President Taft's demand for the elimination 
from the Constitution of the provision allowing recall of judges, though, as 
afterwards developed, with a reserved determination to reinstate it. 

So, with a golden pen, furnished by Postmaster General Hitchcock, on St. 
Valentine's day, February 14, 1912, at the hour of 10 A. M., President Taft 
signed the proclamation admitting Arizona to the Union and telegraphed to 
Governor Sloan, "congratulating the people of this, our newest commonwealth, 
upon the realization of their long-cherished wishes." The proclamation hap- 


pened to be issued on the fiftieth anniversary of a similar document signed by 
Jefferson Davis, declaring Arizona a territory of the Confederate Union, and 
was just ten days short of forty-nine years since the date of an act of Congress 
establishing the Territory of Arizona. Statehood at last had been attained. 


Following is a carefully revised list of the members of all the Arizona Terri- 
torial Legislatures: 
First Legislature, Preseott, September 26 to November 10, 1864. 

Council: Mark Aldrieh, Tucson; Coles Bashford (president), Tucson; Henry A. Bigelow, 
Weaver; Patrick H. Dunne, Tucson; Eobert W. Groom, Groomdale; Geo. W. Leihy, La Paz; 
I>ancisco S. Leon, Tucson; Jose M. Eedondo, Arizona City; King S. Woolsey, Agua Fria 

House: Nathan B. Appel, Tubac; Thos. J. Bidwell, Castle Dome; John M. Boggs, Pres- 
eott; Luis G. Bouchet, La Paz; John G. Capron, Tucson; Jesus M. Elias, Tucson; James Garvin, 
Preseott; Jas. S. Giles, Preseott; Gregory P. Harte, Tucson; Norman S. Higgins, Cerro 
Colorado; Geo. M. Holaday, La Paz; Gilbert W. Hopkins, Maricopa Mine; Henry D. Jackson, 
Tucson; W. Claude Jones (speaker), Tucson; Jackson McCraeken, Lynx Creek; Daniel H. 
Stickney, Cababi; Edward D. Tuttle, Mohave City; William Walter, Mohave City. 

Second Legislature, Preseott, December 6, 1865. 

Council: Mohave, Wm. H. Hardy, Hardyville; Pima, Coles Bashford, Tucson; Patrick 
H. Dunne, Tucs-on; Francisco S. Leon, Tucson; Yavapai, Henry A. Bigelow (president). 
Weaver; Eobert W. Groom, Groomdale; King S. Woolsey, Agua Fria Ranch; Yuma, Manuel 
Ravena, La Paz. 

House: Mohave, Oetavius D. Gass, Callville; C. W. C. Eowell, Hardyville; Pima, Daniel 
H. Stickney, Cababi; Yavapai, Daniel Ellis, Turkey Creek; Jas. S. Giles (speaker), Preseott; 
Jackson MeCracken, Lynx Creek ; Jas. O. Robertson, Big Bug ; Yuma, Peter Doll, La Paz ; Wm. 
K. Heninger, La Paz ; Alexander McKey, La Paz. 

Third Legislature, Preseott, October 3, 1866. 

Council: Mohave, Wm. H. Hardy, Hardyville; Pah-Ute, Oetavius D. Gass (president), 
Callville; Pima, Mark Aldrieh, Tucson; Henry Jenkins, Tubac; Mortimer E. Piatt, Tucson; 
Yavapai, Daniel S. Lount, Preseott; John W. Simmons, Preseott; Levris A. Stevens; Yuma, 
Alexander MeKey, La Paz. 

House: Mohave, Alonzo E. Davis, Hardyville; Pah-Ute, Royal J. Cutler, Mill Point; 
Pima, Oscar Buekalew, Calabazas ; Solomon W. Chambers, Calabazas ; Jas. S. Douglas, Tucson ; 
Thos. D. Hutton, Huababi; Michael McKenna, Tucson; Wm. J. Osborn, Tubac; Granville 
H. Oury (speaker), Tucson; Henry MeC. Ward, Babaeomori; Yavapai, Underwood C. Barnett, 
Walnut Grove; Daniel Ellis, Postle's Ranch; Wm. S. Little, Preseott; John B. Slack, Turkey 
Creek; Hannibal Sypert, Preseott; Yuma, Marcus D. Dobbins, La Paz; Eobert F. Piatt, 
Planet Mine; Wm. H. Thomas, Arizona City. 

Fourth Legislature, Preseott, September 4, 1867. 

Council : Mohave, Wm. H. Hardy ; Pah-Ute, Oetavius D. Gass (president) ; Pima, Henry 
.Tenkins, Mortimer R. Piatt, Daniel H. Stickney; Yavapai, Daniel S. Lount, John W. Simmons, 
Lewis A. Stevens; Yuma, Alexander McKey. 

House: Mohave, Nathaniel S. Lewis; Pah-Ute, Royal J. Cutler; Pima, John B. Allen, 
Underwood C. Barnett, Solomon W. Chambers, PhUip Drachman, Francis M. Hodges, Chas. 
W. Lewis, Marvin M. Richardson; Yavapai, Edward J. Cook, Allen CuUumber, John T. Dare, 
Jas. S. Giles, John H. Matthews, John A. Rush; Yuma, B. W. Hanford, John Henion, Oliver 
Lindsey (speaker). 

Fifth Legislature, Tucson, December 10, 1868. 

Council: Mohave and Pah-Ute, Oetavius D. Gass (Mohave); Pima, Henry Jenkins, 
Alexander McKey, Estevan Ochoa, Daniel H. Stickney; Yavapai, John T. Alsap (president), 
John G. Campbell, F. M. Chajinian ; Yuma, Joseph K. Hooper. 


House: Mohave, U. C. Doolittle; Pah-Ute, Andrew S. Gibbons; Pima, John Anderson, 
Sol. W. Chambers, Robert M. Crandal, Jesus M. Elias, Francis H. Goodwin, John Owen, Hiram 
S. Stevens; Yavapai, Thos. W. Brooks, PoUett G. Christie, Wm. S. Little, E. Lumbley, John 
Smith, G. K. Wilson; Yuma, Thos. J. Bidwell (speaker), Oliver Lindsay, Jas. P. Lugenbul. 

Sixth Legislature, Tucson, January 11, 1871. 

Council: Pima, Francisco S. Leon, Estevan Ochoa, Hiram S. Stevens, Daniel H. Stickney 
(president); Yavapai, John T. Alsap, Harley H. Carter, Andrew J. Marmaduke; Yuma, John 
H. Phillips. President Stickney died during the session and was succeeded by Carter. 

House: Pima, J. W. Anderson, Juan Elias, W. L. Fowler, F. H. Goodwin, William Morgan, 
Bamon Romano, Rees Smith; Yavapai, J. H. Fitzgerald, Joseph Melvin, Jas. L. Mercer, Wm. 
J. O'Neill, John L. Taylor, G. A. Wilson; Yuma, Thos. J. Bidwell, C. H. Brinley, Marcus D. 
Dobbins (speaker). 

Seventh Legislature, Tucson, January 6, 1873. 

OouncU : Pima, Mark Aldrich, Juan Elias, Levi Ruggles, H. S. Stevens ; Yavapai, J. P. 
Hargrave (president), A. O. Noyes; Yavapai and Maricopa, King S. Woolsey, Maricopa; 
Yuma, Thos. J. Bidwell; Yuma and Mohave, W. J. Henning. 

House: Maricopa, Granville H. Oury (speaker); Pima, John B. Allen (also territorial 
treasurer), Wm. C. Davis, Lionel M. Jacobs, F. M. Larkin, John Montgomery, John Smith, 
John W. Sweeney, J. S. Vosberg; Yavapai, John H. Behan, WUliam Cole, Fred Henry, Thomas 
Stonehouse, Henry Wiekenburg; Yuma, C. H. Brinley, J. M. Redondo, C. W. C. Rowell; Yuma 
and Mohave, George Gleason. 

Eighth Legislature, Tucson, January 4, 1S75. 

Council: Maricopa, King S. Woolsey (president); Mohave, Ed. E. Davis; Pima, Peter 
E.Brady, Sidney R. DeLong, William Zeckendorf; Yavapai, John G. Campbell (later delegate 
to Congress), J. P. Hargrave, L. S. Stevens; Yuma, J. M. Redondo. 

House: Maricopa, John P. Alsap (speaker), Granville H. Oury (later delegate to Con- 
gress) ; Mohave, S. W. Wood; Pima, S. H. Drachman, J. M. Elias, F. M. Griffin, John Mont- 
gomery, Alphonso Rickman, Geo. H. Stevens; Yavapai, Levi Bashford, Gideon Brooke, C. P. 
Head, A. L. Moeller, W. J. O'Neill, Hugo Richards; Yuma, H. Goldberg, E. B. Kelley, 
Samuel Purdy. 

Ninth Legislature, Tucson, January 1, 1877. 

Council: Maricopa, King S. Woolsey (president) ; Pima, F. H. Goodman, FVed 6. Hughes; 
Pinal, Levi Euggles; Yavapai, Geo. D. Kendall, Andrew L. Moeller, John A. Rush, Lewis A. 
Stevens; Yuma, J. M. Redondo. 

House: Maricopa, M. H. Calderwood (speaker), J. A. Parker; Mohave, Jas. P. Bull; 
Pima, D. A. Bennett, Estevan Ochoa, William Ohnesorgen, Mariano G. Samaniego, Geo. H. 
Stevens; Pinal, George Scott; Yavapai, C. B. Foster, G. Hathaway, Wm. S. Head, W. W. 
Hutchinson, John H. Marion, S. C. Miller, Ed. G. Peck, Hugo Richards; Yuma, J. W. 

Tenth Legislature, Prescott, January 6, 1879. 

Council: Maricopa, E. H. Gray; Pima, F. G. Hughes (president), J. M. Kirkpatrick; 
Pinal, P. Thomas; Yavapai, C. C. Bean, W. S. Head, W. A. Rowe, E. W. Wells; Yuma, F. D. 

House : Maricopa, John T. Alsap, J. D. E'umberg ; Mohave, John H. Behan ; Pima, 
A. E. Fay, C. P. Leitch, James Speedy, M. W. Stewart (speaker), Walter L. "Vail; Pinal, 
W. K. Meade; Yavapai, W. M. Buffum, John Davis, Thomas Fitch, Patrick Hamilton, P. 
McAteer, E. R. Nichols, J. A. Park, James Stinson; Yuma, Samuel Purdy. 

Eleventh Legislature, Prescott, January 3, 1881. 

Council : Apache, S. Barth ; Maricopa, A. C. Baker, R. S. Thomas ; Mohave, A. Cornwall ; 
Pima, B. A. Fickas, B. H. Hereford, W. K. Meade, H. G. Rollins, Geo. H. Stevens; Pinal, 
J. W. Anderson; Yavapai, M. Masterson (president) ; Yuma, J. W. Dorrington. 


House: Apache, J. Barton, G. E. York; Maricopa, P. J. Bolan, J. E. McCormack, N. 
Sharp; Mohave, D. Southworth; Pima, Thomas Dunbar, E. B. Gifford, John Haynes, M. K. 
Lurty, John McCafl'erty, J. K. Eodgers. John Eoman, M. G. Samaniego, E. H. Smith, M. S. 
Snyder, H. M. Woods; Pinal, A. J. Doran, D. Eobb; Yavapai, Geo. E. Brown, E. B. Steadman, 
L. Wollenberg; Yuma, J. F. Knapp (speaker), G. W. Xorton. 

Twelfth Legislature, Preseott, January 8, 1883. 

Council: Apache, H. E. Lacy; Cochise, E. H. Wiley (president); Cochise and Graham, 
P. J. Bolan; Maricopa, A. D. Lemon; Mohave and Yuma, L. S. Welton; Pima, F. G. Hughes, 
J. F. Knapp ; Pinal and Pima, J. W. Davis ; Yavapai, F. K. Ainsworth, M. Goldwater, Murat 
Masterson, E. W. WeUs. 

House: Apache, C. A. Franklin; Cochise, J. F. Dimcan, W. H. Savage, D. K. Wardwell; 
Gila, William Graves; Maricopa, J. P. Holcomb, S. F. Webb; Mohave and Yuma, L. J. Lassell 
(Mohave), J. W. Dorrington (Yuma) ; Pima, E. C. Brown, J. H. Fawcett, E. B. Gifford, Moye 
Wicks; Pinal and Pima, J. W. Anderson (Pinal) ; Yavapai, A. AUen, B. Connell, John Ellis, 

E. H. Gobin, E. McCallum, C. A. Eandall, W. A. Eowe (speaker), Charles Taylor. 

Thirteenth Legislature, Preseott, January, ISSo. 

Council : Apache, E. S. Stover ; Cochise, W. A. Harwood ; Gila, Alonzo Bailey ; Graham, 
W. G. Bridewell; Maricopa, E. B. Todd; Mohave, John Howell; Pima, E. X. Leatherwood; 
Pinal, Thomas Weedin ; Yavapai, W. G. Stewart ; Yuma, J. W. Dorrington ; Northern District, 

F. K. Ainsworth (president) ; Southern District, C. C. Stephens. 

House: Apache, J. D. Houck, Luther Martin; Cochise, W. F. Frame, T. T. Hunter, W. F. 
Nichols, Hugh Percy, D. K. Wardwell; Gila, W. C. Watkins; Graham, James Sias; Maricopa, 
J. S. Armstrong, DeForest Porter; Mohave, William Imus; Pima, E. W. Aram, G. W. Brown, 
S. M. Franklin, E. W. Eisley, H. G. Eollins (speaker); Pinal, Levi Buggies; Yavapai, D. J. 
Brannen, J. A. Brown, E. Connell, L. P. Nash, W. H. Bobbins; Yuma, Sam Purdy. 

Fourteenth Legislature, Preseott, January, 1887. 

Council: Apache, J. H. Breed; Cochise, L. W. Blinn; Gila, P. C. Eobertsoii; Graham, 
Geo. H. Stevens; Maricopa, L. H. Goodrich; Mohave, E. L. Burdick; Pima, Chas. E. Drake; 
Pinal, J. W. Anderson; Yavapai, C. B. Foster; Yuma, Isaac Lyons; Northern District, A. 
Cornwall (president) ; Southern District, W. C. Watkins. 

House: Apache, James Scott, J. Q. Adamson; Cochise, J. M. Bracewell, M. Gray, F. W. 
Heyne, B. L. Peel, Scott White; Gila, E. J. Trippell; Graham, D. H. Ming; Maricopa, J. Y. T. 
Smith, Sam F. Webb (speaker) ; Mohave, P. F. Collins; Pima, A. A. Bean, B. N. Leatherwood, 
A. McKay, J. B. Seott, C. E. Wores; Pinal, A. J. Doran; Yavapai, H. T. Andrews, W. IT. 
Ashurst, O. C. Felton, J. J. Fisher, A. G. Oliver; Yuma, Charles Baker. 

Fifteenth Legislature, Preseott and Phoenix, January, 1889. 

Council: Apache, E. J. Simpson; Cochise, Geo. W. Cheyney; Gila, G. T. Peter; Graham, 
Burt Duulap; Maricopa, S. F. Webb; Mohave, W. H. Hardy; Pima, Chas. E. Drake (president) ; 
Pinal, E. E. Sloan; Yavapai, J. M. W. Moore; Yuma, J. W. Dorrington; Northern District, 
L. H. Orme; Southern District, G. W. Hoadley. 

House: Apache, Charles Flinn, J. A. Johnson; Cochise, Geo. H. Dailey, Grant Hicks, 
John O. Bobbins, J. O. Stanford, Alex. Wright; Gila, J. C. Jones; Graham, Geo. H. Stevens; 
Maricopa, T. C. Jordan, J. Y. T. Smith (speaker); Mohave, Thomas Halleck ; Pima, J. J. 
Chatham, Louis Martin, J. S. O'Brien, H. B. Tenney, H. D. Underwood; Yavapai. C. D. Brown, 
J. L. Fii^her, J. V. Blioades, F. L. Eogers, Geo. P. Thornton; Yuma, Samuel Purdy. 

Sixteenth Legislature, Pha?nix, .January, 1891. 

Council: Apache, E. J. Simpson; Cochise, J. V. A'iekers; Gila, G. T. Peter; Graham, 
P. M. Thurmond; Maricopa, C. M. Zulick; Mohave, F. S. Dennis; Pima, F. G. Hughes (presi- 
dent); Pinal, A. J. Doran; Yavapai, J. C. Herndon ; Yuma, A. Frank; Northern District, 
Harris Baldwin; Southern District, P. E. Brady. 

House: Apache, Frank Hart, J. T. Lesueur; Cochise, S. M. Burr, C. S. Clark (speaker), 
Thoniiis Dunbar, P. W. Heyne, J. H. Tevis; Gila, E. B. Moore; Graham, D. Gough; Maricopa, 


L. II. Chalmers, T. E. Farish; ilohave, M. C. Copeland; Pima, Thomas Driscoll, Cms A. Hoff, 
Georgo Pusch, M. G. Samaiiiego, C. C. Suter; Pinal, J. B. Allen; Yavapai, J. W. Dougherty, 
J. J. Fisher, M. A. Freeze, S. C. Mott, J. A. Vail; Yuma, C. H. Brinley. 

Seventeenth Legislature.. Phci'nix. January, 1893. 

Council: Apache, J. A. Hubljell; Cochise, Geo. W. Cheyney; Coconino, F. E. Nellis; Gila, 

E. J. Edwards; Graham, C. il. Shannon; Maricopa, W. T. Smith; Mohave, F. S. Dennis; Pima, 
W. M. Lovell; Pinal, A. J. Doran ; Yavapai, J. J. Hawkins; Yuma, M. J. Nugent; at large, 
T. G. Norris (president). 

House: Apache, E. C. Dryden, Luther Martin; Cochise, M. Gray, James Eeilley, A. C. 
Wright; Coconino, H. D. Boss; Gila, G. W. P. Hunt; Graham, A. D. Brewer, George Skinner; 
Maricopa, Frank Baxter (speaker), M. E. Hurley, J. A. Marshall, H. C. Eogers; Mohave, 
David Southwiek; Pima, J. W. Bruce, E. N. Leatherwood, Charles Mehan, C. F. Schumaker; 
Pinal, W. T. Day, T. C. Graham; Yavapai, S. P. Behan, D. A. Bourke, J. D. Cook; Yuma, 
D. M. Field. 

Eij;liti-<'iith Legislature. Phoenix, January, 1895. 

( ouncil: Apache, F. T. Aspinwall; Cochise, B. A. Packard; Coconino, E. J. Babbitt; 
Gila, K. J. Edwards; Graham, Bert Dunlap; Maricopa, Henry E. Kemp; Mohave, W. M. Lake; 
Pima, L. B. Scott; Pinal, Thomas Davis; Yavapai, John S. Jones; Yuma, M. J. Nugent; at 
large, A. J. Doran (president). 

House : Apache, Will C. Barnes, Geo. H. Crosby ; Cochise, C. L. Cummings, H. C. Her- 
rick, A. C. Wright; Coconino, E. F. Greenlaw; Gila, G. W. P. Hunt; Graham, Joseph Fish, 
Geo. W. Skinner; Maricopa, A. E. Hinton, J. A. Marshall, Niels Peterson, Perry Wildman; 
Mohave, O. D. M. Gaddis; Pima, N. W. Bernard, H. K. Chenoweth, James Finley, M. G. 
Samaniego; Pinal, Thos. E. Baker, M. E. Moore; Yavapai, Thos. H. Brown, G. W. Hull, J. C. 
Martin; Yuma, .T. H. Carpenter (speaker). 

Nineteenth Legislature. Phoenix, January 18, 1897. 

Council: Apache, Sol Bar'th; Cochise, B. A. Packard; Coconino, A. A. Dutton; Gila, G. 
W. P. Hunt; Graham, D. H. Ming; Maricopa, C. E. Hakes; Mohave, W. H. Lake; Navajo, 

F. T. Aspinwall; Pima, Fred G. Hughes (president) ; Pinal, P. E. Brady; Yavapai, John W. 
Norton ; Yuma, J. H. Carpenter. 

House: Apache, J. B. Patterson; Cochise, J. N. Jones, J. J. Eiggs, William Speed; 
Coconino, H. F. Ashurst ; Gila, Leroy Ikenberry ; Graham, J. K. Eogers, G. W. Skinner ; 
Maricopa, A. Goldberg, J. C. Goodwin, P. P. Parker, J. W. Woolf ; Mohave, L. Cowan ; Navajo, 
J. N. Smith; Pima, A. C. Bernard, D. G. Chalmers (speaker), J. B. Finley, A. J. Preston; 
Pinal. C. P. Mason, C. D. Eepjiy; Yavapai, G. W. Hull, W. J. Mulvenon, D. J. Warren; Yuma, 
H. Hale. 

Twentieth Legislature, Phoenix, January 16, 1899. 

Council: Apache, D. K. Udall; Cochise, Chas. C. Warner; Coconino, T. S. Bunch; Gila, 

G. W. P. Hunt ; Graham, Geo. A. Olney ; Maricopa, Aaron Goldberg ; Mohave, J. M. Murphy ; 
Navajo, Geo. A. Wolflf; Pima, J. B. Finley; Pinal, Dr. A. C. Wright; Yavapai, Morris Gold- 
water (president) ; Yuma, J. H. Carpenter. 

House: Apache, N. Gonzales; Cochise, Henry Etz, Mike Gray, H. M. Woods; Coconino, 
Henry F. Ashurst (speaker); Gila, John C. Evans; Graham, W. W. Pace, E. M. Williams; 
Maricopa, J. W. Benham, Sam Brown, Chas. Peterson, Winfield Scott; Mohave, William Imus; 
Navajo, W. A. Parr; Pima, Alfred S. Donau, Otis Hale, George Pusch, F. A. Stevens; Pinal, 
Jas. E. Arthur, S. A. Bartleson; Yavapai, W. S. Adams, A. A. Moore, J. J. Sanders; Yuma, 
John Doan. 

Twenty-first Legislature, Plirt'nix. January 21, 1901. 

Council: Apache, E. S. Perkins; Cochise, C. C. Warner; Coconino, M. J. Eiordan; Gila, 
Dr. S. B. Claypool; Graham, Chas. M. Shannon; Maricopa, .J. M. Ford; Mohave, M. G. Burns; 
Navajo, Colin Campbell; Pima and Santa Cruz, J. B. Finley; Pinal, Geo. P. Blair; Y'avapai, 
Henry T. Andrews; Yuma, Eugene S. Ives (president). 


House : Apache, Eichard Gibbons ; Cochise, Michael Gray, Stephen Eoemer, H. M. 
Coconino, James Walsh; GUa, C. L. Houston; Graham, E. T. Ijams, Andrew Kimball; Maricopa, 
B. A. Fowler, J. P. Ivy, P. P. Parker (speaker), Charles Peterson; Mohave, Kean St. Charles; 
Navajo, W. J. Morgan; Pima, Sam Y. Barkley, A. C. Bernard, Joseph Corbett; Pinal, Alex 
Barker, 'William Beard; Santa Cruz, A. H. Noon; Yavapai, T. E. Campbell, L. Geer, F. E. 
Ward; Yuma, Jesse Crouch. 

Twenty-second Legislature, Phcenix, January 19, 1903. 

Council: Apache, Heber J. Jarvis; Cochise, B. A. Packard; Coconino, H. F. Ashurst; 
Gila, A. H. Morehead; Graham, H. B. Eice; Maricopa, Jos. H. Kibbey; Mohave, Dr. B. 
Whitesides; Navajo, J. H. Woods; Pima and Santa Cruz, Joseph Corbett; Pinal, E. W. 
Childs; Yavapai, J. W. Burson; Yuma, Eugene S. Ives (president). 

House: Apache, N. Gonzales; Cochise, James Howell, M. O'Connell; Steve Eoemer; 
Coconino, John H. Page; Gila, Jos. B. Henry; Graham, W. E'. Webb, Gus Williams; Maricopa, 
G. U. Collins, John D. Marlar, T. T. Powers (speaker), J. W. Woolf; Mohave, Kean St. 
Charles; Navajo, W. A. Parr; Pima, N. W. Bernard, L. 0. Cowan, M. Lament; Pinal, L. C. 
Herr, P. A. Schilling; Santa Cruz, Bo J. Whiteside; Yavapai, Lucius E. Barrow; T. J. 
Morrison, W. A. Eowe; Yuma, F. S. Ingalls. 

Twenty-third Legislature, Phffinix, January 16, 1905. 

Council: Apache, Alfred Euiz; Cochise, Steve Eoemer; Coconino, John H. Page; GUa, 
G. W. P. Hunt (president) ; Graham, H. B. Eice; Maricopa, Jas. E. Bark; Mohave, J. E. Perry; 
Navajo, Benjamin Downs; Pima and Santa Cruz, N. W. Bernard; Pinal, Chas. H. Cutting; 
Yavapai, E. N. Looney; Yuma, M. J. Nugent. 

House: Apache, J. B. Patterson; Cochise, Neill E. Bailey, William Neville, Charles Strong; 
Coconino, Charles Neal; Gila, Samuel A. Haught; Graham, Lamar Cobb, Jr., Wilfred T. Webb 
(speaker) ; Maricopa, L. E'. Krueger, Watson Pickrell, J. H. Pomeroy, M. A. Stanford; Mohave, 
P. F. Collins; Navajo, Q. E. Gardiner; Pima, L. G. Davis, H. C. Kennedy, Thos. P. Wilson; 
Pinal, Alexander Barker, J. G. Keating; Santa Cruz, L. E. Bristol; Yavapai, Leroy S. Ander- 
son, G. W. Hull, M. A. Perkins; Yuma, W. F. Timmons. 

Twenty-fourth Legislature, Phoenix, January 31, 1907. 

Council: Apache, John T. Hogue; Cochise, Stephen Eoemer; Coconino, H. C. Lockett; 
GUa, G. W. P. Hunt; Graham, J. F. CTeaveland; Maricopa, E. B. O'Neill; Mohave, W. G. 
Blakely; Navajo, Eobert Scott; Pima and Santa Cruz, E. M. Dickerman; Pinal, Thos. F. 
Weedin; Yavapai, A. J. Doran (president); Yuma, Donald Mclntyre. 

House: Apache, S. E. Day; Cochise, N. E. Bailey (speaker), Owen Murphy, John 
Slaughter; Coconino, L. S. Williams; Gila, John McCormick; Graham, J. E. Hampton, W. W. 
Pace; Maricopa, W. D. Bell, E. C. Bunch, J. W. Crenshaw, William Wallace; Mohave, C. G. 
Krook; Navajo, William Morgan; Pima, A. Bail, A. V. Crosetta, David Morgan; Pinal, J. I. 
Coleman, Nott E. Guild; Santa Cruz, B. J. Whiteside; Yavapai, D. A. Burke, E. N. Davidson, 
Geo. W. Hull; Yuma, J. D. Martin. 

Twenty-fifth Legislature, Phdenix, January 18, 1909. 

Council: Apache, S. E. Day; Cochise, Ben Goodrich; Coconino, P. S. Breen; Gila, G. W. 
P. Hunt (president) ; Graham, John E. Hampton; Maricopa, E. Brady O'Neill; Mohave, Kean 
St. Charles; Navajo, William Morgan; Pima and Santa Cruz, J. B. Finley; Pinal, Thos. F. 
Weedin; Yavapai, M. G. Burns; Yuma, Geo. W. Norton. 

House: Apache, J. S. Gibbons; Cochise, Neill E. Bailey, Oscar W. Roberts, Fred A. 
Sutter; Coconino, Thos. J. Coalter; Gila, John McCormick; Graham, Phil C. Merrill, W. W. 
Pace; Maricopa, Frank deSousa, J. D. Eeed, Sam F. Webb (speaker), J. W. Woolf; Mohave, 
S. W. Toby; Navajo, Joseph Peterson; Pima, John Doan, W. J. Hogwood, Kirke T. Moore; 
Pinal, J. S. Bourne, C. L. Shaw; Santa Cruz, Frank J. Duffy; Yavapai, G. A. Bray, Perry 
Hall ; Geo. D. Morris ; Yuma, E. A. Hightower. 



Jeffersonian Simplicity Marked the Inauguration of Governor Hunt — Perpetual Legis- 
latures and Man's Referendum Submissions — The Governor's Opposition to Capital 
Punishment — Hoiv Delay Affected the Federal Judgeship — Popular Election of Sen- 

On the date of statehood inauguration, February 14, 1912, Arizona passed 
into the southern group of states, not only democratic in political alignment, 
but keenly receptive of all the novel ideas of the time in respect to popular 
government. In the Constitution and in the trend of subsequent legislation 
greater power of direct control and of official review has been taken by the 
people at large than is known in almost any other state of the Union. Today 
is much too early to tell the result, but it may be said that while a strong 
majority stands firmly by the so-called "progressive" ideas, these ideas in 
practice have proved a bit cumbersome and far more expensive than the former 
more centralized system. 

It is usual for a new state to adopt a special title by which it may in affec- 
tion be known by at least its own citizenship. This name for Arizona is still 
unchosen. "Valentine State" would have to be shared with Oregon, which 
has the same birthday. The "Land of Sunshine and Silver" once was appro- 
priate, but hardly now, for New Mexico wants to be known as the "Land of 
Sunshine," and silver no longer is the predominant mineral product. "Sun- 
Kissed Land" is a good title, and is that of Arizona's official song, but goes 
little further. "Baby State" is without dignity. Today possibly the best 
appellation would be "The Copper State," as Nevada lays claim to silver and 
California to gold, but the name that will endure is yet to be found. 


The day of statehood had been proclaimed by Governor Sloan a holiday, 
under the title of "Admission Day." Telegraphic word of the signing of the 
proclamation had been received during the morning. Governor-elect Hunt 
had made declaration that he wanted a simple inauguration. This he had. 
Refusing proffered automobiles or even a street car, he walked from his hotel 
to the capitol, a distance of over a mile, followed by a long train of dusty and 
perspiring political friends. The incoming party proceeded directly to a 
speaker's stand provided within the front portico of the capitol. In front 
of the capitol had gathered possibly a thousand auditors, among them Wm. 


Jennings Bryan, later the Nation's Secretai-y of State. No uniforms were in 
evidence and there was no military escort. 

In Governor Hunt's inaugural address he pledged his support of the pro- 
gressive provisions of the Arizona Constitution and stated his belief that the 
Constitution would amply vindicate the claims of its champions and "be a 
beacon light to those states and lands and peoples where the seed of popular 
government has been sown but has not brought forth fruit." 

Governor Geo. W. P. Hunt, born in Missouri in 1859, has been a resident 
of Arizona since 1881, when he walked into Globe, driving a burro. He showed 
a high degree of business and political ability, advancing gradually from clerk 
to president of the town's largest mercantile establishment and soon was fill- 
ing important offices of the county and territorial governments. For years he 
was sent from Gila County to the Legislature, serving in the Eighteenth, Nine- 
teenth, Twentieth, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth sessions, 
elected president of the council in the Twenty-third and Twenty-fifth sessions. 
He was president of the Constitutional Convention and was one of the strongest 
forces in the work of enacting popular legislation. A student of political 
economy and of such large legislative experience, he has been rema.rkablj' 
successful in securing adoption of his ideas. 

Throughout his service as governor, Mr. Hunt especially has shown his devo- 
tion to humanitarian ideals. He has sought to place the penitentiary inmates 
on the road to reform, occasionally with but poor success, and, fighting per- 
sistently, has managed to almost nullify the law permitting capital punishment 
for tlie crime of murder. During his administration to date there has been 
only one execution at the state penitentiary and that over his protest. His 
leaning on the side of mercy has not had legislative or popular support. The 
Legislature has taken from the governor the power of pardon and parole and 
in this action has been sustained by the courts and by a referendum vote of the 

The other elected officers installed at the time of statehood were: Sidney 
P. Osborn, secretary of state; J. C. Callaghan, state auditor; D. F. Johnson, 
state treasurer; C. O. Case, superintendent of public instruction; W. P. Geary, 
F. A. Jones and A. W. Cole, corporation commissioners; Alfred Franklin, 
chief justice ; D. L. Cunningham and H. D. Ross, associate justices. 

Soon after the advent of the national democratic administration, republican 
offices began to pass into democratic hands. A number of hold-overs, especially 
among the postmasters, stayed until the expiration of their terms, but several 
who were appointed in the last days of the Taft administration were peremp- 
torily dropped from the payrolls. One of these was United States Marshal 
Chas. A. Overlock, who had been in office since December 1, 1909, and who had 
been reappointed on the day of statehood. United States Attorney J. E. Mor- 
rison gracefully resigned about the same time. As successor to Overlock was 
appointed Jos. P. Dillon and for the attorney's office was chosen Thos. A. 
Flynn, who had been an associate in law of Senator Ashurst. Lewis T. Car- 
penter became collector of internal revenue for the Arizona-New Mexico dis- 
trict, the office being moved from Santa Fe to Phoenix. Thos. R. Weedin of 
Florence and John J. Birdno of Safford, respectively, were made register and 
receiver of the United States land office at Phoenix. 

Arizona's first governor under statehood 



It had been well known that President Taft had settled upon Governor 
Sloan to be the first United States judge in the state of Arizona. The nomina- 
tion was duly made, but its confirmation was held up by the opposition of the 
two Arizona senators, apparently on the basis of charges, but in reality to 
secure delay till a democratic president should be in the chair — a political 
prophecy generally considered well based. Though endorsement was given by 
the Arizona Bar Associatioii, the nominee, representing political ideas very 
widely at variance with those that had been so warmly embraced in Arizona, 
became the target of one of the worst of the attacks that have been so common 
in Arizona's political history. One set of charges even was printed in an 
eastern magazine of large circulation, which, after suit for libel had been insti- 
tuted, retracted and apologized and paid substantial damages. Judge Sloan 
■was given an ad interim appointment in August, following the adjournment 
of Congress, but this could last only till the end of the presidential term. In 
the December session of Congress few republican confirmations were made. 
So, with the retirement of President Taft, Judge Sloan left the Arizona bench 
after long years of service. Judge Wm. M. Morrow of California and other 
federal judges filled in the periods of vacancy in the local judgship, to which 
in August, 1913, finally was appointed W. H. Sawtelle of Tucson. At first the 
court sessions were confined to Phoenix, but later authority gave sessions to 
other cities. 

Under the territorial form of government, legal jurisdiction, above the 
justices and Probate Courts, was vested in District Courts, each presided over 
by a justice of the Territorial Supreme Court, a presidential appointee. An 
early Legislature tried the experiment of County Courts, but they had short 
life, the creating act proving defective. 

Under statehood Superior (County) Courts were established, embracing 
probate functions, and over them a Supreme Court of three members. The 
personnel of this court has not been changed in two elections. Judge Alfred 
Franklin (son of the late Governor Franklin) first served as chief justice, a 
distinction that went to Judge Henry D. Ross in 1914. 


The first state Legislature of Arizona convened March 18, 1912. As presi- 
dent of the Senate was chosen ]\I. G. Cunniff of Yavapai County, who had been 
chairman of the Committee on Revision and Style in the Constitutional Con- 
vention, and who had had much to do with the character of the document 
evolved. The most important part of the work comprised drafting laws in 
accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, furnishing some excuse for 
the unprecedented and seemingly unnecessary length of time consumed by 
the body, at very great expense to the taxpayers. 

A few days after the beginning of the session was performed an interesting 
duty, the formal election of Marcus A. Smith and Henry Ashurst as senators 
from Arizona, following out the expressed will of the people and at the same 
time deferring to the Constitution of the United States. It is worthy of notice 
that in the Arizona Senate, Smith's nomination was made by none other than 
John T. Hughes of Pima County (son of the former governor), thus burying 


a hatchet that had beeu much in evidence for many years between his family 
and the senator-elect. The Legislature passed a very drastic miners' lien law, 
provided an inheritance tax, and possibly trespassed upon the powers of Com- 
gress in providing that aliens who cannot become citizens shall not hold real 
property, giving those in possession of such property five years in which to dis- 
pose of it. There was a continuation of the anti-coi-poration legislation, includ- 
ing five laws for the regulation of railroads, in such matters as electric head- 
lights, the length of trains, etc. 

Much remained to be done at the expiration of the session's time limitation 
on May 18, and a special session convened May 23 to adjourn June 22, stiU 
with much undone in the way of putting into effect the mandates of the Consti- 

A special session of the First Legislature was called by Governor HunJ^ 
commencing February 3, 1913. The message, which was of seventy-five para- 
graplis, outlined a broad field of W'Ork and especially named fifty-seven statutes 
• for possible amendment. 

At the .special session H. H. Linney was elected speaker of the House, Sam 
B. Bradner being deposed on the ostensible ground that he had forfeited right 
to membership in the Legislature by accepting appointment as secretary of 
the Arizona Live Stock Sanitary Board. Cunniff was retained as president of 
the council. Still a third special session, the fourth session in about a year, 
had to be convened April 14, because no appropriation bill had been passed 
and work had not been finished on the civil code. There had been passed a 
criminal code, but it had been vetoed by Governor Hunt because it did not 
conform with his peculiar ideas with reference to the pardoning power. The 
governor in his call again gave this special session a large amount of leeway, 
including no less than sixty-two items on which legislation was recommended. 

The act creating a board of pardons and reprieves was directly leveled at 
Governor Hunt's prison policies and his known antagonism to capital punish- 
ment. It provided that all pardons and reprieves should be granted by him 
only upon recommendation of a board not of his own appointment. In the 
state penitentiai-y were a dozen murderers who had been reprieved repeatedly 
by the governor, pending possible approval of his policies by the people and 
courts. "Final appeal to the courts gave no comfort to the executive, for the 
Supreme Court of Arizona, in April, 1915, approved a decision of the Superior 
Court of Pinal County declaring the board a legally constituted body. 

At Tucson, June 3, 1912, came a decisive split in the republican party. The 
two counties of largest voting strength, ]\Iaricopa and Cochise, had aligned 
with Roosevelt. Yet, with a favoring chairman's aid, both were claimed for 
Taft. So the Roosevelt supporters, with former Governor Kibbey leading, had 
a separate convention, to nominate a delegation that was thrown out at Chicago. 
The real strength of the two republican divisions in Arizona was better shown 
at the fall election. The democratic primaries showed a preference for Champ 
Clark, with Bryan and "Wilson following. 

The election of November 5, 1912, resulted in the demonstration of a solid 
and unshakable democratic plurality. The democratic electors led in nearly 
aU counties and were given a total vote of 10,324. Roosevelt, progressive, 
received 6,949, and Debs, socialist, 3,163 votes, leading Taft, republican, who 

United States Senator from Arizona 


had only 3,021. Chafiii, the prohibition candidate, received 265. In the pre- 
ceding primary election, held September 10, the total vote had been only 7,267, 
with the democrats casting 3,867. 

Arizona's first presidential electors were Will T. Webb of Graham County, 
John R. Hampton of Greenlee County and Mrs. Pauline O'Neill of Maricopa 
County. Webb tarried long in St. Louis, where later he was married, and 
got to Washington too late with the ballots, but no objection was made to their 
inclusion within the Wilson strength. 


At the election of 1912 were submitted a number of constitutional amend- 
ments and referred bills, nearly all of them with party support from the 
democracy. The recall of judges, which had been stricken from the Constitu- 
tion as a prerequisite to statehood was re-enacted by the overwhelming vote of 
16,272 to 3,491. 

Woman suffrage was enacted by an unexpectedly large majority, the vote 
standing 13,452 to 6,202. The electors also granted the state power to engage 
in industrial pursuits. 

A bias against corporations manifested in the First State Legislature led 
to the passage of a 3-cent fare bill. This was taken to the people for a refer- 
endum vote and the corporations again were downed. Thereafter, in consider- 
ing a judgment of alleged illegal charges made by a Tucson public utilities 
corporation, the Supreme Court of Arizona decided that .the Legislature had 
no powers in such cases and that service charges made by such corporations 
could be fixed only by the Corporation Commission. Thus an act of the Legis- 
lature and the voice of the people at the polls both were declared unconstitu- 
tional. The 3-cent-fare case still was pending before the commission over a 
year later. 

There had been a Supreme Court decision to the effect that state officials, 
who had believed themselves elected for only a short year, would hold over 
till the end of 1914. This narrowed the political struggle of the fall time. 
Carl Hayden, democrat, who was serving under a national tenure of office, was 
re-elected congressman, over Robert S. Fisher, progressive, and Thomas Camp- 
bell, republican. 

In 1913 there was much legislative talk about the governor's attitude toward 
criminals and there was even an investigation of conditions at the prison, with 
testimony to the effect that convicts had been permitted to go to social enter- 
tainments in Florence. The governor defended himself vigorously, claiming 
that the prosecution was by persons actuated by hatred, jealousy and base 
political motives. There was only mild censure of the investigating committee, 
for the governor already had corrected the objectionable features of what 
seemed a too-lax prison discipline. This same session refused to vote any 
money to the California expositions. Suggested appropriations were fought 
especially by labor unions, which were against San Diego on account of that 
city's attitude in an I. W. W. invasion. 

When this Legislature finally stopped, May 17, 1913, it was figured that it 
had cost the state about $180,000, for a while the expense running nearly $1,000 
a day. State Auditor Callaghan made a computation that for the fiscal year it 


had cost $304,460.01 more to run the State of Arizona than it had the territory 
and state during the preceding fiscal year. 

Named as a holiday for all of the state, there was an especial celebration 
April 24, 1914, "Arizona Day," rather indefinitely honoring the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the establishment of government in Arizona. In Phoenix was a 
formal banquet and, in compliance with the governor's recommendation, in 
each of the larger towns citizens met to drink a toast to their state. 


The year 1914 was a busy one politically, for a half dozen parties were in 
the field at the primaries. The democrats renominated all the state officials, 
save the treasurer and Attorney-General G. P. Bullard, who had resigned. In 
his place was put Wiley E. Jones. Senator Marcus A. Smith, who had drawn 
the short term and who sought re-election, had opposition in the primaries, but 
secured a place on the democratic ticket. The progressives put out a full 
ticket, with Geo. U. Young for governor and J. B. Nelson for United States 
senator. The republicans, seeking coalition with the progressive forces, placed 
Judge J. H. Kibbey at the head of the State Central Committee. Their nomi- 
nations included J. Lorenzo Hubbell for senator and Ralph H. Cameron for 

In the fall Senator Smith secured 25,790 votes, compared with 9,178 for 
Hubbell. The third candidate unexpectedly was Eugene W. Chafin, prohi- 
bitionist, Avho received 7,248 votes. The progressive party failed to make its 
showing of the previous election. Carl Hayden was re-elected representative in 
Congress by the largest vote given any candidate, 32,296. Governor Hunt was 
I'e-elected by a vote of 25,226, Cameron receiving 17,602. The other state 
officials were re-elected in order, saving only P. J. Miller, tax commissioner, 
in whose place was chosen T. E. Campbell, republican, and Mitt Simins, demo- 
crat, succeeded to the office of treasurer. 

The referred measures were led in importance by prohibition, which carried 
by a majority of 3,144. In only five of the counties of the state did prohibition 
carry and the majority in Maricopa County alone was practically the same as 
that within the state at large. The section of the penal code dealing with 
pardons and reprieves was approved over the protest of the governor and the 
3-cent-fare law was approved, only to be found unconstitutional. Among the 
initiated measures carried were the anti-blacklist law, the mothers' pension bill, 
the 80 per cent law, the electrical construction law and a bill permitting the 
state to engage in industrial pursuits. Among those defeated were the anti- 
capital punishment bill, an appropriation for the coast expositions, an Australian 
tax bill and a bill for the creation of Miami County. 

It is an interesting fact that the more important of the labor bills passed 
later failed to stand the scrutiny of the courts, including the anti-blacklist and 
mothers' pension bills. The latter would have provided at least $15 a month 
for every destitute mother and a separate grant for each child, as well as an 
old-age pension, irrespective of sex or of dependence, all of this going with an 
aliolition of alms houses. The same course was taken by the 80 per cent bill, 
which permitted the employment of only 20 per cent of aliens in any work 
wherein five or more were engaged. 

United States Senator from Arizona 


The second State Legislature met January 11, 1915. Dr. W. P. Sims of 
Cochise County was elected president of the Senate and William Brooks, 
speaker of the House. The session especially was distinguished by the seating 
of two female members, Mrs. Frances Willard Munds in the Senate and Sirs. 
Rachael K. Berry in the House. It is possibly worthy of note that Mrs. Munds 
expressed herself in favor of smoking in the legislative chambers and I\Irs. 
Berry protested against the use of the weed. All members were democrats, save 
Senator D. D. Crabb, republican. The governor's message was lengthy, with 
special consideration of the labor question and of warning against the pernicious 
activity of the corporations, with a suggestion that the unemployed should be 
cared for by public works, that there be a state employment bureau and that a 
minimum wage be established for women. The initiative and referendum were 
defended at length as of potent value and there was defense of the governor's 
prison policy. 

That the special session habit had become fastened on Arizona State Legis- 
latures was evidenced in the adjournment of the second Legislature on the 
evening of March 11, 1915, without passing the appropriation, mine taxation 
and land sale bills. Sixty-eight bills had been passed, none of them particularly 
important. Possibly the act of largest general interest passed was the Pari- 
mutuel, designed to permit betting at the state fair. This act was assailed by 
church organizations and finally was vetoed by the governor. 

A special session had to be called, commencing April 23, 1915, and still 
another on June 1, which, on account of the temperature of the legislative halls, 
disposed of its work and departed soon thereafter. 

Among the measures approved were : Providing for the changing oi county 
seats by popular vote ; establishing hatchery stations ; permitting cities to 
appropriate for local advertising; establishing a bureau of mines within the 
State University ; authorizing Indian superintendents or agents to issue mar- 
riage licenses and solemnize ceremonies ; authorizing the sale of the old Indus- 
trial School property at Benson; adopting the design of a flag for the State of 
Arizona, a golden-rayed sun, rising on a sea of blue; giving towns for fire pro- 
tection 50 per cent of any state tax paid by fire insurance companies for busi- 
ness written within the cities affected; providing that all persons who register 
for voting shall declare the political party to which they are affiliated and shall 
vote only for the candidates of such parties at primary elections; prohibiting 
the opening of barber shops on Sunday; establishing a law and legislative 
reference bureau. Bills to enforce the prohibition law all were passed over, 
though such legislation had been directed in the referendum proposition. A 
memorial tablet in the capitol rotunda was voted to the memory of M. G. Cun- 
niflf, late president of the Senate, who had died the previous December. 


The meml)ership of the State Legislatures follows: 
Fii-.-it State Legislature. 

Senate: Apai-he, Lorenzo Hiiblioll; Coiliise, f. y\. Roberts, AV. P. Sims; Coconino. Freil 
S. Breen; Gila, ,T. !•'. Heilitman, Alfred Kinney; (irahani, Wm. W. Pace; Greenlee, G. M. 
Chase; Maricopa, H. A. Davis, C. B. WooJ; Mohave, Henry Levin: Navajo, J. 71. AVillis; 
Pima, . I. T. Hnghes, A. O. Worsley; Pinal, J. F. Brown; Santa Crnz, .7. 17. Harrison; V:iv;i|iai, 
M. G. Ciinnift- (prehi.lent), 71. 7-;, Woo.l ; Ynnia, F. W. Wesscl. 


House: Apache, Naeieseno Gonzales; Cochise, J. M. Ball, Sam B. Bradner (speaker). 
Dr. George DeLos Craig, A. G. Curry, J. F. Duncan, W. J. Graham, C. B. Kelton; Coconino, 
Thomas JIacldock; Gila, W. E. Brooks, J. T. Lewis, John Murphy; Graham, Anton E. Jacobson, 
A. E. Lynch; Greenlee, M. H. Kane, Wm. M. Whipple; Maricopa, D. C. Babbitt, G. F. Cocke, 
J. A. E. Irvine, L. S. Jacobs, Harry Johnson, D. P. Jones ; Mohave, John Ellis ; Navajo, F. O. 
Mattox; Pima, J. W. Buchanan, F. L. Crowfoot, K. T. Moore; Pinal, Alexander Barker; Santa 
Cruz,H. J. Saxon; Yavapai, Perry Hall, H. H. Liuney, A. A. Moore, P. S. Wren; Yuma, T. M. 
Drennan, James E. Kerr. 

Second State Legislature. 

Senate: Apache, Fred T. Colter; Cochise, W. M. Eiggs. W. P. Sims (president) ; Coconino, 
Hugh E. Campbell; GUa, John E. Bacon, Alfred Kinney; Graham, D. H. Claridge; Greenlee, 
Geo. H. Chase; Maricopa, O. S. Stapley, Sam F. Webb; Mohave, Henry Lovin; Navajo, D. D. 
Crabb: Pima, Mose Draclunau, Andrew P. Martin; Pinal, Chas. E. McMillen; Santa Cruz, 
H. K. Karns; Yavapai, Morris Goldwater, Mrs. Frances W. Munds; Yuma, J. S. Garvin. 

House: Apache, Mrs. Eachel Berry; Cochise, Sam P. Briscoe, Wm. L. Cook, Oscar Doyle, 
C. T. Francis, Wm. J. Graham, J. S. Merrill, J. E. Newbury; Coconino, Wm. Marlar; GOa, 
Wm. E. Brooks (speaker), B. F. Baker, W. D. Claypool; Graham, J. D. Lee, J. H. Lines; 
Greenlee, John Christy, S. F. Lanford; Maricopa, G. D. Acuff, A. G. Austin, J. C. Goodwin, 
J. E. MeClain, T. T. Powers, L. F. Vaughn; Mohave, W. P. Mahoney; Navajo, Sam W. Proctor; 
Pima, J. W. Buchanan, S. A. Eeed, J. B. Richardson; Pinal, F. Pinkley; Santa Cruz, Eichard 
FarreU; Yavapai, A. A. Johns, J. E. Leeper, J. J. Sweeney, O. F. Orthel; Yuma, J. L. Edwards, 
J. B. Flanagan. 



Decline and Fall of Arizona Gambling — Character of the Professional Cambler — Earl^ 
Efforts Toward Prohibition and Final Success — Female Suffrage and Its Effect upon 
Politics — Non-alcoholic Baptism of the Battleship "Arizona." 

Gambling was a recognized institution in Arizona till only about ten years 
ago. In many places gambling games ran day and night and it wasn't uncom- 
mon to see the most prominent citizens of each community gathered around the 
faro tables in gambling halls, where women singers were regularly employed. 

The Twentieth Legislature was notable for about the first attempts made 
to curb gambling and the liquor traffic. Measures of this sort usually were 
fathered by Member Winfield S. Scott of Maricopa County, a retired chaplain 
of the regular army. Announcement was made by him that on a certain date 
he would deliver a three-hour address on the vice of gambling. After only five 
minutes of his great speech the House brutally adjourned. 

Tucson led in the territorial movement against gambling. In Januai'y, 1905, 
the first business done by the new city council, led by Mayor L. H. ]\Ianning, 
was to place a license fee of $250 a month on all gambling games and to pro- 
hibit such games in the vicinity of saloons. The gambling element was assumed 
to have won the city election in Phoenix in May, 1905, in the election of the 
republican candidates, despite the fact that the opposition ticket had declared 
against the licensing of any game of chance. The Legislature of 190G refused 
. to prohibit gambling but at that time there were indications of the beginning 
of the end. 

Possibly Phoenix led in reform measures, passing ordinances forbidding the 
employment of women in saloons .and closing saloons at midnight. In a Phoenix 
republican city convention, held in 1906, the nominees were pledged to submit 
to a vote of the people the question of gambling. The proposition was popular, 
for every candidate was elected in the face of an apparent democratic majority. 
When the vote was taken, the first refei-endum ever known in Arizona outside 
of school districts, a large majority of the voters instructed the city council to 
make gambling illegal. The Legislature of the next spring followed the lead 
and prohibited gambling all over Arizona. There were predictions of dire mis- 
fortune and of business stagnation in thus abolishing one of Arizona's most 
cherished institutions. But the change proved beneficial and it is possible that 
the same results will proceed out of prohibition. 

It might here be noted that the gambler of frontier times was, on the whole, 
a pretty decent sort of fellow, in whose hands your life and property were 


reasonably safe. This observation, however, refers only to the men of acknowl- 
edged gambler class and not to hangers-on, vicious then as now. The gambler 
did not create the conditions around him — he merely was a part of them, sup- 
ported by the spirit of the times, in which nearly every man was willing to .stake 
life or wealth on a throw of the dice. Gambling and liquor furnished about 
the only diversions available to or understood by the pioneer, who knew not 
the savings bank and in whose pockets monej^ would burn a hole. In the dif- 
ferent communities they met quiet welcome from such men as Fred Hughes, Ben 
Parker, Smithy and Johnny Benbrook, Charlie Brown, Six-Toed Pete, Preacher 
Frank, Tom Barnum, Ben Belcher, Bob Brow, Jock Blinckhorn or Wint House 
and were assured of "a clean run for their money." Such men as named really 
filled an important place in the society of the times. One of the most notable 
of the frontier gamblers was Caribou Brown, for more than thirty years a faro 
dealer within the territory. He was a giant in size, six feet four inches in 
height, yet one of the gentlest men in demeanor and speech. He was said to 
have never been known to tell an untruth or pull a crooked card. He had been 
a sailor and was captain of a merchantman before he came to the Pacific Coast 
with some romance attaching to his history concerning the quelling of a mutiny 
in which he is said to have taken rather harsh measures. He died in Tucson 
in May, 1903, at the age of 87 and every saloon and gambling house closed while 
their attaches attended the funeral. 


Though Arizona abroad is considered a region in which the liours of the day 
are marked bj' "drink times," and while it is a fact that much of the early 
social life and politics of the teri-itory centered in the saloon, there were attempts 
even in what might be called pioneer times to abolish the use of alcohol as a 
beverage and to diminish the strength of the all powerful liquor interests 
Gov. A. P. K. Safford in 187i charged nine-tenths of the crime of that day to 
ardent spirits and obsei-ved : ' ' When we consider that no one is benefited by 
its use, except for medicinal purposes, and that no greater evil afflicts the human 
family, should it not stimulate every good man and woman to discountenance its 
use as far as possible?" 

In 1884 Tucson was vited by Miss Frances Willard, evangel of the Women 's 
Christian Temperance Union, who then organized a territorial W. C. T. U. A 
few months before that in Prescott had been organized the first local branch of 
the W. C. T. U. by the wife of Colonel Clendenning, then stationed at Fort 
W^hipple. In 1887 at the third annual territorial convention of the W. C. T. U., 
held at Phoenix, a legislative committee was appointed to urge the enactment 
of three laws: fixing the age of consent at 16 years, prohibiting gambling and 
requiring the observance of the Sabbath. Failure of success in this mission led 
to the organization of the Women's Equal Rights Association which, in one 
form or another, has been maintained ever since, with the main idea that onl>- 
by putting the ballot in the hands of women could the liquor power be over- 
thrown. Federal supervision of the liquoj- traffic in the territories was reeoni- 
niended by Governor Hughes in 1893. 

But suffrage and prohibition still met defeat at eacli successive Legislature 
until statehood came. Finally, in ]901. a local option act was pushed through 


the Legislature largely through the influence of the JMonuon Church. Under 
this, scattered communities commenced to vote themselves "dry," particularly 
in Apache, Navajo, Maricopa and Graham counties. The local option bill had 
been allowed to pass only with the provision that any incorporated town could 
be segregated in a county vote on prohibition. Thus it happened that while 
Apache and Graham counties went wholly dry, in Navajo County Winslow was 
excepted and Phoenix in Maricopa County. Finally, on a refei'endum vote in 
the election of 1912, woman suffrage proved successful. In the succeeding 
election the long-sought-for result was accomplished. In November, 1914, pro- 
hibition, the first on the ballot of several suggested constitutional amendments, 
was adopted by a popular vote by a majority of 3,144, though carrying less than 
half the counties. This result was almost unexpected by the liquor dealers, who 
promptly appealed to the courts, claiming illegality of the amendment and a 
practical confiscation of their property through the provision that the act became 
effective January 1. It was alleged that in preventing the use of wine in sacra- 
mental services the act violated the Constitution of the United States, that it 
violated the interstate commerce law and that it was not self-executing and that 
it could not be enforced until the Legislature had established proper legal 
machinery therefor. Every protest proved unavailing, however, and the law 
went into effect promptly in the first hour of the new year. There were no wild 
orgies, as had been predicted. Very generally the liquor dealers at midnight 
herded out a quiet crowd, locked the doors and went home. 

There has been a large loss of revenue from liquor licenses, but on the other 
hand petty crime has decreased very materially and the cost of public adminis- 
tration thereby has been lowered. In Phoenix the arrests for drunkenness had 
averaged over ten a day. Only occasionally in 1915 has there been an arrest 
for this cause and such an arrest usually led up to the apprehension of some 
illicit liquor dealer. General business is said to have been even benefited by 
the diversion of the money that formerly went for the purchase of liquor. It 
is yet too early for a full report, but there appears to have been an eeouoraie 
gain through prohibition, without reference to the abstract morality involved in 
the change from a condition of license that had historic authority behind it. 


As elsewhere stated, the woman suft'rage idea in Arizona rather had its incep- 
tion in the prohibition movement, with the understanding that women would 
knock out the Demon Rum were she given the ballot. This is what really hap- 
pened, after many years, but the suffrage movement had gained its own stand- 
ing in the meantime and was being pushed with only incidental reference to the 
liquor traffic. Suffrage had been accepted as a really vital political issiie. 

Almost since the establishment of a school law in Arizona women have been 
permitted to Tote in school elections, when they were mothers of children of 
school age or property owners. Along this same line was a bill that passed the 
Legislature of 1897, that gave suffrage in municipal elections to taxpayers, re- 
gardless of sex. This law later was found defective. 

Women's rights has been before almost every legislative session in Arizona 
back as far as 1891. Governors Hughes and Murphy recommended it. Fre- 
quently one house would pass an enfranchisement bill after assurance had been 


reeeived that the other body woiild kill it. Once, in spite, the second house 
passed the measure, when the governor was known to be more than anxious to 
attach his signature. The Legislature took a recess long enough to i-eceive the 
tearful thanks of the female lobbyists. When the women had gone to telegraph 
the good news, the Council reconvened, recalled the bill and killed it very dead 
indeed. The Twentieth Legislature and Governor Murphy in 1899 seemed 
interested and much legislative work that year was done by the women, led by 
President Carrie Chapman Catt of the National Equal Suffrage Association. 

On the Legislature of 1901 the women made an exceptionally determined at- 
tack, represented on the floor by Assemblyman Andrew Kimball. On final action 
in the House only eight voted for the measure, after Assemblyman James had 
moved that the bill "be laid on the table with reverent and gentle hands, to be 
covered over with beautiful flowers and there lie tiU the meeting of the next 
Legislature. ' ' 

Female suffrage in Arizona nearly became a reality in the Legislature of 
1903. The two legislative bodies were far from fi'ieudly and when the House 
passed a suffrage measui-e the Council unexpectedly concurred by a vote of 
eight to four. So the bill went to Governor Brodie, who in the latter hours of 
the twenty-second legislative session, much to the relief of the legislators gen- 
erally, transmitted to the House his veto of the measure. The message was 
received with applause from the floor and the veto was sustained by a vote of 
fourteen to eight. The governor's message i-ecited briefly that in the opinion 
of the executive the bill was not within the powers of the Legislature to legis- 
late upon, that it was not consistent with the Constitution of the United States 
and was beyond the constitutional limitations of the Legislature. However 
pleasing the veto was to a majority of the legislators, there was consternation 
in the galleries, where a hundred suffragists had congregated to enjoy their 

In 1909 there started a regular campaign for suffrage, led by Mrs. Frances 
Willard J\lunds of Prescott, Mi"s. Pauline O'Neill and JMrs. L. LaChance of 
Phoenix and a half dozen others who believed it a holy crusade. An organizer 
was brought in and the women of the territory were brought into line in sys- 
tematic manner, with clubs in every town. In the first State Legislature a 
suffrage bill made no progi'ess but one that called for submission of the ques- 
tion to a popular vote came within one vote of passing. 

Then it was that the women abandoned the Legislature and appealed their 
ease to the people, favored by the very progressive laws established bj^ a con- 
stitutional convention that, like that of 1893, refused the women enfranchise- 
ment. The appeal was made in the election of 1912. The men responded and. 
by a vote of about two to one, lifted women to full political equality. 

The result by no means has been incendiary. Undoubtedly it has had much 
to do with the vote by which Arizona, from January 1, 1915, abolished the 
traffic in liquor. But, in a general way, the political complexion of the state 
has been affected not at all. The relative balance between the parties seems to 
have remained the same. A few more women are to be seen around the public 
offices. A woman, Mrs. Pauline 'Neill, was a presidential elector, Mrs. Muuds 
has gone to the State Senate, and ]\Irs. Rachel Berry, another strong character, 
a daughter of Rufus C. Allen of the IMormon Battalion, has served in the second 


House of Representatives from Apache County. The last election found women 
voting in about the same proportion as men and the campaign and election were 
the cleaner for their presence. Even cleaner will be succeeding elections, it is 
felt, through the separation of politics and liquor. 

An interesting judgment was given in Februar.v, 1914, by the Supreme 
Court of Arizona in a case wherein the property of a husband had been attached 
on a judgment of $6,500 secured by his stenogTapher against his wife, who had 
inflicted bodily injuries upon the employee. The court decided that when 
woman was enfranchised in this state, she thereupon assumed full liability for 
her own acts, her husband liberated from the position of acting guardian, a 
relationship recognized in most of the states. Had the ruling been otherwise 
it would have been a gi-im joke, for the man and wife in the meantime had 

The State Federation of Women 's Clubs, a body that is non-partisan in every 
sense, was organized in Phoenix in Novembei", 1901, the idea brought to Arizona 
by Miss Anne Rhodes, a vice president of the New York Federation. The Fed- 
eration now has membership of clubs, in every part of the state, including 
organizations devoted to everj' phase of feminine interest in civics and the arts. 


The first American warship of importance to bear the name of "Arizona," 
slid from the ways of the Brooklyn navy yard in June, 1915, christened with 
the first water over the Roosevelt dam, from a bottle broken against her prow 
by Miss Esther Ross of Preseott. Inquiry develops the fact that two vessels 
before had borne the name, though only one was of any importance. She was 
an iron, paddle-wheel steamer, built at Wilmington, Delaware, in 1858. Her 
name was changed dui-ing the Civil ,war, when she became the blockade runner 
"Caroline." While enroute from Havana to Mobile, loaded with munitions of 
war, she was captured, October 28, 1862, by the Federal warship "Montgomery." 
She was condemned in a prize court at Philadelphia, sold to the Government for 
$845,000, given her original name of "Arizona," and assigned to the Gulf 
squadron, armed with a battery of six guns. She participated in a number of 
important engagements along the gulf coast, at Sabine Pass, and on Red River, 
till destroyed by an accidental fire while on her way up the Mississippi River 
from Southwest Pass, to New Orleans. Four of her crew of ninety-eight men 
were lost in the fire. 

The new Arizona when she goes into commission will have displacement of 
31,400 tons. She is 608 feet long, will have a speed of twenty-one knots, and 
will have cost the Government more than $13,000,000 to build and equip. She 
will have a main battery of twelve fourteen-inch guns, firing projectiles that 
weigh 1,400 pounds each, in addition to a secondary battery of twenty-two five- 
inch guns. Pier crew will number about 1,000 officers and men. 



Prospectors Ever in the Vanguard of Civilization — Wealth that has Come Through a 
"Grubstal(e" — "Lost Mines" of the Southmesi — The Miner Party — Fraudulent 
Mining Schemes — Arizona Diamonds that Came from Africa — Quijotoa's 

It is a curious and little appreciated fact that the miner is the scout of 
civilization. He braves the savage, the desert's heat, the Arctic's cold. Alone, 
he fearlessly penetrates regions wherein his foot is the fii*st to tread. It was 
the pursuit of golden dreams that sustained the weary marches of the Spanish 
explorers of America. Thus it was with Arizona. Coronado's quest, four 
hundred years ago, was for the gold of the Seven Cities. Though the Spaniards 
found no gold in Cibola, they found it elsewhere, and for centuries the greatest 
revenues of the Spanish crown were from mines now included in Southern 
Arizona. The Spaniard mainly confined his operations to Pimeria. among 
peaceable tribes. The Anglo-Saxon went even farther when he came into 
possession of the land. There is not a valley in Northern or Eastern Arizona 
that has not its tale of prospectors ambushed by Apaches. Yet, step by step, 
the Apaches were driven back. Following the prospector and the miner came 
the trader, the cattle rancher, the farmer, the homeseeker, till today Arizona's 
civilization, based upon the mine, is as sound and as modern as is that of much 
older commonwealths. No longer is mining the only industry, but it is still 
the chief. It is well that it is so, for the dollar from under the ground is a 
new dollar and a whole dollar. The bright golden bar from the assayer's den 
in the stamp mill means so many more actual dollars added to the money in 
circulation; every drop of the fiery stream from the converter's lip, means 
just so much more permanent wealth brought into being for the good and iise 
of mankind. And mining has passed the experimental stage. "Luck" counts 
for little in the business. Nearly every great fortune of the West has been 
made in mining, and nearly every fortune has been made by men of good, hard 
horse sense, who went in on their judgment and not on their hopes and enthus- 

Though many of the people of Arizona for years clung in affection to the 
16-to-l theory, it was a fact that the demonetization of silver really had little 
effect upon Arizona. Broadlj' stated, almost eveiy silver mine within the ter- 
ritory had closed before silver had sunk below a dollar an ounce. The famous 
mines at McCracken, Tombstone, Silver King, Richmond Basin, I\[ack ^lorris 


and in the Bradshaws about all had been closed down and there remained very 
little exploration for silver outside of Mohave County. 


The professional prospector of the Southwest is practically of the past. As 
a rule he lived on a "grub stake" furnished bj' some gamblesome group of 
individuals in the town wherein the prospector made his headquarters. The 
law of such co-partnerships was definitely recognized. As a rule there was 
no veiy close agreement made between the parties; rarely was any contract 
put down in writing, but the unwritten law of the land was that the man who 
furnished the "grub stake" got a half interest in any location that was made 
by the prospector during the time when he fed upon "grub" furnished by his 
urban partner. It was rare indeed that such agreements were violated. The 
prospector nearly always kept faith. The system came into Arizona from 
Nevada and California, where many of the fortunes realized by country store- 
keepers, saloonkeepers and gamblers came through modest "gi'ub stakes" fur- 
nished some old prospector. 

The prospector's outfit was of the simplest, in keeping with his life and 
taste. There was always a burro, usually one that had had years of experience 
in the prospecting game, and that never strayed far from the camp, however 
transient it might be. Wonderful tales are told of these prospecting burros of 
old; they were fond of bacon rinds, and would always leave the sage brush 
and catclaw, upon which they were supposed to thrive, to join the prospector 
in consuming the last of the baking-powder biscuits. 

The prospector of old was a man sustained by a boundless faith and never- 
quenched hope. In reality he was a gambler of the most pronounced type ; every 
hill held for him the chance of a bonanza, and no rocky point was passed with- 
out an investigating tap from his hammer; every iron-stained dyke had to be 
sampled in his gold pan. Most of the prospectors were overly sanguine; they 
fairly loaded themselves and their principals down with prospects, on which 
the annual assessment work would have cost far more than the value of the 
ground. Many a prospector has boasted that he held even 100 locations. To 
have fulfilled the letter of the mining law, such a number of claims would have 
necessitated the expenditure of $10,000 in annual assessment work, yet the 
individual speaking might have assets on which coidd not have been realized $10. 

All thx'ough the hills of Arizona are to be found the monuments left by 
these prospectors, where they first located and then tested claims that were 
worthless in nearly every instance. They were looking for sudden riches, and 
failed to understand the philosophy of the latter-day miner, worked out by 
hard experience, that mining, after all, is a manufacturing industry, and that 
the greatest profits ai-e not found in rich pockets of silver and gold, but in the 
percentage of income over expense that can be gained by the working of large 
(luantities of ore of fairly uniform grade, handled almost mechanically and 
under the most economical conditions. 

The prospector's life was rough, and yet not particularly laborious; he 
drifted through the hills on trips that were limited only by the quantity of grub 
he carried or could command. As a rule he slept out in the open, whatever the 
weather, and his diet was based unendingly upon bacon and black coffee, with 


sour-dough or baking-powder bread on the side. Tobacco, of course, was an 
absolutely essential featui-e of his ration. "When the trip was up and his loca- 
tions had been recorded, rarely did the professional pz'ospector ever work upon 
the mines he had found. If the i5nd proved good, he sold out for some modest 
sum, which he often spent in dissipation. Then it was back again to the hills- 
with the same old burro, living a life which he would not have exchanged for 
any other. 

A very different type was the miner who did occasional prospecting, usually 
when he was out of work or when he got tired of the darkness underground 
and wanted a trip into the hills in communion with the face of Nature, instead 
of her heart. A man of this sort usually paid his own way and held fast to 
anything good that he found. Not necessarily of higher type than the profes- 
sional hunter of mines, he was of more substantial character and in hundreds 
of instances gi-aduated into the class of mine-owning capitalists and became 
one of the leading citizens of his locality. 


Mohave County has given the world many instances of rare courage in its 
pioneer days, but nothing finer than the tale how a blind miner, Henry Ewing, 
unaided sunk a shaft on his Nixie mine, near Vivian, not far from the present 
camp of Oatman. It was in 1904, after Ewing, a gentleman of culture, had 
lost his eyesight. Despite the warning of friends, he persisted in returning 
to his mine, where he rigged up leading wires, to assure him a degree of safety 
and then set up a windlass over his twenty-foot hole. He blasted and dug and 
hauled the ore buckets to the surface and cared for himself in camp, his worst 
adventure an encounter with a rattlesnake and narrow escape from death on 
the trail. Another experience was falling from a ladder a distance of thirty 
feet, receiving serious injuries, yet managing to climb out and to seek assistance 
at a nearby mining camp. 

Almost as much pluck has been shown by several miners who have developed 
their claims alone. In the Hualpai Mountains, Frank Hamilton started upon 
such a work in 1874 and alone sunk two shafts, 100 and 50 feet deep. In the 
same district a memorandum has been found of J. L. Doyle, who alone sunk 
two 65-foot shafts and connected them with a drift. Enoch Kile, a Yavapai 
County miner, single-handed sunk a 75-foot shaft and doubtless many other 
such instances could be found. 


Almost every prospector, whether professional or tenderfoot, had his own 
pet "lost mine" that he looked for. Hundreds of "lost mine" stories have 
been localized everywhere over the West. The richest always was somewhere 
out in the desert, beyond water, or within almost inaccessible mountains, where 
wild Indians guarded the golden secret handed down to them by their fore- 
fathers. Of course, most of these tales were merely inventions or distorted 
dreams. But the prospector, with only his burro for companionship, was wont 
to dream strange dreams and, eventually, to transmute them into what he con- 
sidered reality. On the deserts lie the bones of scores of men who believed 


these tales and who staked their lives in the search for things which did not 

One of the best authenticated of these stories was of the lost ''Soldier" 
mine. The story has had little embellishment and, in part, may be true. 
Briefly narrated, it is this: In the summer of 1869 Abner McKeever and 
family were ambushed by Apaches on a ranch near the Big Bend of the Gila. 
McKeever "s daughter. Belle, was taken captive. A number of soldiers gave 
chase. The Apaches separated into several bands, whose trails were followed 
by small detachments of soldiers, the most westerly by Sergeant Crossthwaite 
and two privates, Joe Wormley and Eugene Flannigan. Two of their horses 
dropped of fatigue and thirst and their provisions ran out. Taking some of 
the horseflesh with them, they struck northerly, seeking water in what is sup- 
posed to have been the Granite Wash range of mountains in Northern Yuma 
County. Water was found just in time to save their lives, for Wormley already 
had become delirious. In the morning they found the spring fairly paved 
with gold nuggets. Above it were two quartz veins, one narrow and the other 
sixteen feet wide. The soldiers dug out coarse gold by the aid of their knives. 
About fifty pounds of this golden quartz they loaded on the remaining horse 
and then set out for the Gila River. Less than a day's journey from the river, 
the three men separated, after the horse had dropped dead. Wormley reached 
the river, almost demented from his sufferings and unable to guide a party 
back into the desert. Men struck out on his trail and soon found Flannigan, 
who would have lasted only a few hours longer. He was able to tell the story 
of the gold find, and the rescuing party went farther to find Crossthwaite 's 
body. In a pocket was a map, very rougljly made and probably very inaccurate, 
on which he had attempted to show the position of the golden spring. Still 
better evidence was secured a few days later in the discovery of the dead horse, 
with the gold ore strapped to his back. The ore was all that Flannigan claimed 
and $1,800 was realized from its sale. Flannigan made several unsuccessful 
attempts to return to the find, but he dreaded the desert and never went very 
far from the river. He died in Phoenix in 1880. The district into which the 
party penetrated has been thoroughly prospected during the past twenty years 
and contains many mines of demonstrated richness. It is possible that the 
mountain was the Harqua Hala. The find might have been the later famous 
Bonanza, in a western extension of the mountain, from which several millions 
of dollars in free gold were extracted. Farther west, around Tj'son's Wells, 
also has been found placer gold, though none of these discoveries seem to 
exactly fit the special conditions of the Lost Soldier mine. 

Another lost "Soldier" mine was found by a scouting soldier from old Fort 
Grant in the hills north of the Gila River, not very far from the mouth of the 
San Pedro. His discovery was of quartz speckled with free gold. The country . 
about has been thoroughly prospected since that time and mines of import- 
ance have been worked in that vicinity, but the nearest approach to the dis- 
covery of the old-time bonanza has been in the finding of placer gold in several 
of the gulches. 

Most of the stories of lost mines had to them an Indian annex. Usxially the 
story ran that the Indians would bring in gold and silver, but would refuse to 
tell the secret of their wealth. Ross BroAvne told in 1863 that at the store of 


Hooper & Hunter iu Arizona City he saw masses of pure gold as large as the 
palm of the hand, brought in by adventurers who stated that certain Indians 
had assured them that they knew places in the mountains where the surface 
of the ground was covered by the same kind of yellow stones. But neither 
threats nor presents, whiskey, knives, tobacco, blankets, all the Indians craved, 
could induce the savages to guide the white man to the fabulous regions of 
wealth. The explanation then was given that the Indians were afraid that 
the white men would come iu such numbers that the Indian preponderance of 
population would be lost. 


IMost popular of lost mine stories in pioneer days was that of the "Nigger 
Ben." A. H. Peeples, one of the "Weaver party, to which Ben also belonged, 
in 1891 told the editor what he knew of the legend. 

Nigger Ben — and he was a good man if liis skin was black — was the only one of us who 
dared to prospect around very much alone. The Indians would not harm him, evidently on 
account of his color. He struck up a friendship with several Yavapai chiefs, even when they 
were the most hostile to the other miners, and they told him of a place where there was much 
gold, far more than on Bich Hill, where we were working. Ben took a nugget from our stock 
that was about the size of a man 's thumb and showed it to a chief who was especially friendly 
with him. The Indian said he had seen much larger pieces of the same substance and started 
off to exhibit the treasure to him. Ben was taken to some water holes, about sixty-five miles 
northwest of Antelope, toward McCracken, in southern Mohave County. When there, however, 
the chief would show him no further, seemingly being struck by some religious compunctions 
he hadn't thought of before. All he could be induced to do was to toss his arms and say, 
' ' Plenty gold here ; go hunt. ' ' Ben did hunt for years and I outfitted him myself several times 
and btdieve he finally died of thirst on the desert. Numbers of others have tried to find the 
Nigger Ben diggings, but they have not been discovered as yet. Ed Schieffelin, who discovered 
the Tombstone mines, wrote me several months ago, asking about them. I gave him all the 
information I had on the subject and he is now out with a large outfit thoroughly prospecting 
llio wliolc of that region. I am confident the gold is there. 

One variety of the "Lost Dutchman" story concerns the operations of a 
Gei'man who made his headquarters at Wiekenburg, iu the early seventies. He 
had a very irritating habit of disappearing from the camp once in a while, 
going by night, and taking with liim several burros, whose feet would be so 
well wrapped that trailing was impossible. He would return at night, iu 
equally as mysterious a manner, his burros loaded with gold ore of wonderful 
richness. Efforts at tracking him failed. The countiy for miles around was 
.searched carefully to find the soiirce of his wealth, which could not have been 
very far distant. The ore was not the same as that at Vulture. The location 
of the mine never became known to anyone, save its discoverer. He disappeared 
as usual one night, and never returned. The assumption that he was murdered 
by Apaches apj^ears to have been sustained b}' a prospector's discovery near 
Vulture in the summer of 1895 of the baii'el of an old muzzle-loading shotgun, 
and by it, a home-made mesquite gun stock. The gun had been there so long 
that even the hammer and trigger had rusted away. Near by was a human 
skeleton, bleached fi-om long exposure. The next find was some small heaps 
of very rich gold rock, probably where sacks had decayed from around the ore, 
and then at a short distance was discovered a shallow prospect hole, sunk on a 


gold-bearing ledge. The ore in the heaps was about the same character as that 
which had been brought into Wickenburg in the early days by the "Lost Dutch- 
man/' but it didn't agree at all with the ore in the shallow prospect hole, which 
was not considered worthy of further development. 

In the winter of '79 some trouble was stirred up among confiding tender- 
feet by the publication of a story in the Phcenix Herald, printed as a fake so 
plainl}!- transparent that he who ran might have read. It told of the arrival 
of a prospector from the depths of the Superstitions, whence he had been driven 
by pigmy Indians, who had swarmed out of the cliff dwellings. His partner 
had been killed, and he had escaped onl,y by a miracle. But the couple had 
discovered some wonderful gold diggings, from which an almost impossible 
(juantity of dust had been accumulated by a couple of days work. The story 
was widely copied, and from eastern points so many inquiries came that the 
Herald editor had to have a little slip printed to be sent back in reply. On 
the slip was the word "lake." The editor feared to even remain silent, for 
most of the letters told of the organization in eastern villages of parties of 
heavily-armed men to get the gold dust or die in the attempt, and there might 
have been dire consequences on the head of the imaginative journalist had 
Phoenix been reached by even one of the desperate rural eastern expeditions. 


The largest exploring and prospecting expedition Arizona ever has known 
since the days of Coronado, originated on the tale of a prospector named Miner. 
He claimed that he was the only survivor of a party that had found wonderful 
placer diggings somewhere near a hat-shaped hill over beyond the Tonto Basin. 
From a single shovelful of eai'th had been panned seventeen ounces of gold. 
In j\Iay, 1871, he was in Prescott, coming with several companions from Nevada, 
and in that month reached Phoenix from the North with about thirt,y men. The 
point of rendezvous was near old Fort Grant, where were collected 267 men, 
divided into five companies. At the head of the Prescott party was Ed. Peck, 
discoverer of the famous Peck mine at Alexandria. Other membei-s were, 
"Bob" Groom, the noted pioneer; Al Sieber, the foremost Indian campaign 
scout of the Southwest, Willard Rice and Dan O'Leary. Governor A. P. K; 
Safford commanded the recruits from Tucson and was elected commander-in- 
chief of the party at the camp near Grant. From Tucson and Sonora came two 
large companies of Mexicans. From Grant the march was to the Gila, up the 
San Carlos and thence to Salt River. There was found the hat-shaped moun- 
tain, since known by the name of Sombrero Butte, and the men prospected 
widely through the Tonto Creek and Cherry Creek valleys, and over the 
Sierra Ancha.s. Returning down Cherry Creek, the prospecting was continued 
up the Pinto Creek and Pinal Creek valleys. Finally in disgust the different 
parties separated at Wheatfields and returned to their homes. Miner, at the 
time, was thought to have been mistaken in his bearings, but members of the 
party later became convinced that he was merely a liar. 

Possibly connected with the Miner tale that led Safford and his party very 
far afield, was the lost Thorne mine. This story was based on the adventures 
of a young surgeon named Thorne, who, having cured the eye troubles of a 
couple of Apaches at a post whereat he was stationed, was induced to visit the 


Indian village where there was an epidemic of the same disorder. He was 
blindfolded, a procedure that usually obtained in stories of this sort, and event- 
ually reached the village, not knowing its direction. After he had conquered 
the epidemic, he was placed upon a horse and taken to a deep rock-walled 
canon facing a high ledge of quartz that glittered with flecks of gold. Below, 
in the sand of the wash, was almost a pavement of gold nuggets. Thorne pre- 
tended that the find was of little value, but furtively took all the bearings he 
could. lu the distance he saw a high mountain, crowned with a peculiar rocky 
formation like a gigantic thumb turned backward (a description that might fit 
Sombrero Butte) to the eastward of the Cherry Creek Valley. Though the 
Indians pressed handfuls of the nuggets upon him, Thorne still persisted in 
his pose that the stuff was worthless and refused to take any, convinced that he 
could again find the treasure. He led two expeditions into the country, but 
found no less than four such formations such as he had marked, and the bonanza 
never was discovered, and Thorne afterwards was denounced as an impostor. 
It is a fact, however, that the Cibicu Indians of the Cheri-y Creek Valley knew 
of the existence of some rich placer field. On one occasion, Alchisay is known 
to have pawned a nugget worth $500 for $10 worth of supplies, and later to 
have redeemed the gold, of which he seemed to know the full value. 

In the desert somewhere west of Yuma, many expeditions have searched for 
the lost "Peg-Leg" mine, said to have been discovered by a one-legged indi- 
vidual named Smith, about forty years ago. Some there were who thought 
the mine in Arizona, but whatever its location, it has never been found, and 
may have been only in the imagination of a rum-soaked prospector. 

Prominent among the "lost mines" stories of Northern Arizona was that 
of the "Adams Diggings." Most indefinite are the details, and the various 
locations indicated lie anywhere from the Colorado Kiver through to Globe. 
Adams, understood to have been a San Bernardino colony Mormon, in 1886 
heard from a Mexican a story of a rich gold deposit, and forming a party of 
twenty-two, struck eastward to a point supposed to have been near Fort Apache, 
where the "Diggings" were found. The story continues that after working 
for a while, eleven of the party started for the Pima villages for supplies. They 
failed to return and nine more, driven by impending hunger, took the same 
trail, leaving in camp only Adams and two others. The three, finally driven 
out by famine, started out and found on their trail, the bodies of all their 
comrades, who had been murdered by Apaches. The trio appear to have suc- 
ceeded in returning safely to San Bernardino and, in 1875, to have started, as, 
members of a party of twelve, to return to the lost bonanza. Jas. C. Bell, later 
of Globe, with two companions joined this party near Prescott and were made 
members, while four more joined at Fort Verde. The lapse of time had made 
Adams very uncertain in his location, but he remembered that it was in a deep 
canon running in an easterly direction, at a point where a gold ledge was sharply 
defined on the sides of the gulch, and near two black buttes. Search was made 
down as far as the Gila, near San Carlos and thence up to the headwaters of 
the Gila and back again to Fort Apache, but there was no success, and still 
undiscovered are the ashes of an old cabin wherein Adams told Bell, was buried 
gold dust worth at least $5,000. 



However rich Arizona mines have been, there is a suspicion that, before the 
days of copper, their net proceeds would hardly equal the amount of money 
furnished by ignorant investors toward the development of prospects that have 
never amounted to anything. Still worse, many of these enterprises have been 
most unblushing frauds, the money stolen from the unwary after advertising 
campaigns that claimed enormous riches for the mine that happened to serve 
as bait, used by schemers, who found their victims in the eastern states of the 
Union. Today such work would hardly be done, for the United States authori- 
ties keep close watch upon any extravagant advertising, and make investigation 
as to the basis of the claim. One of the frauds in 1899 grew to such large pro- 
portions that Gov. N. 0. Murphy considered it his duty to issue a formal letter 
of warning, addressed to outside investors in Arizona mines. This letter brought 
down a storm of protest, and Murphy was accused of a jealous desire to ruin 
Arizona mining. Within a few months, however, it was demonstrated that his 
action had been dictated by a true sense of local patriotism. The particular 
swindle to which he referred was the Spenazuma mining project, developed by 
"Doc" Flowers, who already had made an enormous fortune in the sale of 
proprietary medicines. The Spenazuma, which was exploited as the greatest 
mine in the world, was in Graham County and was a very ordinary mine indeed. 
Ore samples that were sent east and that were piled on the mine dump for the 
inspection of committees of stockholders were brought from other mines of far 
greater value in the Black Rock district. 

The expose came through a newspaper man, Geo. H. Smalley of Tucson, who 
furnished Governor Murphy with the information that led to the publicity 
given. But Flowers sold stock, at advanced prices, even after his methods had 
been shown up in eastern journals. Flowers could not buy Smalley off and soon 
thereafter had to quit operations in the Southwest. 

One amusing feature of Flowers' operations on the Spenazuma was a fake 
stage hold-up, thoughtfully provided for the benefit of a number of prospective 
investors. He hired a number of cowboys to hold up the caravan of coaches, 
but the defenders succeeded in driving off the bandits, who, later, however, 
couldn't keep from joyously narrating the features of their employment. 
Flowers was a man of true Wallingford stripe and found opportunity for mak- 
ing money on every corner. In 1890, while under indictment on a charge of 
selling fraudulent stock, and while under bond for $50,000, he floated in Phila- 
delphia a company for the promotion of a method of making gold. He was 
arrested on several charges of grand larceny, but he succeeded in escaping to 
Canada. Slow-footed justice at last came to him, as late as December of 1914. 
After extradition from Canada, he went to trial at an eastern point, and at the 
age of 70 years was sentenced to two years in the penitentiary. If he had stolen 
a pig his sentence would, probably, have been at least five years. 

In 1892 Dr. H. H. Warner of Rochester, New York, an individual famed for 
his observatory, his bitters and his pills, bought of John Lawler and Judge Ed 
Wells the Hillside group of mines in southwestern Yavapai County, paying 
$50,000 cash on the price of $450,000. The property then was stocked under the 
name of the Seven Stars Gold Mining Company. Ordinarj^ stock was sold at 
$1 a share, but beyond this was issued a block of 100,000 shares at $5. on which 


Warner, then believed worth millions, personally guaranteed annual dividends 
at 13 per cent. Warner failed soon afterward and the bubble burst and the 
mine, with much added development, went back to the sellers, despite the protests 
of the stockholders. 

In clearing up the affairs of the George A. Treadwell filining Compan.>-, 
which had a weird sort of reduction plant near Humboldt, it was claimed by 
stockholders that the promoters of the company on stock sales aggregating 
about $1,000,000 had cleared up a "profit" of $500,000, while not more than 
$100,000 had been spent on the property. One of the promoters, a New York 
lawyer, was said to have been paid counsel's fees of $36,000. 

One Eastern firm of brokers secured bonds or options on a uuiiiber of 
Y^avapai County mines, of the "has-been" class, of former leaders in the silver 
production of Arizona. These old mine workings were cleaned out to an extent, 
and some of the cleverest of advertising, mainly beautifuUy printed circulars 
and letters, was sent broadcast, inviting investment, while plans of the most 
gorgeous description were announced of reduction works that would make rich 
the miners of the entire country. But little was done after the stock-selling 
campaigns. With a stock seller it mattered little whether his mine had any 
worth or not. He never did more mining than was necessary to make a show- 
ing for his campaign. This condition,, however, never has been peculiar to Ari- 
zona. Such schemes were worked much more generally, and with even greater 
success to the promoters, during the days of mining activity in Alaska and 

One individual who had a mine near Prescott issued a unique prospectus full 
of quotations from the Bible and of glittering generalities concerning the wealth 
that was to be secured in the marvelous mine exploited, which later seems to have 
dropped from the public eye. Within the prospectus appears the following 
gem : 

Come, little brother, ami sit on my knee. 

Anil both of us wealthy will grow, you see ; 

If you will invest your dollars with me, 

I will show you where money grows on the tree. 

One earlj'-day promoter issued a prospectus wherein was set fortli, "experts 
agree that sheet gold will be struck at no great depth." A three-foot vein 
usually was enlarged to a 100-foot dyke and few of these writers permitted their 
ore to run less than $100 to the ton. Some of them, even far down in Sonora, 
were declared on the same mineral belt as the United Verde and dime-novel tales 
usually were recited concerning the discover^' of these wondrous bonanzas. 

Early in 1899 there was excitement along the Grand Cailon, where had been 
staked out a large area of the lime-carbonate capping of the region as valuable 
for platinum. The bubble was punctured by Prof. W. P. Blake, director of 
mines of the Territorial University, who after careful assays reported that the 
"oi'e" sent him was a carbonate, containing only silica, calcium, magnesia, iron 
and a little alumina. Not a trace of platinum could be found, though similar 
rock elsewhere submitted was reported to have returned values of $300 a ton in 
platinum. AVhile deploring the influence of his report upon the pi'ospectors 
who thought they had found wealth, he said, "the people of Arizona generally 


do not propose to profit by ignorance, pretense or misrepresentation." It is 
probable tbat the exeitemeut all started through efforts made to assure trail 
holdings down into Cataract Gallon. 

Another notable swindle was that of the Two Queens and Mansfield Mining 
companies. The former had several prospects, near Winkelman, about 100 
miles southeast of Phcenix. The latter had a mine in the Patagonia disti'ict of 
Santa Ci'uz County. The Post Office department secured the arrest of several 
Kansas City (Missouri) stock brokers, who had been selling shares in the two 
companies, by means of extravagant full-page advertising. As is usual in such 
eases, strong defense was made on the basis of testimony taken in Arizona, but 
the defendants finally were convicted and were sent to jail in Jlay, 1909, though, 
as usual in such cases, they received relatively light sentences. 

Another typical instance concerned a temporary resident of Wiekenburg, 
Arizona, who had bought a mining claim a few miles from that town. He sold 
at least $100,000 worth of stock in several villages along the Hudson, near "West 
Point, and, in order to show his good faith, brought out a Pullman carload of 
selected stockholders to view the wonderful mine from which he was to make 
them fortunes. The mine was viewed, he being the only witness testifying con- 
cerning its richness, more stock was subscribed on the spot and the party went 
rolling eastward convinced. The following day. Sheriff Hayden of Maricopa 
County appeared on the same ground with an attorney and formally sold, under 
a judgment of debt, all the property owned by the promoter or his company in 
that vicinity. Hayden ever since has been filled with regret that he permitted 
the attorney to delay him one day on the sale, or he would have been on the 
gi'ound at the same time as the investors' party. 


A company with a capital of .$10,000,000 was organized in San Francisco in 
1872 for the exploitation of a diamond field somewhere north of Port Defiance 
in Northeastern Arizona. The reputed discoveries of the field were a couple, 
Arnold and Slack, who exhibited in New York and San Francisco some mag- 
nificent rough diamonds and some very good rubies. The San Francisco com- 
pany included a number of the wealthiest men of the city, of large experience 
in a mining way. They sent out some agents who returned with more diamonds, 
picked up from the surface of the ground. Just the location of the find was 
disputed, however, for it was told that locations made north of Fort Defiance 
were merely for the purpose of diverting attention, when in reality the field 
whence the diamonds came was south of the Moqiii villages. The whole scheme 
was a fraud on a gigantic scale. It was uncovered by Clarence King, the noted 
western geologist, who demonstrated that the diamonds were not of the 
same character, bearing characteristics both of the South African and Brazilian 
fields. King visited the Arizona field and confirmed his own belief that it had 
been salted with stones brought from abroad. It is probable that the two "dis- 
coverers" were merely tools of much more wealthy men, who expected not only 
to get back the gems that had been "planted," but to sell stock to the unwary 
small investor. There was another fake diamond "discovery" down on the Gila, 
not far from Yuma, but this was on a much smaller scale and excitement died 
even more quickly. 



One of the few ephemeral boom camps of Arizona was Quijotoa, sixty-five 
miles west of Tucson, by the side of a mountain shaped like a basket, the name 
coming from the Papago word, "kiho," meaning basket. The first locations 
were made early in 1879 at the bottom of the hill, renamed Ben Nevis by the 
Scottish Alexander McKay, one of the pioneers. May 11, 1883, Chas. Horn or 
McKay discovered rich croppings at the summit of the hill and then the excite- 
ment began. It was claimed that five tons of the ore gave a return of $2,500 at 
the Benson smelter. Tunnels were started into the hillside to cut the ledge at 
depth, but failed, for there was no ledge. In the language of a San Francisco 
mining man, the deposit was "merely a scab on top of the mountain." McKay 
did give a bond on the property to the Flood-Pair-Mackey-O 'Brien syndicate of 
San Francisco at a price of $450,000, but the option was not taken up at 
maturity. A half-dozen companies were formed in San Francisco, each with 
ten million dollars capitalization, for the working of the Quijotoa mines, and 
the news went broadcast that in Arizona had been found another Comstock. 
As a result, thousands of men flocked in, despite warnings that the mines were 
only in the development stage. Around the original Logan townsite were four 
or five additions. In January, 1884, at Quijotoa, were only a couple of tents, ten 
miles from water. Two months later, several thousand people had come and 
there were many marks of a permanent town, including a weekly newspaper, 
"The Prospector," published by Harry Brook. The time the boom broke is 
indicated best by the fact that the printing ofBce was moved to Tucson in the 
fall of 1884. Soon thereafter, J. G. Hilzinger of Tucson bought the mines, a 
mill that had been moved over from Harshaw, and all the other property of the 
principal corporation for $3,000. 



Mohave ivas First in the North — The Old Vulture — Romance of the Silver King — Ed. 
Schieffelin and the Discovery of Tombstone — Riches of the United Verde — Deserl 
Bonanzas — How the Vekol Was Found. 

Following the line of least resistance, much prospecting was done in the late 
'50s northward from Yuma along the Colorado. Placers were worked only 
fifteen miles above the Gila at the Potholes, about where the present Laguna 
dam has been placed. The old town of La Paz owed its existence to placer min- 
ing in the gulches to the eastward. Forty miles above Fort Yuma, in 1858, a 
prospector named Halstead discovered the Colorado River copper mine, claimed 
as very rich, though it failed to stand the test of time. Several tons of ore were 
shipped to San Francisco, and the property was bought from Halstead by Wil- 
cox, Johnson & Hartshorn, who owned a steamer plying on the Colorado, and 
with whom were associated Hooper, a Fort Yuma merchant, and Lieutenant 

Twelve miles east of the Colorado and a short distance from Bill WiUiams 
Fork lies the Planet, one of the oldest copper mines of Arizona and one that 
still shows signs of activity. It was worked as early as 1863 by a San Francisco 
company, which for a while operated two small furnaces on oxide and carbonate 
ores and which proposed shipment of ore by sailing vessels from the Colorado's 
mouth to Swansea, at a cost estimated at $25 a ton, for ore that averaged $300 
a ton. Heavy ore shipments were made to San Francisco. The Springfield 
company also operated a copper furnace about the same time on ore from the 
Orion mine. 

In 1856 Lieutenant Humphries reported he had found gold, silver, copper 
and lead in the country east of the Colorado on the northern road. 

Judge Jas. M. Sanford, with John Brown of San Bernardino, built the first 
ferry at the Mojave crossing of the Colorado in 1861, and in the fall of the 
following year left the river with twelve men to hunt for gold diggings heard 
of to the westward. Only four of the expedition are said to have returned. 
Sanford spent his last days at "Williams. 

The Mojave Mountains again were explored in the summer of 1863 by a 
party headed by Chas. "W. Strong, representing New York capital. The same 
region was visited and discussed scientifically the following summer by B. Silli- 
man. The San Francisco District of Mojave County is one of the oldest in 
Northern Arizona and early in the '60s small mills had been erected at Hardy- 
ville for handling gold ores. Early established was the "Wauba-Yuma mining 


district, twenty miles east of Hardyville. The name given was that of an 
Indian chief. Howard Coit, later for years caller of the San Francisco Stock 
Exchange, was recorder of Wauba-Yuma District and owned one of the very 
few claims that have endured. 


The miners of Northwestern Arizona in the early sixties were soldiers from 
Camp Mojave, off on brief furlough, or discharged soldiers of the California 
Column. That they were men of education and of mining experience is shown 
by the records they kept, still available, stored in the neat recorder's office at 
Kingman. The official pioneer records at Kingman probably are the best pre- 
served in all the state. 

As early as January 1, 1863, there had been a meeting of miners of Colorado 
district, held in the San Juan Company's office at El Dorado Canon. The dis- 
trict was organized at a meeting January 8. William Caley was elected presi- 
dent and reference made to the election of a Mr. Lewis as recorder, to fill an 
unexpired term that began June 1, 1862, showing prior action along the same 
line. There had been 661 locations in this district by the end of 1863. 

November 13, 1863, there was a meeting of miners at Soldiers' Springs, 
whereat George Okey was elected chairman and John Comerford, secretary, and 
there was formed San Francisco Mining District, running twenty-five miles 
along the Colorado and fifty miles to the eastward. Each locator was gi-anted 
a claim 200 feet long and 150 feet on each side of the lode. It was ordered that 
the books of the district be kept at Fort Mojave or at Silver Creek, "the posi- 
tion of the district being in an Indian country and away from protection." 
Robt. A. Rose was elected the first recorder. On the last day of the same year, 
Rose was succeeded by W. Walter. Within the district the first claim record 
was the Nevada Lode, November 23, 1863, the locators John Comerford, George 
Okey, W. S. Pearson and Robt. A. Rose. A number of locations were made 
along this same Nevada lode, by the Union, Lincoln, Todd, Hancock, Stanley 
and other companies, some of the appended names being R. C. Drum, DeWitt 
Titus, D. J. Williamson, John Stark, W. E. Strong, J. I. Fitch, R. P. Nason, 
Charles Atchison, John Murray, D. W. Ridley. Sixty claims had been placed 
of record by the close of the year. The first deed was from W. B. Jeffries to 
M. G. Moore and A. E. Davis, both parties resident at Fort Mojave, conveying 
for the sum of -$95 the Union original location, 

Now included within the Oatman District is the old Moss mine, located by 
John Moss in 1863 and now under bond to the United States Smelting and 
Refining Company. The surface ores were very rich. Two tons taken out in 
1865 returned the owners .$185,000. In latter days golden riches have been 
uncovej-ed in the Tom Reed and Gold Roads mines. The croppings of the latter 
in the River Range Pass were crossed by the main road that ran westward to 
Fort Mojave and Hardyville, but it was not till years afterward that the mine 
was located by Jose Jerez, a Mexican prospector, "grub-staked" by Henry 
Lovin of Kingman. They sold for $50,000, but the mine thereafter has pro- 
duced annually not less than ten times its cost. 

Some time before 1874 there were two small smelting furnaces at Chloride, 
in that year one of them already being reported in ruins. Lode mining at 

<:arly placer workings near prescott 

Eight thousand feet in length 


Chloride Flat was started as early as 1864 ou claims at Silver Hill, but it is 
told that the first miners, three in number, were killed by Haulpais, one mur- 
dered at the windlass and the two others stoned to death in the shaft. Other 
miners in the same locality were killed or driven off and for a few years mining 
in Mohave County was considered a rather uuhealthful occupation. One of 
the smelters at Chloride was the Baker furnace, placed close to the Schuylkill 
claims. The mines around Cerbat wei-e worked as early as 1863, at date that 
gave the name to the Sixty-three mine, two miles northwest of the camp. In 
1857 the first effective quartz mill in the county was built by Davis & Randall, 
near Hackberry, on a mine that had been discovered in October, 1874, by Wil- 
liam Ridenour, S. Crozier and two others. They had been prospecting in the 
Grand Caiion and, after attack by the Indians and losing all but their lives, 
managed to reach Mineral Park, thereafter to discover the Hackberry claim, 
one of the richest of the early mines. Another little mill was started at Mineral 
Park on Washington's Birthday in 1876, 

In Southern Mohave County the McCracken mines, six miles noi-th of Bill 
Williams Fork, was discovered by Jackson McCracken, August 17, 1874, The 
product of the mine for a while ran as high as $200,000 a month, mainly from 
a stringer of high-grade lead carbonate, found within a vein over eighty feet 
in width. The ores at first treated averaged about $75 a ton in silver and 20 
per cent lead, but the lead percentage increased and the silver decreased, till, 
about 1881, operations at the camp were practically at a standstill and the 
nearby mill town of Signal had passed the period of its brief glory. 

By 1880 Mohave Coimty had become a large producer of silver, from a score 
of camps, and had secured rank as one of the richest mining sections of the 
Southwest. A few years later, though favored by railroad construction, there 
came a time of stagnation that lasted till only a few years ago. Now silver is 
in the backgi'ound and gold and zinc give much larger returns. Chloride and 
Oatman have assumed large prominence in the mining world. 

During the past year the Oatman camp, within which are included some 
of the oldest Northern Arizona mines, has been having a boom that seems to 
approximate that known by Tombstone or the later Nevada camps. Thousands 
have come to join in expected riches from gold that already has been found at 
the depth of about 300 feet, in greenish and unattractive quartz that lies beside 
great diorite dykes that thrust their heads through the country for miles. Great 
deposits of high-grade ore have been cut in several mines. While the gold is 
very fine and light, it is cheaply and thoroiighly extracted by means of cyanide. 

Near Mineral Park are turquoise deposits from which since 1004 valuable 
shipments of the gem material have been made to New York. About a dozen 
mines have been worked, the greatest production from one owned by the Tif- 
fanys. Some of the gem rock is of deep blue color 9,nd has value up to $6 a 
carat. The deposits were worked by the ancient people of Arizona, whose stone 
cutting tools are found scattered around the locality. 


The large value of the mineral discoveries of the Walker party had prompt 
appreciation in the mind of Gen. Jas. H. Carleton, commanding the military 
department of New Mexico, whose letters on the subject the author has been 


happy in findiug. One private communication, to Gen. H. W. Halleck, then in 
command of the anuy, told, under date of June 14, 1863, of the receipt in Santa 
Fe of two letters, by Chief Justice Benedict ' ' from a kinsman who is a member 
of a prospecting party which left the Rio Grande under the leadership of old 
Captain Walker of Rocky Mountain and California celebrity." The general 
tells that he has seen gold that had been sent to Judge Benedict, that it was 
coarse and of the first quality. Carleton suggested immediate action by the 
military arm and an expedition over the Whipple road of two companies of 
California volunteers, for which he would employ AValker as guide, and the 
establishment of a post for the protection of the miners. He advised also the 
mapping of the region. 

Carleton on June 22 wrote Walker himself, telling that Surveyor-General 
Clark of New Mexico soon would visit the new gold fields and asking that the 
old scout return with Clark to Albuquerque to serve as guide for the troops that 
would be sent to found a permanent post. The letter was veiy cordial in tone 
and offered all good wishes and substantial support, assuring Walker that he 
and his party deserved substantial success and large reward for the toil, hard- 
ships and danger that had been encountered. 

On the same date in June the general ordered Captain N. J. Pishon of the 
First California Cavahy from Fort Craig with his command to serve as escort 
for the surveyor-general. The captain was directed to take a supply of gold- 
washing implements and to have his men wash the gulches on arrival, to accur- 
ately determine the richness of the sands. On the report returned would depend 
the permanent occupation of the section, though Carleton prophesied that Pist- 
on's report would excite a veritable revolution. 

The surveyor-general bore the letter to Walker, and himself received a very 
readable communication from the general, who gave him good advice concern- 
ing the dangers and difficulties of his trip. To him Carleton commended none 
other than our old pioneer friend Bob Groom, "who last fall came from the 
new geld diggings on the Colorado River, ascending Williams Fork to the San 
Francisco Mountains and thence in by Zuiii to Fort Wingate and Albuquerque. 
Groom was commended as a guide or packer, anxious to return to the gold field 
he had passed, and as a gentlemanly and intelligent man, in destitute circum- 
stances, but worthj^ of consideration, kindness, confidence and help. 

Though the surveyor-general's stay at the gold fields was short, it was not till 
the middle of September that he returned to Santa Fe, reporting that the 
country visited was rich in gold, silver, cinnabar and copper, even compared 
with California. General Carleton had issued instructions for the prospecting 
of all his department, something that would have been done in any ease, for 
most of his soldiers were old California miners. On the Prieta affluent to the 
Gila gold had been found that washed 40 cents to the pan, as well as argen- 
tiferous galena worth a dollar a pound. Rich copper, abounding in gold, "in 
quantity enough to supply the world," had been found near the head of the 
Gila. Especially interesting was a reference, found in a letter written by the 
general to Secretary Salmon P. Chase of the treasurj^ department, accompanied 
by two specimens of pure gold from the top of Antelope Mountain, a discovery 
that had been referred to by Mr. Clark. These specimens had been sent to 
the general, he wrote, "by Mr. Swilling, discoverer of the new gold fields near 


the San Francisco Mountains. If it be not improper, please give the larger 
piece of the gold to Mr. Lincoln. It will gratify him to know that Providence 
is blessing our country, though it chasteneth." The general sagely added: 
"Now, would it not be wise for Congi'ess to take early action in legislating for 
such a region, to open roads, to give force to subjugate the Indians, to give 
mail facilities, to claim rights of seig-uiorage in the precious metals, which 
will help us pay our debts, etc.?" All of which shows that General Carleton 
was one of the earliest of Arizona boosters. 

Conner of the Walker party tells that the surveyor-general's party left five 
large wagons behind near the site of Prescott, to be used later, with some of 
the Walker mules attached, iu transporting goods from California. 

The advent of the new territorial government gave stimulus to immigration 
and it is told that in 1865 at least 3,000 placer miners, favored by a wet season, 
were washing the sands of the gulches around Prescott. AVithin the mining 
population was a large admixture of Californians, accustomed to doing things 
in an orderly manner, so as early as December 27, 1863, a meeting was held at 
Goodwin City, a mile south of the site of Prescott, for the organization of a 
mining district. 


Another record found tells that the Walker party struck Groom Creek May 
7, 1863, and therefrom spread into all the likely-looking gulches roundabout. 
In June they found diggings on Lynx Creek, where Sam C. Miller killed a lynx 
and George Colter got $350 from the washing of a single pan. In October of 
the same year, the Lount party of thirteen from California made camp in 
Miller Valley. It is claimed that this party made the first location under 
American laws of any lode mine north of the Gila. It was on Lynx Creek, 
called the "Pride of Arizona," and the notice was recorded December 27, 1863. 
Charlie Genung claims that the first lode mine located in the Yavapai hills 
was the Montgomery, staked out by a party of which he was a member late in 
1863. The fame of the gold diggings had spread, for the Walker party and 
others of the first comers were more than anxious for a larger settlement, in 
order to secure better protection against the Apaches. In November, twenty- 
four miners, including Ed Peck, arrived from New IMexico and joined the 
Miller Valley colony. 

While some of the creek beds of Yavapai County are washed for gold to 
this day, the era of placering soon was succeeded by that of silver lode mining, 
that in turn by gold mining and it again, by the development of the copper 
industry. By 1875 on the Hassayampa, twenty-five miles south of Prescott, 
had been installed a 30-ton smelting furnace, to work the silver-lead ores of 
the Crescent and other mines of the locality. Over in the Bradshaws had been 
found the Tiger, Del Pasco, War Eagle, Peck, Black Warrior, Tuscuml)ia and 
Silver Prince. Possibly best known of all of these was the Peck, which had a 
five-foot body of silver chloride within which a pay streak seemed about one- 
half silver. The ores were reduced at a pioneer quartz mill at Aztlan, six 
miles south of Prescott. The Peck was discovered in 1875 by Ed C. Peek, C. C. 
Bean, William Cole and T. M. Alexander. Peck found the first heavy silver 
float as he was stooping to drink from a spring. In 1877 the property was 


capitalized iu San Francisco. Then there was litigation and, thongh over 
$1,000,000 is said to have been taken from the mine in its first few years, little 
has been realized from it since. 

One of the early properties was the Senator, on the upper Hassayampa, 
which had a ten stamp mill early in the seventies. Rice and the Elliott brothers 
discovered the Accidental in 1864 near Lynx Creek. The well-known Poland, 
named after one of its discoverers, is of pioneer rating, as is the Silver Belt, 
near Big Bug, from which lead-silver ores were worked in a furnace on the 
Agua Fria. Still further to the northward Charles Spencer, Dan O'Leary and 
other daring prospectors made their way into the caiions of the Colorado and 
down into the mysterious gorge of Cataract Creek, where they found hori- 
zontal veins of silver ore of great richness, but in spots almost inaccessible on 
the sides of the cliffs. 

Jack Swilling, Bob Groom, Ed Peck, Jack Moore and a number of other 
noted pioneer Arizonans, were busy in the hills of Yavapai County in this 
period, defying the Indians, but leaving behind little more than a history of 
their deeds. The Tip Top probably was the leading mine of the Bradshaws 
during the late seventies and its stock was listed on the San Francisco board. 


The famous Vulture mine, in desert hills eleven miles from the railroad 
town of Wickenburg, has had broad renown as the greatest producer of gold 
ever known in the Southwest and tales of its output run up to $10,000,000. It 
was (and is) a great mine, but hardly to the extent quoted. It was discovered 
late in 1863 by Henry Wickenburg, who had been a member of the Weaver 
party. The mine at first was a pile of almost loose rock, with gold visible to 
the naked eye anywhere across a thirty-foot ledge. It is told that miners 
became wealthy by simply bringing away pockets or lunch cans full of gold 
quartz that at times carried a volume of more than half of the precious metal. 
Apaches swarmed in the vicinity and many travelers were killed between the 
waterless mine and the river. ]More than forty arastras at one time were being 
operated on the river on ore from the Vulture. Charlie Genung happened 
along in July, 1864, in time to help Wickenburg build his first arastra, the 
first clean-up realizing $100 from a ton of ore. The arastras in general were 
operated by contractors, who paid Wickenburg $15 a ton for ore at the mine, 
the buyer doing his own mining and packing and generally making by his 
deal. In 1865 the arastras had been succeeded by two small mills at tlie Town 
of Wickenburg, said to have been so named by Governor Goodwin. One of 
these mills was built by Michael Goldwater, who took a mortgage on the first 
product to secure his pay. He ran the mill a month, realizing $3,000 a day 
and then turned it over; the bonanza ore was gone and the ledge matter had 
dropped in value to $30 a ton. In the spring of 1866 the main claim was 
bought for $75,000 by B. Phelps of New York, a miner of prior experience at 
the Picacho, near La Paz, and in the Heintzelman and Cababi camps. There- 
after a twenty-stamp mill was built at Wickenburg. The gross gold product 
for about a year, to September, 1867, was only $45,633. 



A better story was told, however, by the noted western assayer, Thomas 
Price, who estimated that the Vulture Company, within six years, crushed 
118,000 tons of quartz, with extraction of about $2,500,000. 

The mine has passed through the hands of many operators, some of whom 
have used it merely for stock selling. The ores have been reduced at several 
points along the Hassayampa, particularly at Smith's mill and at Seymour. 
Still later an eightj'-stamp mill was erected at the mine, where ore of very low 
grade was successfully handled until a pipe line from the Hassayampa was 
swept away bj^ the flood of 1890. During a lease of the pi-operty, the (5ld stone 
buildings at the Town of Vulture were torn down and run through the mill 
and it is told that the walls averaged about $20 to the ton in gold. The mine 
worked only to the depth of 550 feet on an incline, when a fault was encountered. 
The old workings largely caved in and became a wreck. During the last few 
years a new company operating the mine has sunk at a different point and 
again has found the lead, almost as rich as it was in pioneer days. 

Despite the richness of the surface ores and the fact that he received a gross 
sum approaching $100,000 when he sold the claims, Wickenburg failed to hold 
more than a very modest competenc}'. His death was at his own hand, by a 
bullet through the brain, in his little adobe house on the Hassayampa a short 
distance below the town that bore his name. He was aged about 86. 

An investment of $550,000 was represented in the works of the Arizona 
Smelting Company at Humboldt, "blown in" during March, 1906. This plant, 
dcsignat<?d to furnish an outlet for the ores of the small mines of Yavapai 
County, has had a checkered career, mainly remarkable for the quantity of 
lionds that were sold upon the strength of its operations. Latterly it has passed 
into the hands of a company which appears to be operating it for profit locally 
derived. In the same district ha^'c been a number of remarkable experiments 
in the way of reduction plants, which have failed as soon as tested. The Brad- 
shaw Mountains near by, found productive in pioneer days, now are yielding 
their riches in greater volume than ever before, the miners assisted b.y modern 
methods in realizing value contained in ores once called rebellious and hence 
considered worthless. 

On the southwestern spurs of the Bradshaws, beyond the famous diggings 
of Rich Hill, lies the once-famous Congress, the deepest mine of the South- 
west, with an incline shaft over 4,000 feet in length. This mine was bought in 
1887 by "Diamond Jo" Reynolds of St. Louis, locally represented by Frank 
M. Murphy. Reynolds died at the camp in IMarch, 1891, some months after 
the stai-t of the mill. The property was very productive for years, but finally 
proved unprofitable. A few miles distant is the well-known Octave property. 


The T'nited Verde at Jerome generally is considered the richest copper 
mine in Arizona, thougli not the largest, measured in pounds of product or in 
area. Nearly wholly owned by former Senator W. A. Clark of Montana, it is 
imderstood to be worth several millions a j-ear net income. Y'et the mine 
before Clark's ownership had a history of financial disaster. 

Credit for the first mining location in tlie Black Hills section has been 
given to the noted scoTit Al Sieber. wlio, in 1877, staked out a claim he called 


the Vevde. This mine later was owned by the Verde Queen Company, which 
found little profit in the operation of a small smelting furnace. This mine 
and good looking croppings nearby, about where Jerome now stands, were 
visited the same year by George W. Hull, who, years later, was pleased to 
own extension on the ground he had passed over. Two claims on these crop- 
pings were located in 1877 by John Dougherty and Capt. J. D. Boyd and there 
was organized the Verde Mining District, with G. V. Kell as recorder. The 
next year three adjoining claims were located by M. A. Ruffner, who, with 
Rod McKinnon, did much work oil the Eureka and Sleeping Beauty mines. 
In 1882 the mines were examined by F. F. Thomas, who had been told in 
Prescott, by Angus McKinnon, that he and his brother had a fine copper mine 
in the Black Hills, about twenty-five miles distant. This was the Wade Hamp- 
ton, where Angus and John McKinnon had sunk a forty-five foot shaft and a 
short drift. The prospect looked good and so an agreement was made to pay 
McKinnon $500 cash and $15,000 December 1. Thomas employed the McKin- 
nons, who seemed to be afraid to sink for fear of knocking the bottom out of 
their mine and spoiling a good prospect. Thomas foreseeing the prospect of a 
big mine by consolidation of several claim, thereafter bonded the adjoining 
Eureka mines from Charles Leuuig of Philadelphia, the Hermit claim from 
Ruffner and the McKinuons, the Azure and Adventure Chromes from Judge 
Riley of Nevada and his nephews, in all getting possession of eleven claims, as 
well as title to a spring in Walnut Gulch. Nearly all had good copper crop- 
pings, but some showed only iron, zinc and lead sulphide, with low assays in 
silver and gold. In the same year George A. Treadwell, later noted as a mining 
expert, was taken to see the property and became enthusiastic over it, later 
acquiring an interest in the gi'ound. Securing the necessary money for making 
the bond payments was not easy, and the month of December was spent by 
Thomas in chasing around eastern financial centers and trying to interest 
capital. The McKinnon bond had been extended to January 1, by which date 
Thomas had telegraphed $7,500 to the McKinuons. The incorporation of the 
United Verde Copper Company was effected in 1883, with James A. McDonald, 
president, and Eugene Jerome as secretary and treasurer, -with Thomas super- 
intendent and general manager, authorized to install reduction works, build a 
road and operate the property. Thomas left New York March 23, 1883, and 
soon thereafter started the first fifty-ton furnace, which made a phenomenal 
run on oxidized ores, high with silver. Thomas had already surveyed the town- 
site, which he named after the company's secretary. 

While the mine was wonderfully rich, reduction processes of that day had 
not developed to the point wherein its ores could be handled profitably. Within 
a year the company had paid $62,000 in dividends out of a total production of 
$779,000 worth of copper. This came mainly in the form of a 60-per cent matte, 
in which was considerable gold. Transportation was even as much trouble as 
the refractory ores and so, late in November, 1884, when copper had dropped to 
about seven cents a pound, and when snow covered the Black Hills divide, over 
which the hauling had to be done to Ash Pork, the mine was closed down. In 
the summer of 1887, Governor Tritle secured a bond and lease on the property 
from the United Verde Company, but soon found the same distressing condi- 
tions bearing down on him that had confronted the previous management. 


According to G. W. Hull, locator of adjacent property, "the men at the mine 
not being paid their wages, took possession and threatened to destroy the plant." 
Some sort of settlement was made, and then the mine was on the market. Prof. 
James Douglas examined the property, but considered it too remote from trans- 
portation. Following him came W. A. Clark of Montana, accompanied by John 
L. Thompson and J. L. Giroux. In February, 1888, Clark leased the property, 
and in January, 1889, after Giroux had made full investigation and a number 
of smelter runs had been made, Clark purchased control of the company. 

A narrow-gauge railroad M'as completed in November, 1894. over the hills 
and down a tortuous vallej'. About the same time fire started in a sulphide 
slope and even today there is trouble from this source. In October, 1900, was a 
serious cave-in that dropped a large part of the reduction works and railroad 
grade about five feet. In the early Clark days, a tunnel struck an immense body 
of water. 

Clark's capital and the skill of his managers soon put the mine on a paying 
basis. It was appreciated, however, that the reduction works and slag dump 
should not be on top of the mine, so plans were made for a new reduction plant 
in the valley, where the Town of Clarkdale now is in being, supported by the 
operation of a smelter that alone has cost $3,000,000, with a broad-gauge rail- 
road connecting with the Santa Fe system, and with a wonderful railroad lead- 
ing into the mountain on the mine's 1,000-foot level. The old smelter above 
Jerome was abandoned in September, 1915. 


One of the best known of what have been called the desert mines of Arizona 
was the Harqua Hala in Northeastern Yuma County, a bonanza of relatively 
late date. It brought its original owner $75,000, and later was sold to an 
English corporation by Hubbard & Bowers for $1,350,000. Three times it had 
been reported worked out, but two of these times almost accidental prospecting 
uncovered great lenses of ore running high in gold. 

Within the plains of southern and central Yuma County have been found 
many rich gold mines, from the cement placer deposit near Quartzsite down to 
almost the Mexican line. Some of these, such as the King of Arizona and the 
North Star, produced phenomenally for a while, but failed to retain value with 
depth. One of the richest and most enduring of these, desert gold mines was 
the Fortuna, from which millions of dollars were taken up to early in 1903, 
when the shaft was destroyed by a slip that caved in the lower levels. 

In the northern part of Yuma County large expenditures were made about 
1910 by the Clara Consolidated Copper Company, a corporation mainly capital- 
ized in Los Angeles, which built a smelter and railroad before it had developed 
its ore body. The usual result followed and the smelter has been idle save for 
a few months, and the company has passed thi'ough bankruptcy. 

One of the best known of the pioneer mines was the Gunsight, in Myers 
district, twenty miles north of the Mexican border, in south-central Pima 
County, discovered in November, 1878. Early shipments of ore were made with 
returns net at the rate of $1,200 a ton. The name itself was significant of riches, 
for from the croppings one of the discoverers whittled himself a pure silver 
gunsight, to replace one that had been lost. The ore was heavy in lead. 


A forty-two mile railroad has just been completed to connect Gila Bend 
wilh the old A jo camp, Arizona's first copper producer. The mines now ai-e 
held by a company subsidiary to the Calumet and Arizona, and more than 
$5,000,000 has been spent in preparations for working the great deposits that 
are said to average not over 2 per cent in copper. Yet, through tho perfectiou 
of modern mining processes, even this small saving of forty pounds of metal 
to a ton of ore is expected to bring in large profits. At Ajo has been developed 
a reduction process believed to be worth many millions to Arizona copper 
miners. Success has attended experiments in treating the surface carbonate 
ores, which heretofore have been considered beyond economical reduction when 
carrying less than 5 per cent copper. Now it has been demonstrated possible to 
concentrate carbonates which were thought before only suitable for smelting. 

In February, 1908, at Sasco (Southern Arizona Smelting Company) was 
started the smelter of the Imperial Copper Company, a company subsidiary to 
the Development Company of America. The ore came from the well-known 
pioneer Old Boot mine at Silver Bell. The furnaces were closed down in 1910, 
owing to the inability of the company to find profit in the handling of the ore 
whicli seems to have been too low grade for reduction by smelting process. 
Immediately two fair-sized towns were deserted. 


One of the greatest silver mines in the world, undoubtedly the mine 
of its class within Arizona, was the Silver King, located at the camp of the 
same name, beneath the western buttresses of the Pinal range, in the northern 
part of Pinal CountJ^ To this day ehloriders are finding ore in extensions of 
the outer workings, at no great depth from the surface, but the old mine itself, 
with its chimne.v-like formation, worked to a depth of 1,000 feet, is more than 
half filled with water and is dangerous at any point. 

In the days of its activity it disbursed about .1<1, 500,000 in dividends, and 
was one of the few Arizona stocks regularly quoted on the San Francisco Stock 
Exchange. Its mill was at Pinal, five miles from the mine, a camp better known 
to old timers as "Picket Post," for the most prominent feature of its landscape 
was Picket Post Butte, one of the signal stations of the Apaches, from which 
tliey could sight the passing of enemies for many miles around. 

To this camp, in 1876, came Harry Brook, a professional newspaper man, 
wlio, for awhile, tried to find fortune in the editing there of a weekly newspaper, 
Tlie Pinal Drill; but "The Drill" left pay-rock behind long ago, and the towns 
of Pinal and Silver King are mere heaps of crumbling adobes. Probably the 
best historian of the Silver King is Brook himself and the liberty, therefore, is 
taken of quoting from his writings on the subject : 

Great chunks of absolutely jnire virgin silver were dug out of the Silver King. The 
superintendent, Aaron Mason, would sometimes drive down from the mine to the mill with a 
string of wire silver several feet long twisted around his sombrero. They sent native silver to 
the mint and had it made into silver dollars, which were given away as souvenirs. We have 
heard much, of late, in regard to "high grading" — in plain English, stealing — of rich gold 
ore in Nevada. Well, at the Silver King the stealing of silver ore was a common thing, and 
several "fences" were prosecuted and sent to jail. Men on the big ore teams would throw 
off chunks of rich ore, which were picked up by confederates. It was said that the dust of the 
five-mile stretch between the mine and the mill would average at least $5 a ton in silver. 


this time that the Americans had come to aid them in driving out the Mexicans, 
but Doniphan and his ilissourians stayed for a while until he showed the wild 
Indians the error of their ways. December 14 he started for Mexico, leaving 
in command at Santa Fe Col. Sterling Price, later celebrated in the armies of 
the Confederacy. Near the present Los Cruees, Doniphan made a good begin- 
ning by defeating an attacking IMexican force. 

Soon thereafter a general uprising was planned by the deposed Mexican 
officers, suppoi-ted by Padres Ortiz and Gallegos. It was planned that there 
should be a general rising December 19. A delay till Christmas Day afforded 
time for the information of the Americans, who promptly arrested the leaders. 
Tlie following month the insurrection broke out unexpectedly and on January 
19 a body of Mexicans and Indians at Taos killed Governor Bent, Prefect Vigil, 
District Attorney Leal, Narciso Baubien and Pablo Jaramillo, the last named 
the Governor's brother-in-law. Americans also were killed at a number 
of other places. Colonel Price had only a small force, in all amounting to 310 
men. Some of these were local Americans who had rushed to the colors and a 
number of prominent New ]\Iexieans. The American commander did not wait 
for the arrival of a hostile force that was marching down the Rio Grande, but 
offered battle in the field. There were two engagements near Santa Cruz and 
Embudo and one at Taos, to which the New JMexicans, inferior to the Americans 
in everything but numbers, had been driven. The rebellion finally was wiped 
out by an engagement at Fernandez de Taos, in which the Americans at short 
range battered down the walls of the church that had been transformed by their 
foe's into a fortress. The battle was a sanguinary one. Captain Burgwin and 
about a score of Americans fell, but at least 150 of the insurgents were killed. 
Their leader, Montoya, and fourteen others were executed, after trial for the 
murder of Governor Bent and his associates. Others sentenced to death for 
treason were pardoned by the President of the United States on the ground that 
no treason could be shown while ilexieo was at war -with the United States. 


After Bent's death, Donaciano Vigil, a native New Mexican, was made 
Governor and a Legislature was called, to meet December 6, 1847. Ten acts 
M-ere passed, approved both by the Governor and by the militarj' commander, 
Price. One of the ten was for the foundation of a university. Price thereafter, 
by military order, abolished the offices of Territorial Secretary, United States 
^[ar.shal and United States Attorney, as unnecessary. He laid a 6 per cent 
import tax at the territorial border and assessed gambling houses $2,000 a year. 
This military domination, passed on to Col. J. M. "Washington, continued even 
after the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, when the country naturally might have 
been assumed to have passed under civil authority. It should be noted also that 
Kearny's military code had not been fully approved at Washington. A four-day 
convention, which met in October, 1848, its chairman Rev. Antonio Jose Martinez, 
a Catholic priest, made petition to Congress for the allowance of the common 
rights of territorial govennnent, declaring against the introduction of slavery 
and against any cession of territory to Texas. The popidation of New Mexico 
was stated at from 75.000 to 100.000. In September, 1849. a similar convention 
urged about the same action by Congress. It elected Hugh N. Smith as Delegate 


to Congress, but he was refused recognition at Wasliiugtou. Even at that early 
date there was discussion over statehood, though much complicated by slavery 
questions. President Taylor favored statehood at once for both California and 
New Mexico. 

While these questions of admission were being debated, Texas was attempting 
to take possession of the eastern half of New Mexico, but its Commission, sent 
to start several county governments, was turned by the militaiy. The boundary 
trouble tinally was settled by an act of Congress September 9, 1850, offering 
Texas $10,000,000 to abandon her claims to New Mexico and to cei-tain other 
lands farther to the northward, in Colorado and Kansas, especially. This was 
accepted by the Texas Legislature in the following November. 

A following legislative assembly memorialized Congress against the harsh 
military rule and against taxation without representation. Embezzlement was 
charged in ofBce and intimidation even of the church. The only printing press 
was said to be in the hands of the military party. Stiff charges of malfeasance 
were filed against Chief Justice Houghton by Attorney Rich. H. Weightman, 
who had come from Missouri as captain of an artillery command, who later 
killed Felix Aubrey and who in the Civil "War died a colonel in the Confederate 
forces. Col. John Monroe, military commandant and local court of last resort, 
refused to consider the charges. Houghton challenged Weightman and there 
was a duel, in which neither was hurt. 

Colonel Monroe called a convention for May 15, 1850, at which was formu- 
lated a constitution for a proposed State. This document was approved by the 
electors and Henry Connelly and Wm. S. Messervy were elected, respectively. 
Governor and Delegate to Congress. The popular action was nullified by Colonel 
Monroe, bringing out a protest to Washington. As a result, Monroe was ordered 
to keep his hands off civil affairs. 

Not until March 3, 1851, was New ]\Iexico given a full civil government, 
under the terms of an act passed by Congress September 9, 1850, at the same 
time that California was made a State. The first Governor appointed by the 
President was Jas. S. Calhoun. Under his call, a Legislature convened at Santa 
Pe June 2, 1851, with Padre Martinez as President of the Council. Theodore 
D. Wheaton, an American lawyer, was Speaker of the House. Governor Calhoun 
had been Indian Agent in New Mexico and was well acquainted with local con- 
ditions. His term of office included grave troubles with the Navajo and Apache 
Indians, and also M'ith Col. E. V. Sumner, the military commander, who appeai-s 
to have been very much at outs with the civil government. In one of the Gov- 
ernor's final reports, he pathetically wrote: "We are without a dollar in our 
territorial treasury, without munitions of war, without authority to call out our 
militia and without the co-operation of the military authorities. ' ' He started to 
Washington in May, 1852, but died enroute. He was succeeded by former 
Mayor Wm. C. Land, of St. Louis, and he, in 1857, by Abraham Rencher, of 
North Carolina. 

During Col. Sumner's administration of military affairs were built several 
army posts, including Fort Defiance on the Navajo reservation and Fort Union. 
In 1859 trouble with the Navajos became acute and it is told that during two 
years no less than 300 citizens were killed by the Indians, who, on Februarj^ 7, 


1860, tried to capture Fort Defiance. Colonel Canby thereafter undertook an 
active campaign against the hostiles, whom he punished severely. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War, New Mexico, possibly through irritation 
over Texas' attempts at encroachment, was generally Union in sentiment, though 
nearly all her territorial officials, appointees of Presideut Buchanan, headed by 
Gov. Abraham Reucher and Delegate il. A. Otero, were rated as disaffected. 
The same was true of the ranking officers of the regular army in New Mexico. 
In 1861, by Lincoln, Henrj^ Connelly was appointed Governor, with a complete 
overturning of the territorial offices and with abrogation of a slavery statute. 


The association of Arizona with New Mexico ended February 24, 1863, when 
Congress passed an act establishing the Territory of Arizona, which formally 
was organized at Navajo Springs in December of that year. Arizona appears 
to have had very little consideration in the days when ;it was embraced within 
New Mexico and best was known as the haunt of troublesome Indians. The only 
really settled portion was along the Santa Cnxz River, including Tucson and 
Tubac, and there the residents appear to have had and to have demanded very 
little government. 

New Mexico to-day is a sort of linguistic island within the United States, 
probably the only section wherein a foreign language is more commonly used 
than English. At the same time there is presented the curious anomaly that of 
its population at the last census, .304,155, only 23,146 are recorded as foreign 
born, a percentage of native born probably un.surpassed in any other State of 
the Union. 

The history of New Mexico would be tlie richer had it not been for an 
American Governor who, in 1869, according to W. II. Davis, having despaired 
of disposing of the immense mass of old documents and records deposited in his 
office, by the slow process of using them to kindle fii'es, had sold as junk the 
entire lot, an invaluable collection of material bearing on the history' of the 
Southwest and its early European and native inhabitants. 

Peonage seems to have been given official sanction within New Mexico fol- 
lo\^ang the American occupation. Witness to this, a letter written by order of 
General Carleton to Capt. J. H. Whitlock, commanding Fort Selden, reproving 
that officer for failure to deliver a peon to the latter 's master and for the tenor 
of the Captain's letter asking in.struction on tlie matter at issue. Peonage in the 
order is treated as voluntary servitude and not as real slavery. The practice 
later was forbidden by Congressional act. 

General Carleton was selected to command the New Mexican expedition of 
1862 not only for personal fitness for independent action, but because he had had 
prior military service in the country and knew it well. In 1853, while a captain of 
dragoons, he had led several parties of exploration from the Rio Grande settle- 
ments, and of at least one such trip, taken to the ruins of the Gran Quivera, there 
remains a record. It is especially interesting in its criticism of the Spanish- 
speaking inhabitants of 1he region, reciting: "In no rancho or village have we 
seen a solitary indication of industry, cleanliness or thrift since we left Albu- 
querque ; and it may be remarked, parenthetically, that we have yet to see in 
that town the first evidence of these cardinal virtues. Indolence, squalid poverty, 


filth and utter ignorance of everything beyond their cornfields and aeequias 
seem to particularly characterize the inhabitants who are settled along the east 
bank of the Rio Grande." Of the town of Manzana was remarked: "It enjoys 
pre-eminently the widespread notoriety of being the resort of moi-e murderers, 
robbers, common thieves, scoundrels and vile abandoned women than can be 
found in any other town of the same size in New Mexico, which is saying a good 
deal about Manzana." All of which rather indicates that Carleton was hardly 
prepossessed in favor of the people of the land he was to hold within the power 
of the Union. 


General Kearny's special command or escort on leaving Santa Fe for Cali- 
fornia, September 25, 1846, comprised 300 United States dragoons under Lieut. - 
Col. E. V. Sumner. With him was Lieut. W. H. Emory of the Corps of Topo- 
graphical Engineers, who had been ordered to join the expedition to chart its 
progress through the unexplored regions of the Southwest, and to Emory is to 
be credited a very clear and interesting account of the journey. This was the 
same Emory who later was at the head of the Boundary Survey and who became 
the best topographical authority of his day upon the Southwest. Another journal 
was kept by Capt. A. R. Johnston, but this latter chronicle abruptly closed on 
the death of its author at the battle of San Paseual in southern California, before 
the command had reached the coast. Leading the van was none other than the 
famous scout, Kit Carson, who had come eastward over the same route a few 
months before. With his party of scouts was Francois de van Coeur. 

Kearny's column traveled fast, though delayed at times by the hauling of 
a couijle of small but cumbersome howitzers mounted on small wheels. The Gila 
was followed closely, save for the logical detour around the middle box caiion, 
where the Aravaipa Canon trail was taken leading into the San Pedro Valley. 
This trail was found a veritable highway, with many ti'acks of horses, mules and 
cattle, most of them pointing northward, for it was used continually by maraud- 
ing Apaches returning from Sonora with the spoils of war. From the Gila Valley 
northward, Indians showed an extension of the same trail, that led to the Moqui 
and Zuiai villages, constituting the shortest and best route that could have been 
taken by the Kearny expedition bad it been properly advised. There was little 
doubt that this same aboriginal trail was that taken by de Niza and Corona do, 
who thereby must have been saved a vast amount of tribulation in the wilderness. 

On the upper Gila much trouble was experienced in gaining the confidence 
of the Apaches, who made a most unpleasant, impression upon the party, though 
the Indians did no damage and finally were made to undei-stand that the Amer- 
icans were far different from their hereditary enemies, the Mexicans. One chief 
tried to fix up a scheme with General Kearny to raid the Mexican settlements of 
Sonora, offering to bring up a, large force of Indians as reinforcement for the 
troops. The Apaches were called "Gilands" ("Gilenos"). 

The San Pedro was followed down to its junction with the Gila, which was 
crossed at about the site of the present town of Winkelman. Thence the party 
worked down the Gila, most of the time near the stream, which was crossed and 
reerossed a score of times. Lieutenant Emory notes the naming by himself of 
Minei'al Creek, where croppings and stains of copper were seen, and he predicted 


that the time would be seen when the Gila would beai- on its tide heavily laden 
flatboats, floating down to deep water, with copper ore for reduction. Mineral 
Creek has borne that name to this day and in the hills along its course are some of 
the richest and most pi'oductive copper mines in the Southwest. Lieutenant 
Emory's flatboats must be represented, however, by the trains of ore cars taking 
the product of the Ray mines, 10,000 tons a day, to the concentration works and 
smelter at Hayden, near Winkelraan. 

Finally the explorers, footsore and with sore-backed and half-starved horses, 
made their way through the last caiion of the Gila, the great gash in The Buttes, 
a dozen miles above the site of Florence, and with ,ioy and wonderment beheld the 
great Casa Grande plain stretching away to the blue mountains in the far 

In the first day's .journey thereafter there were encountered the first Pima and 
I\Iaricopa Indians seen. These Indians received the warmest of good words from 
the historians of the expedition. While passing through the Pima country the 
camps were continually full of Indians, offering melons, grains and provisions 
for sale, asking white beads or money in exchange. Johnston was struck with 
their unassumed ease and confidence in approaching the camps, "not like the 
Apaches, who bayed at us like their kindred wolves until the smell of tobacco and 
other agreeable things gave them assurance enough to approach us. The Pimas 
have long lived at their present abode and are known to all the trappers as a 
virtuous and industrious people. . . . The Indians exhibit no sentiments 
of taciturnity ; but on the contrary give vent to their thoughts and feelings with- 
out reason, laughing and chatting together; and a parcel of young girls with 
long hair streaming to their waists, and no other covering than a clean, white 
cotton blanket folded around their middle and extending to their knees, were as 
merry as any group of like age and sex to be met with in our own country." 

Emory wrote something to the same effect : "To us it was a rare sight to be 
thrown in the midst of a large nation of what are termed wild Indians, surpassing 
many of the Christian nations in agriculture, little behind them in the useful arts 
and immeasurably before them in honesty and virtue. During the whole of 
yesterday our camp was full of men, women and children who wandered among 
our packs unwatched and not a single instance of theft was reported." 

The Indians had had a taste, however, for the white man's firewater and 
mention is made of an interpreter who "told the General he had tasted the liquor 
of Sonora and New Mexico and would like to taste a sample of the United States. 
The dog had a liquorish tooth and when given a drink of French brandy pro- 
nounced it better than any he had ever seen or tasted." 

Emory had ^vi-itten in his daily .journal of continually finding ruined remains 
of the habitations of ancient peoples. Sharing interest with the good Indians 
was Casa Grande, within the Pima country. He called it the remains of a three- 
story mud house. The Indians called it "Casa ]\Iontezuma," but the bibulous 
interpreter admitted that the Pimas after all knew nothing of its origin. Emory 
w-as, however, told the old Pima story of the primeval woman of surpassing 
beauty, who rejected all courtiers, though her goodness and generosity were unlim- 
ited when there came a time of droiith. One day as she was lying asleep a drop 
of rain fell upon her and from an immaculate conception she bore a son, the 
founder of a new race, who built all these houses. An immaculate conception 


stor>-, of one sort or another, is to be heard among most of the southwestern 
tribes, as well as a tale of the Flood. 


Not far from Yuma the expedition unexpectedly ran across a number of 
IMexicans, driving about 500 horses from Sonora to California, undoubtedly for 
the use of the Mexican forces on the coast. The chief of the party represented 
himself as the employee of several rich rancheros, but later it was learned that 
he really was a colonel in the Mexican army. The horses, though nearly all wild 
and unbroken, were a valuable tind, for the horees and mules of the Kearny expe- 
dition were lean and worn out. That the horses were indeed for the remounting 
of General Castro's command in California was definitely determined through 
the capture of a Mexican messenger, eastward bound with letters for Sonora, 
telling how the Californians had thrown off the detestable Anglo-Yankee yoke 
and had re-established Mexican authority. 

Before leaving Arizona, Lieutenant Emory made a few observations concern- 
ing the country at large that are of interest to-day. He said : "In no part of this 
vast tract can the rains from Heaven be relied upon to any extent for the cultiva- 
tion of the soil. A few feeble streams flow in from different directions from the 
great mountains, which in manj^ places traverse this region. The cultivation of 
the earth is therefore confined to those narrow strips of land which are within 
the level of the waters of the streams, and wherever practiced in a community 
with any success or to any extent involves a degree of subordination and absolute 
obedience to a chief repugnant to the habits of our people." He believed that 
along the Salinas (Salt) and some other rivers land could be found capable of 
irrigation. A memorandum was made of the Mexican highroad between Sonora 
and California, which, from the ford of the Colorado below the mouth of the 
Gila, crossed a fearful desert toward the southeast, that endured for nearly a 
week's journey. 

There were also some observations concerning the Indians at large. The 
Pimas were considered the best, with a high regard for moi-ality and with a 
desire for peace, though without any incapacity for war. The Maricopas were 
considered a bit more sprightly than their neighbors. The Apaches lived prin- 
cipally by plundering the Mexicans, and near the headwaters of the Salinas was 
told of the existence of a band of Indians known as the "Soones," who in manner, 
habits and pursuits "are said to resemble the Pimas, except that they live in 
houses scooped from the solid rock. Many of them are Albinos, which may be tlie 
consequence of their cavernous dwellings." This description of the Zuiii pueblo 
dwellings, on hearsay evidence, is about as good as any heard by Friar J\larco de 

The Colorado River was crossed by the expedition November 24. The stream 
was forded at a point where it was about one-third of a mile wide and four feet 
in extreme depth, with a river bottom about ten miles wide, overgrown with 
thicket. Prediction was made by Captain Johnston that the river ' ' would at all 
seasons carry steamers of large size to the future city of 'LaVaca' at the mouth 
of the Gila." 

Emory stated his belief that the Colorado always would be navigable for 
steamboats, though full of shifting sandbars above the mouth, and that the Gila 


might be navigated up to the Pima villages, and possibly with small boats at all 
stages of water. He wrote of seeing near the junction of the two streams, on the 
north side, the remains of an old Spanish church, built near the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, by the renowned Padre Kino. "The site of this mission," 
he predicted, "will probable be the site of a city of wealth and importance, most 
of the mineral and fur regions of a vast extent of country being drained by the 
two rivers." That the Gila was in rather abnormal state of clarity is shown by 
his reference to the "sea-green waters lost in the ehrome-coloi-ed hue of the 
Colorado. " In these latter days the Gila usually discharges a flood that is nearly 
black into the brick-red waters of the Colorado. 

The column was met at La Pascual, on December 6, by a superior force of 
Jlexicans under command of Gen. Andres Pico. Kearny did not wait for attack, 
but set his column in motion at 2 a. m., with Captain Johnston in command of 
the vanguard. The enemy, encountered about daylight, was charged and driven 
from the field in disorder. That resistance was keen was indicated by the fact 
that the United States forces had a casualty list of eighteen killed and thirteen 
wounded. Among the killed were Captains Johnston and Moore and Lieutenant 
Hammond, while the wounded included General Kearny, Captains Gillespie and 
Gibson and Lieutenant Warner. It is told that the Mexican losses were much 
lieavier. Carson and Lieutenant Beale thereafter slipped through the Mexican 
lines to summon help from San Diego. 

The following day the Californians reformed and made an unsuccessful attack. 
The enemy being in so m.uch greater force, the situation of Kearny's command 
was not enviable, and it is possible that the long journey might have ended in 
disaster had it not been for reinforcement received on the evening of December 
10 of 180 sailors and marines, sent out from San Diego by Commodore Stockton, 
bringing clothing, provisions and ammunition. The Californians, unaware of 
the approach of this body, were surprised and they fled, leaving many of their 

The following day the Americans entered San Diego in triumph, and the 
Kearny column later took a prominent part in the final overthrow of Mexican 
rule within Alta California. 


While General Kearny was making his more hurried way to California with 
a detachment of cavalry, a larger military body, of infantry, followed from 
Santa Fe, comprising the famous Mormon Battalion, under the command of 
Lieut.-Col. P. St. George Cooke. This body marched southward a considerable 
distance, down the Rio Grande, thence westward to the San Pedro, thence fifty- 
five miles northward, where a trail was taken to Tucson, to the Pima villages, and 
then dowia the Gila. 

The Mormon Battalion was one of the most remarkable military bodies ever 
formed. It was recruited in Missouri among a people persecuted because of their 
religion and practically outlawed both by the State and Nation. Their leaders 
threatened with death and threatened with pillage in their temple city of Nauvoo 
in western Illinois, as well as in Missouri, they had finally decided to move west- 
ward, in the hope of finding a promised land, wherein they could dwell -snthout 


Tliis desire was couveyed tlirougii Mormou channels to President Polk, to 
whom, about the same time, went a suggestion that fi-om these Mormons might be 
recruited a sturdy band of volunteer soldiery that would serve well in conquering 
and occupying California. Elder J. C. Little of the Latter Day Saints' New 
England Conference, went to Washington, at first with the idea of securing for 
the ]\Iormous work in the construction of a number of stockade posts, which were 
designed along the line of the overland route. But, after interviews with the 
President and other officials, the President changed the plans suggested, and 
instructed the Sccretaiy of War to make out dispatches to Colonel Kearny, com- 
mander in the West, for the formation of a battalion of Mormons. 

Colonel Kearny, who was commander of the First Dragoon Regiment, then 
stationed at Port Leavenworth, selected Capt. James Allen of the same regiment 
to be commander of the new organization, with volunteer rank as Lieutenant- 
Colonel. The orders read: "You will have the Mormons distinctly understand 
that I wish to have them as volunteers for twelve months; that they will be 
marched to California, receive pay and allowances during the above time, and at 
its expiration they will be discharged and allowed to retain as their private prop- 
erty the guns and aecoutennents furnished them at this post." 

Captain Allen proceeded at once to Mount Pisgah, a Mormon camp 130 miles 
east of Council Bluffs, where, on June 26, 1846, he issued a circular inviting 
recruits, in which was stated: "This gives an opportunity of sending a portion 
of your young and intelligent men to the ultimate destination of your whole 
people at the expense of the United States, and this advance party can thus pave 
the way and look out the land for their brethren to come after them. ' ' President 
Brigham Young of the IMormon Church and his associates gave their support. 
George Q. Cannon, later President of the Church, stated some secret history in 
years thereafter, probably on mere hearsay evidence: "Thomas H. Benton, 
United States Senator from the State of Missouri, got a pledge from President 
Polk that if the Mormons did not raise the battalion of 500, he might have the 
privilege of raising volunteers in the upper counties of Missouri to fall upon them 
and use them up." 

July 16, 1845, five companies were mustered into the service of the United 
States at Council Bluffs, Iowa Territory. The company officers had been elected 
by the recruits, including Captains Jefferson Hunt, Jesse B. Hunter, James 
Brown and Nelson Higgins. George P. Dykes was appointed adjutant, and 
William Mclntyre assistant surgeon. It would appear that the only practical 
soldier in the lot was the commanding officer. 

The march westward was started July 20, the route leading through St. Joseph 
and Leavenworth, where were found a number of companies of Missouri volun- 
teers. Colonel Allen, who had secured the confidence and affection of his soldiers, 
had to be left, sick, at Leavenworth, where he died August 23. At Leavenworth 
full equipment was secured, including flintlock muskets, with a few caplock guns 
for sharpshooting and hunting. Pay also was drawn, the paymaster expressing 
surprise at the fact that every man could write his o^^^a name, "something that 
only one in three of the Missouri volunteers could accomplish. ' ' August 12 and 
14 two divisions of the battalion left Leavenworth, about the same time the main 
body of the Mormon exodus crossed the IMissouri River. 

The place of Colonel Allen was taken, provisionally, by First Lieut. A. J. 


Smith of the First Dragoons, M-ho proved impolitic and unpopular, animus prob- 
ably starting through the desire of the battalion that Captain Hunt should suc- 
ceed to the command. The first division of the battalion arrived at Santa Fe 
October 9, and was received by Colonel Doniphan, commander of the post, with a 
salute of 100 guns. Colonel Doniphan was an old friend. He had been a lawyer 
and militia commander in Clay County, ilissouri, when Joseph Smith was tried 
by court martial at Far West in 1838, and had succeeded in changing a judgment 
of death passed by the mob. On the contrary. Col. Sterling Price was considered 
an active enemy of the Mormons. 

On the arrival of the battalion in Santa Fe, Lieutenant-Colonel Cooke, an 
officer of dragoons, succeeded to the command under appointment of General 
Kearny, who already had started westward. Capt. James Brown was ordered to 
take command of a party of about eighty men, together with about twoseore of 
women and children, and with them winter at Pueblo, on the headwaters of the 
Arkansas River. 

Colonel Cooke made a rather discouraging report upon the character of the 
command given him for the task of marching 1,100 miles through an unknown 
wilderness. He said : "It was enlisted too much by families ; some were too old, 
some feeble, and some too j'oung ; it was embarrassed by too many women ; it was 
undisciplined ; it was much worn by travel on foot and marching from Nauvoo, 
Illinois ; clothing was very scant ; there was no money to pay them or clothing to 
issue; their mules were utterly broken down; the quartermaster department was 
without funds and its credit bad; animals scarce and inferior and deteriorating 
every hour for lack of forage. So every preparation luust be pushed — hurried." 


After the Mormons had sent their pay checks back to their families, the 
expedition started from Santa Fe 448 men strong. It had rations for only sixty 
days. The commander wrote on November 19 that he was detennined to take 
along his wagons, though the mules were nearly broken down at the outset, and 
added a delicate criticism of General Fremont's self-centered character. "The 
only good mules were taken for the express for Fremont's mail, the general's 
order requiring the twenty-one best in Santa Fe." 

Colonel Cooke soon proved an officer who would enforce strict discipline. He 
had secured an able quartermaster in Brevet Second Lieut. George Stoneman, 
First Dragoons, in later days Colonel of regulars in Arizona, and, after discharge, 
with the I'ank of General, elected to the high position of Governor of California. 

Before the command got out of the Rio Grande Valley, the condition of the 
commissary best is to be illustrated by the following extract from verses written 
by Levi W. Hancock : 

We sometimes now for lack of bread, 

Are less than quarter rations fed. 

And soon expect, for all of meat, 

Nolight less than broke-down mules, to eat. 

The trip over the Continental Divide was one of hardship, at places tracks 
for the wagons being made by marching files of men ahead to tramp down ruts 
wherein the wheels might run. The command for forty-eight hours at one time 


was without water. From the top of the Divide the wagons had to be taken down 
by hand, with men behind with ropes, and the horses driven below^ 

Finally a more level country was reached, on December 2, at the old, ruined 
ranch of San Bernardino, near the southeastern comer of the pi*esent Arizona. 
The principal interest of the trip, till the Mexican forces at Tucson were encoun- 
tered, then lay in an attack upou the marching column of a number of wild bulls 
in the San Pedro Valley. It had been assumed that Cooke would follow down the 
San Pedro to the Gila, but on learning that the better and shorter route was by 
Tucson, he determined upon a more southei-ly course. 

Tucson was garrisoned by aboiit 200 Mexican soldiers, with two small brass 
tield pieces, a concentration of the garrisons of Tubac, Santa Cruz and Fronteras. 
After some brief parley, the Mexican commander, Captain Comaduron, refusing 
to surrender, left the village, compelling most of its inhabitants to accompany 
him. No resistance whatever was made. When the battalion marched in, the 
Colonel took pains to assure the populace that all would be treated with kindness, 
and sent to the Mexican commander a courteous letter for the Governor of Sonora, 
Don Manuel Gandara, who was reported "disgusted and disaffected to the 
imbecile central government." Little food was found for the men, but several 
thousand bushels of grain had been left and was di-awn upon. On September 17, 
tlie day after the arrival of tlie conunand, the Colonel and about fifty men 
"passed up a creek about five miles above Tucson toward a village (San Xavier), 
where they had seen a large church from the hills they had passed over." The 
Mexican commander reported that the Americans had taken an advantage of him, 
in that they had entered the town on a Sunday, while he and his command and 
most of the inhabitants were absent at San Xavier attending mass. 

The Pima villages were reached four days later, Pauline Weaver serving as 
a guide. By Cooke the Indians were called "friendly, guileless and singularly 
innocent and cheerful people." 

In view of the prosperity of the Pimas and Marieopas, Colonel Cooke sug- 
gested that this would be a good place for the exiled Saints to locate, and a pro- 
posal to this effect was favorably received by the Indians. It was probable that 
this suggestion had much to do with the colonizing by ilormons of the upper 
part of the nearby Salt River valley in later years. 

About January 1, to lighten the overload of the half-starved mules, a barge 
was made by placing two wagon bodies on dry cottonw'ood logs, and on this 2,500 
pounds of provisions and coi-n were launched on the Gila River. The improvised 
boat found too many sandbars, and most of its cargo had to be jettisoned, lost in 
a time when the rations had been reduced to a few ounces a day per man. 
January 9 the Colorado River was reached, and the command and its impedi- 
menta were ferried over on the same raft contrivance that had proven ineffective 
on the Gila. 

Colonel Cooke, in his narrative concerning the practicability of the route he 
had taken, said: "Undoubtedly the fine bottomland of the Colorado, if not of 
the Gila, will soon be settled ; then all difficulty will be removed." The battalion 
had still more woe in its passage across the desert of southern California, where 
wells often had to be dug for water, and where rations were at a minimum, until 
Warner's Ranch was reached, where each man was given five pounds of beef a 
day, constituting almost the sole article of subsistence. Tyler, the Mormon histo- 


I'ian, insists that five pounds is really a small allowance for a healthy laboring 
man, because "when taken alone it is not nearly equal to mush and milk," and 
he referred to an issuance to each of Fremont 's men of an average of ten pounds 
per day of fat beef. 


December 27 the long-looked-for Pacific Ocean at last appeared, in plain view, 
and quarters were taken up at a mission five miles from San Diego, where General 
Kearny was quartered. 

After reporting to the General, Colonel Cooke issued an order congratulating 
the battalion on its safe arrival and the conclusion of a march of over 2,000 miles. 
' ' History may be searched in vain for an equal march of infantry. Half of it has 
been through a wilderness where nothing but savages and wild beasts are found, or 
deserts where, for want of water, there is no living creature. . . . Without 
a guide who had traversed them, we have ventured into trackle&s tablelands where 
water was not found for several marches. With crowbar and pick and axe in 
hand, we have worked oiir way over mountains, which seemed to defy aught save 
the wild goat, and hewed a passage through a chasm of living rock more narrow 
than our wagons. . . . Thus, marching half naked and half fed, and living 
upou wild animals, we have discovered and made a road of great value to our 
country. Thus, volunteers, you have exhibited some high and essential qualities 
of veterans. ' ' 

The Mormons marched northward, and in Los Angeles had a number of 
personal encounters with men of Fremont's command, it being charged that 
Fremont himself had done all he could to arouse ill-feeling against the Mormons. 
Stories had spread among the Mexicans that the IMormons were cannibals, espe- 
cially fond of tender children. A small fort was erected commaiiding the town 
of Los Angeles, laid out l)y Lieutenant Davidson of the First Dragoons, with 
places for six guns. 

Following practical rejection by the men of an offer of reinlistment, the 
Mormon Battalion was discharged at Fort Moore, Los Angeles, July 15, 1849, 
exactly a year from the date of enlistment. The ceremony was brief. According 
to Tyler, the companies were formed in column and "the notorious Lieut. A. J. 
Smith then marched down the lines in one direction and back between the next 
line, and then in a low tone of voice said, 'You are discharged.' This was all there 
was of ceremony of mustering out of service these veteran companies of living 
martyi-s to the cause of tlieir country and religion." 

On the 20th one company, made up from the discharged battalion, reinlisted 
for six months under Capt. Daniel C. Davis, to return to garrison San Diego. 

In several companies, organized under captains of hundreds, fifties and tens, 
most of the remainder of the battalion started on foot for Salt Lake, at which 
point had been established the headquarters of Mormondom. There the men 
rejoined their families and received warm welcome as well from the leaders of 
the Church. 

A list of the surviving members of the battalion, made by Tyler in March, 
1882, included the following names, residents of Arizona at that time: Adair 
Wesley; H. W. Brazee, Mesa; George P. Dykes, Mesa; Wm. A. Follett: Marshall 


Hunt, Snowflake; P. C. Merrill, St. David; David Pulsipher, Coucho; S. H. 
Eogers, Snowflake ; Henry Standage, Mesa ; Lott Smith, Sunset. 

Soon after the treaty of peace with Mexico, in the late summer of 1848, 
Maj. Lawrence P. Graham led a squadron of dragoons to California from Chihua- 
hua, marching via the old San Bernardino ranch, the Santa Cruz presidio and 
do^vn the Santa Cruz to Tucson. Yuma was reached October 30. Records of this 
expedition especially note the drunkenness of its leader. According to John H. 
Slaughter, now owner of the San Bernardino ranch, an old ranch house, half 
a mile south of his present home and on Mexican territory, was built by this 
Graham party. The Agua Prieta spring passed by Colonel Cooke he believes to 
have been one in Anavacachi Pass, twelve miles southwest of Douglas. 



Spanish Silver Mines and ihe Planchas de Plata — American Operations Along the 
Border — First Copper Production at Ajo — Placers — Walker and Weaver Ex- 

The history of miuing in Arizona is, practically, the histoi-y of Arizona. 
When the Spaniards started across the deserts north of Culiacan through Pimeria 
and Apacheria, hunting for the Seven Cities of Cibola, they sought the spread 
of the Holy Faith and of the domain of their sovereign king, but their imme- 
diate reward was to be the gold in treasure houses, later found to be mud-built 
pueblos. Since that time the mountains of the Southwest have been searched 
most thoroughly. The Spaniard of old and his ilexiean successor were the best 
prospectors and the closest judges of ore ever known. But, necessarily, they 
could mine only the richer and freer veins of the metal that they found. They 
hunted for gold and for silver. The latter they smelted in rude adobe furnaces, 
from which came, for hundreds of years, much of the wealth that sustained the 
then-dominant kingdom of Spain. Along the southern border of what is now 
Arizona, they established towns, clustered around churches, and dug in mines 
of wonderful richness, mines which today are known only by name, for their 
shafts were filled and the landmarks obliterated by an Indian uprising against 
the taskmasters. 

Prom the time of the Spaniard to the time of the American miner was a long 
step. The first American mining followed in the pathways made by the Span- 
iards, along the southern border, where ore was taken out that was almost pure 
silver or copper and shipped by mule team to the Colorado, and thence to civ- 
ilization. But the latter-day miner was not content, and his scouts spread north- 
ward, at first along the Colorado River, and then eastwardly into the jagged 
mountains where the Apaches dealt death. By these pioneers were discovered 
the great Vulture mine and the celebrated "Weaver diggings. The great Silver 
King in what is now the northern portion of Pinal county, was an accidental 
discovery, with its enonnous pillar of silver, so rich that it was passed over for 
several years as being nothing but lead. The mines at Globe were located for 
silver, and there are remains still of silver mills, whei-e veins are worked around 
the Miami valley, and IMclMillen at Pioneer and in Richmond basin. 

Discovery was made of the riches of northwestei'n Arizona, where mines that 
wore found more than fifty years ago still are being worked, all the way from 
White Hills to Signal. Around Prescott hundreds of claims were worked in the 
early sixties, when the miner needed a guard of riflemen as protection for his 
life and property against the Apache. This pluck, or foolhardiness, if you choose, 


eventually wore out the Indian and pacified Arizona, the miner possibly con- 
tributing to as large a degree as the soldier in making Arizona the peaceful land 
it now is. 


After the Pimeria revolt of 1751 it is doubtful if Indian labor was employed 
to any great extent in the mines of northern Sonora, where the number of mis- 
sions decreased and where the population hung close to the presidios or church 
enclosures that gave relative security against the Apache. This was the con- 
dition known as late as 1827, when a rather close inspection of the mines of 
northern Sonora was made by Lieut. R. W. H. Hardy of the English navy, who 
had little patience with the natives, or with their careless mining methods. He 
referred to three notable silver fields, "Creaderos de Plata," namely, Arizona, 
Tepustetes, and Las Cruces, near the pi'esidio of Frouteras. Concerning the 
Arizona, he stated, "A great deal has been said in Mexico, and in Las Cartas 
de las Jesuitas is an account of a ball of silver having there been discovered by 
a poor man which weighed 400 arrobas — 10,000 pounds! (Another account 
gives 149 arrobas — Editor.) It afterwards became the subject of litigation, add 
these learned fathers, between the discoverer and the King of Spain, which ended 
in His Majesty's declaring the hill where such an extraordinary treasure was 
found, his royal patrimony; and when Iturbide was hard pressed for money it 
is said that he also declared Arizona his imperial patrimony; but that his pre- 
mature fall prevented him from sending troops to take possession of the hill. 
Certain it is that in the city more is thought of the Arizona mine than is believed 
in Sonora." The mines had been abandoned for many years, owing to the hos- 
tility of the Coyotero Apaches (so-called because they were believed to feed on 
the flesh of the jackal), till about fifteen years before Hai-dy's coming, when a 
strong party of Mexicans, led by Manuel Morales of Arizpe and Ignacio Tiburcio 
de Samaniego of Bavispe, entered the forbidden country and found much more 
of the silver. 

Hardy declared that most of the mines of Sonora had "Y" veins, that 
diminish in ^vidth and value with depth. Also, "Some of the largest fortunes 
which have been gained in Sonora have arisen from the extraction of copper." 
Referring to the loose habits of the gold miners, who threw away their gleanings 
of the precious metal. Hardy in novel philosophy concluded that the mining of 
copper "appears to debase the mind less than gold. The same distinction I draw 
between copper-mine speculators and gold diggers ; in the former, with tolerable 
care, economy and industry, success is generally the result, in Sonora at least ; 
in the latter enterprise much money is to be made, but it is seldom retained or 
used wisel.y or judiciously. These observations, however, have reference only to 
the inhabitants of Sonora, who are equally ignorant of the true value of wealth 
or education or liberty." 

Of the mines of "Arizona," one of the most glowing accounts is that of Judge 
R. A. Wilson of California, who had delved rather deeply into the subject in 
connection with the traffic that was expected for a projected Pacific railway on 
the Gila route, early in the sixties, and who personally visited the northern sec- 
tions of ilexico. After passing through Sonora, he wi-ote that, "Proceeding 
northward, we came to a spot, the most famous in the world for its product of 

First America 

■odiietiou works in Arizona, erected at Santa Rita, Januari 



silver, the mine of Arazuma. For nearly a century the accounts of the wealth 
of this mine were considered fabulous; but their literal truth is confirmed by 
the testimony of the English ambassador. After examining the old records 
which I have quoted, I have no doubt the facts surpassed the astonishing report ; 
for in Mexico the propensity has ever been to conceal, rather than overestimate, 
the quantity of silver, ou account of the King's fifth, yet it is the King's fifth, 
actually paid, on which all the estimates of the production of Sonora silver 
mines are based. Arazuma, which in the report of the Minera that I have trans- 
lated for this volume appears to be set down as Arizpa (Arizpe?), was for a 
hundred years the world's wonder, and so continued until the breaking out of 
the great Apache war a few j-ears afterward, ilen seemed to run mad at the 
sight of such immense masses of virgin silver, and for a time it seemed as if silver 
was about to lose its value. In the midst of the excitement a royal ordinance 
appeared, declaring Arazuma a 'ci*eador de plata' and appropriating it to the 
King's use. This put a stop to private enterprise; and after the Indian war 
set in Arazuma became almost a forgotten locality ; and in a generation or two 
afterwards the accounts of the mineral riches began to be discredited." 

Undoubtedly the richest of the copper mines worked in the Southwest by the 
Mexicans was the Santa Rita del Cobre, not far from the present Silver City. 
Its native copper was used by the prehistoric Indians, who, \vith their stone 
implements, pounded the soft metal into rude ornaments and small bells. It 
was worked bj'^ white men as early as 1804. Copper, smelted in little adobe 
furnaces, was sent to the Mexican mint in Chihuahua, to be stamped into coins. 
Some of it was delivered in the City of Mexico, though at a cost of 65 cents a 
pound. Later some of the bar copper was shipped to New York through the 
Texan port of La Vaca. The mines were abandoned in 1838, probably because 
the native copper no longer was found, though Cremony, whose tale ou the 
sub.ject is to be found elsewhere in this work, blamed the stoppage on the Apaches. 

In 1851, Jose Antonio Acuiia, a Mexican who had lived among the Apaches, 
returned to Sonora with a tale that somewhere near the Rio Salado there was a 
large deposit of pure silver, which the Indians thought merely a form of lead, and 
, from it had moulded bullets. An organization of 500 men was effected to invade 
the country, but was delayed by the death of its first leader, Carrasco, whose 
place was taken by one Tapia. The party reached a point on the Gila River not 
far from where Acuiia said the silver was to be found, but was met in force by 
the Apaches and thought it the part of discretion to retreat. Two deposits of 
almost pure silver thereafter were found by the Americans in the country pene- 
trated, in Richmond Basin near Globe and at Silver King, both points not very 
far from Salt River. 

One of the noted mines of the Spanish era in the hills that flanked the Santa 
Cruz Valley was the Salero. a Spanish word meaning "saltcellar." There are 
a number of stories concerning the origin of the name. Possibly that told by 
J. Ross Browne is as good as any. The parish priest at Tumaeacori was morti- 
fied at a time of visitation by a superior priest to find that he had no saltcellar. 
So Indians forthwith were dispatched to the mine to dig out and smelt some silver 
ore. The next day at dinner a mass of silver fashioned in the shape of a salt- 
cellar was presented to the reverend visitor as a memento of his trip. 



In 1861, according to Lieut. Sylvester Mowry, American miners had spread 
themselves very generally over the southern part of Arizona, usually working 
old Spanish mines with Mexican labor. Of large importance was the Patagonia 
or !Mowry mine, an "antigua" still operated. It was then described as being 
ten miles from the boundary line, twenty miles from Fort Buchanan and four- 
teen miles from the town of Santa Cruz in Sonora. Freight from San Francisco, 
by way of Guaymas, was at a cost of 4 to 5 cents a pound. At that date the 
mine had been worked for about three years for rich silver surface ore. It was 
located by Col. J. W. Douglass and a Mr. Doss and by Capt. R. S. Ewell and 
Lieutenants Moore, Randal and Lord of the United States Army. After con- 
tinued disagreements among the partnei-s, and expenditure of $200,000, four- 
fifths of the property was conveyed to JMowry, who operated the mine, after his 
retirement from the army, till arrested by order of General Carleton and con- 
fined at Yuma, a military post he had once commanded. It is doubtful if he 
found much profit, for the ores of his property to-day are considered notably 

Among the men who were identified with early American mining in the 
Santa Cruz Valley were a number who enjoyed the largest prominence then or 
later. Besides Poston and Mowry and Ehreuberg were included Gen. S. P. 
Heintzelman, Col. C. P. Stone, later called by the Khedive to the organization 
of the Egyptian army, Prof. Raphael Pumpelly, S. F. Butterworth, Col. John 
D. Graham and Frederick Brunckow. There was heavy toll of life taken by the 
Apaches and ]\Iexicaus and among the victims of the latter \\as a brother of 
Colonel Poston. 

Though there were wonderful stories of wonderful finds, and the assays 
seemed usually to get up into the thousands of dollars, the actual returns from 
mining in the days before the Civil War appear to have been far from phenom- 
enal. For instance, one of the richest of the silver mines is assumed to have 
been the Heintzelman, thirty miles from Tubae. Though some of the ore sam- 
pled up to .$1,000 a ton, the gross value of the ores hoisted in 1860 ran only 
$70,804. The first run of bullion from Heintzelman and Arivaca ores, made in 
1858, was from a small mud furnace that cost $250. It took 600 hours to smelt 
about 22,800 pounds of ore, from which were secured 2,287 ounces of silver and 
300 pounds of copper, no mention being made of the lead. Later the Freiberg 
system of barrel amalgamation was used, under the direction of Pumpelly and 
of the German experts, Ehrenberg, Brunckow and Kustel. 

The Heintzelman M'as the principal mine of the Sonora Exploring and 
Mining Company, of which Gen. S. P. Heintzelman was President. The corpo- 
ration, mainly capitalized in Connecticut, had far from a prosperous career. In 
a report made by the President, Samuel Colt, iMay 1, 1859, after a quarter of a 
million dollars had been sunk, he stated his belief in the mine, but added, "In 
the hands of a half-horse concern, pulling all ways and dragging its slow length 
along, it is but a hole to bury money in." The company was organized in Cin- 
cinnati in March, 1856, for the purpose of exploring the old silver mining coun- 
try of northern Sonora. With Poston at its head, an expedition was fitted out 
at San Antonio, Texas, arriving at Tucson August 22, 1856, soon thereafter 
occupying the old to-mi of Tubae. Poston, an enthusiast and dreamer, sent 


Thereafter for about six months his name occasionally appears in connection with 
the location, as witness or locator, of the Emmett, Halcro, Virginia, Excelsior, 
Iron Springs, Dixie, Wade Hampton and Tar Heel claims. One of the owners 
of the Robb was D. B. Rea, a Tucson lawyer, who brought into Bisbee in April, 
1878, one Warner Buck, who knew something about assaying and smelting and 
who built a little smelter, with a large bellows to furnish the blast. The Hen- 
dricks mine was located in April, 1878, by Rea. Twelve mining claims were 
located in the vicinity of Bisbee in 1877. In 1878 fourteen claims were filed 
and two relocations, but in 1879 only three locations were recorded of claims 
in Mule Gulch. The Copper Queen mine, the original Mercey, was located on 
December 15, 1879, by George H. Eddleman and M. A. Herring. Eddleman 
ten days before had located the Mammoth on the old Robb ground. 

Warren sold or lost most of his mining property within a few years. It is 
told that he lost his interest in one claim by a drunken wager that on foot he 
could make a short distance up the gulch faster than another man could on 
horseback. In 1881 he was brought before the probate judge of Cochise County 
on a charge of insanity and George Pridgen was appointed his guardian. His 
estate was found to be a twelfth interest in the Mammoth mine, a third interest 
in the Safford and a third interest in the Crescent, in all valued at and by 
the guardian sold for $925. Despite his detention for a while in the county jail 
as a person dangerous to be at large, it would appear that his dementia must 
have been of very mild character, probably due to intoxicants, for he was 
released before long, but penniless. Then it is told that he went to Mexico, 
where he practically subjected himself to peonage. His IMexican debt was paid 
by Judge G. H. Berry. Warren after thus regaining his liberty returned to 
Bisbee, where he lived for several years precariously, given a small pension by 
the Copper Queen Company and doing odd jobs, such as sawing wood, till he 
died a few years later. 

Early in 1914 the Bisbee Lodge of Elks set on foot an investigation and 
found the grave of George Warren in the poorer part of the Bisbee Cemeterj', 
identified by a small rotted wooden headboard, simply marked "G. W." The 
body was transferred to a more prominent location and there was provided a 
monument more in keeping with the distinction of the man whose last resting 
place thus was marked. 

Judge Jas. F. Duncan made a visit to Bisbee in the late fall of 1879 from 
his camp a short distance from Tombstone. The trip was made around by San 
Pedro Valley, and hardly a trail could be found into the lower end of Mule 
Pass, which was entered November 7. He records in his notations what appeared 
to be the entire population of the village, Marcus A. Herring, better known as 
"Kentuck," George Eddleman, D. B. Rea, George Warren, Chas. Vincent and 
Joe Dyer. The camp even then had some history for relation. There was seen 
the little Rea furnace from which some matte had been shipped, but which 
had failed to pay expenses. There had been two deaths, Paddy Dyer and Joe 
Herring, the latter a brother of Col. William Herring, later a distinguished 
Arizona attorney, but no relation to "Kentuck." 


The development of the Copper Queen group of mines seems to have started 
with the coming of Edward Riley, a lawyer of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, who, 


according to Duncan, had invested in a copper mine at Elko, Nevada, and there 
erected a smelter of which Lewis Williams was superintendent. Very much 
poorer, Riley came to Arizona, and by L. Zeckendorf of Tucson was directed to 
the Mule Pass Mountains as a new and possibly rich mining field. He took 
a bond on the Copper Queen claim, and then proceeded to try to market his 
option on money loaned by Zeckendorf. In San Francisco he interested a firm 
of engineers, Martin & Ballard, which took up the bond for the sum of $20,000. 
Mr. Martin of the firm employed Lewis Williams as superintendent and soon 
thereafter was erected a thirty-six inch water jacket furnace for the smelting of 
the ores. Williams arrived June 14, 1880, and had the smelter ready to run in 
ahout si.Kty days. The first run was a failure on account of a too limited water 
supply, but there was no trouble after that. About the time of this first furnace 
run arrived Ben Williams, who later managed the mine while Lewis attended to 
the smelting end. A third brother, John Williams, also came, though only to 
pass upon some property. About this same time the Neptune Compauj- was 
developing a large group of Bisbee claims and had built a small smelter on 
the San Pedro River, for water was in small supply at the mines. This com- 
pany failed about 1882 and its property later was absorbed by the Copper 

The Bisbee copper mines had their silver capping, small deposits that were 
worked by the early miners and that still are found profitable by the Copper 
Queen, which for years has taken rich silver ores from claims on the hillside, 
far above the site of the old Bisbee smelter. 

Toward the end of 1880 there came to Arizona a mining expert already 
of distinguished reputation. Dr. James Douglas, especially to see the United 
Verde mine, which he decided was too far from transportation to be profitable. 
Early in 1881 he paid a visit to his friend Riley at Bisbee, where the little 
furnace was turning out about one pound of copper for every four pounds of 
ore treated. 

The adjoining property to the Martin-Ballard-Riley claim was purchased on 
Dr. Douglas' recommendation by the Phelps-Dodge Company for $40,000. At 
the end of 1884 Martin found he had only three months' ore left in his mine, 
and the Phelps-Dodge property adjoining, the Atlanta, was in much the same 
condition, according to the histoiy of the mine contained in a late address made 
by Dr. Douglas. There was a prospect of abandoning both properties, when 
from either side of the dividing line drifts ran into what Dr. Douglas calls a 
"glorious body of ore." Then, in order to avoid possible litigation, the two 
interests were joined in August, 1885, under the title of the Copper Queen 
Consolidated Mining Company. There were hard times for a while, for copper 
had dropped to 8 cents, but the price soon raised and since then the Copper 
Queen has had ahead even years of stoping and has driven hundreds of miles 
of workings, ever getting deeper toward the southward. The ore has changed 
with depth and now mainly is sulphide, which in the early days would have been 
impossible to handle, but which now is even more cheaply smelted than are the 
surface oxides and carbonates. 

In Bisbee there is a story that the discovery of ore in the old workings was 
made in defiance of orders. J. W. Howell was foreman and, taking a few hard- 
headed miners into his confidence, he drifted down the gulch on the 400-foot 



level of the old incline shaft that started in the open cut above the present 
library. To this day old-timers refer to the John Smith stope, for it was on 
John Smith's shift that a blast broke into a rich ore body on what is now the 
200 level of the Czar shaft of the Copper Queen. 

It is impossible within the necessai-y limits of this publication to give a full 
account of the expansion of the Copper Queen Company and its absorption of 
the liolbrook, Neptune and other properties, from which later came its main 
ore supply. 

The Copper Queen Company from the time it took over the mines has pur- 
sued a policy almost paternal. Notable monuments to the successes of this 
policy are the public schools, hospital, Y. M. C. A. building and library. 
The company maintained no boarding house and rented no houses and compelled 
no man to purchase at the company store. A number of attempts made to 
unionize the camp uniformly were defeated by the company, which did not 
hesitate to stop the larger part of its operations when considered necessary to 
drive agitators out of the camp. The company has led in increases of wage 
schedules and has in its employ an unusually large number of married men 
who have been with it for years. A few years ago was established an employees' 
association for the payment of accident and death benefits. Other companies 
of the camp have joined with the Copper Queen in the same general policy 
toward their workmen. 


In tragedy was laid the foundation of the gi-eat Calumet and Arizona mines. 
W. W. Lowther was one of the simplest and bravest of men. He was so brave 
that he didn't need to parade the fact, as did the professional "bad men" of 
the day. As an example of his type, he permitted a knife-armed drunken printer 
in Globe to chase him through a saloon and over a bar. Any moment he could 
have turned and shot, but all that Lowther did was to hunt up the printer's 
employer, and suggest that the man be disarmed, as "a fellow who was a bit 
too strong for the camp." On the expiration of Lowther 's term as sheriff in 
Gila County, he went to Bisbee, where he was appointed a peace officer. In 
Mule Gulch, a mile below the center of town, was the home of James Daley, a 
morbid sort of individual, who had been fighting an attempt of the Copper 
Queen to establish a right of way across his property. All financial recom- 
pense, however liberal, offered by Superintendent Ben Williams had been 
refused. In the course of the continued argument, Daley was shot by Dan 
Simon, a constable, who was sent to Yuma on a year's sentence for the offense. 
Then it was that Daley declared he would never again be arrested. Some time 
thereafter he a.ssaulted a Mexican, who demanded his arrest. April 10, 1890, 
Lowther was given the warrant. As he started down the carion, he was warned 
of Daley's dangerous character, but answered that he must do his duty. Daley 
warned him away from the house, but Lowther kept approaching, finally to be 
dropped dead, with a load of buckshot in his breast. Daley fled over the hills 
and never was apprehended. It was assumed that he had fled into Mexico. 
A few months thereafter, however, Andy Mehan, a saloonkeeper, appeared in 
Bisbee with a bill of sale to all of Daley's property which he said had been 
given to him by Daley in Trinidad, Colorado. About the same tim.e Mehan 's 


property, including this bill of sale, was attached for debt by the Cohn broth- 
ers. Tombstone tobacco merchants, who, later, at sheriff's sale, acquired any 
rights that Mehan might have had. 

Daley had lived with a Mexican woman. As a legal widow, she claimed 
possession, selling her claims for $1,800 to Martin Costello, a Tombstone saloon- 
keeper. A third claimant appeared in person, with an 18-year-old son, coming 
from Leadville, Colorado, claiming to be Daley's lawful wife or widow, but her 
claims seemed to have not been pushed very vigorously. The Cohn brothers 
on their claim against Mehan of only $300 secured a judgment in the Justice's 
Court. The case was taken up in the District Court in 1888 by Costello and, 
repi^esented by Judge James Reilly, was decided in favor of Costello, who won 
also, in May, 1889, when the case was appealed to the Supreme Court of the 
United States, through the Supreme Court of Arizona, the litigation in all 
lasting ten years. The importance of the case can better be understood when 
it is appreciated that it was over possession of the Irish Mag group of mines, 
which later became the central property of the Calumet & Arizona Mining 
Company, and from which copper since has been taken valued at many millions 
of dollars. Soon after he secured title, Costello sold to the Calumet & Arizona 
Mining Company for $550,000. He died a couple of years ago in Los Angeles, 
worth many millions. Reilly also died rich, largely through Costello 's gener- 
osity, after having lived in poverty nearly all his life. Adolph Cohn is dead, 
and Dave Cohn lately was working as a miner in one of the shafts of the Copper 
Queen Company. 

The Calumet & Arizona Mining Company continued the sinking of the Irish 
Mag shaft in the face of a general local belief that the property was not within 
the mineralized zone of the camp. But at that time the fact was not appreciated 
that the Bisbee ores were to be found deeper and deeper toward the southward 
and the width of the zone of enrichment had not been demonstrated. The 
developing company soon ran into a wonderfully rich body of sulphide, when 
its prosperity became assured. The company has absorbed a number of neigh- 
boring properties, and its workings center around the Junction shaft, where 
niany hundreds of feet were sunk before ore was struck. This shaft, one of the 
deepest in the district, has been lined with concrete and made absolutely fire- 
proof, a precaution considered necessary through the fact that it handles most 
of the water pumped in the entire district. 

In 1902 the Calumet and Arizona became a producer. In November of that 
year its first furnaces started operations at a site two miles west of the new Town 
of Douglas. This smelter was joined on the east in 1904 by a much larger one. 
owned by the Copper Queen. Both plants have been entirely rebuilt and now 
are turning out more than one-third of the copper production of Arizona. 


For years mining of the oddest sort has been prosecuted in the Meteor, or 
Coon Butte, crater, a few miles southeast of Canon Diablo station on the main 
line of the Santa Fe system. "What is being sought is a mass of meteoric iron, 
believed to lie nearly a thousand feet deep, down below the floor of what once 
was thought the crater of an extinct volcano. But the ''crater" is in sand- 
stone, distinctly of aqueous deposition. In January, 1903, the ground was 




secured by D. M. Barringer and associates, Pennsylvania capitalists, who organ- 
ized the Standard Iron Company and employed a scientific Arizonan, S. J. 
Ilolsinger, to demonstrate his theory that the meteor still was there. There was 
a commercial side to the transaction, for the iron fragments found on the 
surface, scattered around the lip of the crater for miles distant, carry a large 
percentage of nickel and form a metallic combination much like the highest 
grade of battleship armor steel. The crater is about 600 feet deep and averages 
about 3,800 feet in diameter. Its lip is raised above the plain about 130 feet 
and the stratification of the sandstone has been uptilted from the impact of 
the celestial visitor. The crater is floored with a fine silicious dust, "rock 
flour," simply comminuted silica, where the sandstone of the plain has been 
vitrified by the intense heat of the impact, as it was ground under an infinite 
force that displaced at least 1,000,000 tons of sandstone and that upheaved and 
threw out about 200,000 tons more, wliile the lifted or disturbed rock around 
the edge has been estimated at above 300,000,000 tons weight. This "rock 
flour" will pass through a 200-mesh screen. No particle is as large as an 
ordinary grain of sand. 

For five and a half miles from the crater have been found fragments of 
meteoric iron and hundreds of specimens have been sent to museums all over 
the world. It is probable that nowhere else has there been found such a quan- 
tity. Meteors have been known to fall in the locality within the past few years. 
The composition of the metal found is fairly uniform, comprising about 92 per 
cent iron, about 8 per cent nickel, with platinum and iridium present to the 
extent of three-fourths of an ounce to the ton of metal, while there has been 
demonstrated the presence of microscopic diamonds. Possibly twenty tons of 
the iron were picked up on the plain and shipped, mainly by Trader Volz of 
Caiion Diablo, the largest piece, now in the Field Columbian Museum at Chi- 
cago, weighing 1,013 pounds. Very little iron has been found within the 
crater, very logically, for its bottom is deeply covered with talus and loose 
material from the borders. 

Having demonstrated to their satisfaction that a meteor made the hole 
and that at least nine-tenths of the metal that struck the earth must yet remain 
below the earthy covering into which it plunged, Mr. Barringer and Mr. Hol- 
singer proceeded to dig. A 200-foot shaft ran into wet "rock flour" to such 
an extent that no further sinking was possible. Drill holes were sunk, however, 
as far down as an unaltered red sandstone that was found in place, as in the 
Grand Caiion of the Colorado, seventy miles distant. In all twenty-five holes 
were bored. In some of them, at depths around 400 feet, further progress was 
blocked by striking undoubtedly what was meteoric iron, as shown by analyses 
of the material brought up. Yet it is not claimed that the central mass has been 

The probable size of the meteor has been made the subject for much calcula- 
tion, based upon artillery tabulations. One scientist has concluded the mass 
might have been 1,500 feet in diameter, but others have concluded that, with 
a final velocity of 9,000 feet a second, the estimated penetration of 900 feet in 
soft rock could have been accomplished by the fall of a body only one-twenty- 
fifth the weight of the maximum estimate made. Save for tlie fragments that 
may have separated from it in its flight through the earth's atmosphere, it is 


expected to find it intact, probably a bit to one side of the center of the crater, 
as iadieated by the different tilting of the strata on opposite sides. 


The panic of 1907 hit hard the mining industry of the Southwest. Then 
copper went down to about 12 cents, which represented even less than cost to all 
save the largest mines. As a result many thousands of miners were discharged 
in the fall of the year and reduction works, while not closed altogther, were 
operated with as small a force as possible. The worst blow was at Cananea, 
where thousands of men had to be dropped. Wages were reduced. Almost 
the entire population of some of the smaller camps, such as Ray, Twin Buttes 
and Humboldt, moved elsewhere. The panic did not particularly affect the 
larger towns of the territory. Clearing-house certificates were issued in Tucson, 
Globe, Bisbee, Douglas and Flagstaff. At Globe the First National Bank was 
unable to stand the pressure and closed its doors. At Humboldt the smelting 
works were covered with attachments aggregating $500,000. 

The late summer of 1914 was the beginning of another gloomy period for 
the copper miners of Arizona. The European war had deprived Arizona of 
more than half her copper market and the price of the metal had descended 
until it had become little more than nominal. All of the copper mines closed 
down and in the larger camps production generally was cut in half and the 
force of workmen correspondingly diminished. There was no fear for the 
future, however, and construction work on a number of new smelting and 
reduction plants proceeded steadilj' and much development woi'k was done in 
preparation for better days to come. These better times materialized in the 
spring of the following year, when copper returned to active demand at a 
remunerative price. 

For the year 1915 Arizona's copper production approximated a total of 
450,000,000 pounds, the state leading the entire country in the output of 
this metal. The heaviest production was that of the Copper Queen at Bisbee, 
around 86,000,000 pounds, though the Calumet and Arizona shipped 75,000,000 
pounds and the Ray 62,000,000 pounds. The output would have been much 
greater had it not been for the strike that cut off three months' product of the 
companies at Clifton and Morenci. The last of 1915 finds the copper market in 
much better condition than for years, with active demand at around 24 cents 
a pound. Wages of miners have been advanced to the highest figure known, 
labor in this way sharing to a degi'ee in the profits that are coming to the 



Long Effort and Millions of Dollars Expended on the Salt River Project — Electric Power 
Generation — Roosevelt Dedicates the Roosevelt Dam — Yuma Well Served from the 
Laguna Dam — Storage Plans for the Gila River Valley. 

In Arizona little rain falls in the great valleys where millions of acres of 
good land lie available for cultivation. There is a heavier rainfall, with snow, 
in the mountains, but all the draining streams, even the Colorado, are torrential 
in character. There must be resort to irrigation, but primarily on the basis 
of the lowest supply afforded by the watering streams. Otherwise, farming 
would be a gamble, pure and simple. Thus, it has come to pass that water 
storage is viewed as most essential, insuring irrigation throughout the year, 
without reference to the seasons of flood or drought. In the Salt River Valley 
once it was said that the farms had irrigation only at medium river stages, 
because at flood times the dair^s were swept away and in times of low water 
the streams had too small a supply. All this has been cured by the construction 
of a storage dam, giving in every season the flow needed. 

The genesis of the Salt River irrigation project was a resolution of the 
Phcenix Chamber of Commerce, passed in the early summer of 1889. The 
directors of the body had been advised that in the late fall there might be 
expected a visit from a senatorial sub-committee on irrigation, headed by Sen. 
Wm. M. Stewart, looking for available sites for the storage of water for the 
reclamation of the arid lands of the inter-mountain region. So the directors 
formally asked the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors to bear the expense 
of looking for such sites on the Salt and Verde River watersheds. The super- 
visors saw the importance of the action suggested and detailed County Surveyor 
W. ]\I. Breakenridge for the work. In August, accompanied by John H. Norton 
and Jas. H. McClintock, he started out, impedimenta and instruments carried 
on pack mules. The journey was a rough one, through much of Central Ari- 
zona, keeping, of course, within the drainage area of the two streams that join 
at the head of the Salt River Valley. Many damsites were found and a few 
reservoir sites, some of them good enough for consideration in the future, but 
best of all was the natural combination discovered at the junction of Salt River 
and Tonto Creek. There was a narrow caiion for the dam, in hard rock of 
advantageous stratification, furnishing the best of building material. Above 
was a wing-shaped double valley, within which was storage capacity for all the 
floods of an average season. 

The results of the trip were presented to the Senate committee a couple of 
months later, oflScially placing on record the advantages of the Tonto Basin site. 



The people of the Salt River Valley were fortunate indeed in the ease with 
which the Reclamation Service secured title to the Tonto damsite, for its con- 
demnation might have been a task practically impossible if it had been held by 
a corporation that had insisted upon its rights to build a dam and thus to 
control the water system and the destiny of the valley below. There was some- 
thing almost providential in the manner in which the site was held for the use 
of the people as a whole. 

A couple of years after the survey of the dam and reservoir sites by the 
Breakenridge party, there came to Phcenix a lawyer and promoter, Wells Hen- 
dershott. Happening to see the record of the discovery party, he proceeded to 
locate the damsite in the name of a corporation he then formed, the Hudson 
Reservoir and Canal Company. His especial idea was the conservation of the 
water supply for a large expanse of rich and even yet unwatered land east of 
Mesa, which he proposed to serve by means of a high-line canal, taken from the 
Salt at a point above the junction of the Verde. This idea was not original. It 
had been conceived by the arch-schemer Reavis. In some hypnotic manner 
Hendershott succeeded in borrowing considerable sums of money on his personal 
account purely, from Man & Man, reputable New York lawyers. A few months 
later, finding that their loans to him were likely to be lost, they looked further 
into his affairs and reluctantly took as security a large part of his interest in 
the reservoir company. 

In 1905 one of the members of the firm came to Phoenix with Sims Ely, 
secretary of the corporation, with the idea of starting work, Hendershott having 
reported he had secured funds elsewhere to practically complete the financing 
of the project. It was demonstrated at once that this statement was invented. 
Messrs. ]\Ian and Sims then arranged for the preliminary work and shortly 
thereafter took over all of Hendershott 's remaining interest, incidentally paying 
the indebtedness he had incurred. Contracts were secured from the various 
canal companies that assured good interest on the investment necessary to the' 
building of the dam, the scope of the project having been modified so as to 
include only the lands of the valley already under canal. A deal was made also 
with a mining company of Globe for electrical power. Altogether the invest- 
ment seemed to assure an annual return of more than 20 per cent on the pro- 
jected investment of $3,000,000. 

Notwithstanding the soundness of the project, the necessary capital could 
not be secured and, following the enactment of the Reclamation Act, a sale was 
made to the Government for $40,000, the JMans taking a loss of about $60,000. 
The Government was anxious to purchase, for the engineering and other data 
on the project was complete and had been verified by Government engineers. 
The project was in fact ready for an instant beginning, the only project thus 
available for the work of the Reclamation Service. 

Even more important was the fact that rights had been acquired from the 
department of the interior that still had some years to run. If these rights had 
not been purchased, the activities of the Reclamation Service necessarily would 
have been diverted to some other locality and the Salt River project to-day 
might have been only in about the same constructive stage as that on the Rio 




At that time also there was a great question concerning the power of the 
Government, under the law as enacted, to build a reservoir for lands privately 
owned. The officers of the Water Users' Association always were nervous over 
this legal question until the Government had made such large investments as 
to assure the completion of the project. If the Mans and Ely had stood on their 
rights and declined to sell, it is even probable that there would have been no 
reservoir at all, with the Government eliminated, with only the chance left of 
securing private capital for the completion of the enterprise. 


Maj. John W. Powell may be considered the father of national reclamation 
in the United States. He was one of the officers of the Geological Survey at 
the time of its institution in 1879 and already had printed a book on the arid 
regions of the West. In 1888, after years of importunity of Congress and after 
he had been made director of the Geological Survey, he was granted an appro- 
priation of $100,000 for investigation of the extent to which the arid regions 
might be reclaimed. 

In 1896, in Phoenix, was held a most notable session of the National Irri- 
gation Congress, whereat, championed by "Buckey" O'Neill, declaration was 
made in favor of the policy of national irrigation and wherein one of the 
most active, assuredly one of the most eloquent, members was Geo. H. Max- 
well, who thereafter became executive chairman of the congress. Mr. Maxwell 
preached the doctrine of reclamation all over the United States, supported in 
this work by contributions from the great western railroads, which were 
anxious to increase population and traffic along their lines. To the Congress 
undoubtedly is due the migration of thousands of settlers into the irrigated 
districts of the Southwest and, still better, it was a prime factor in educating 
legislators to the point where finally the National Reclamation Act had a 
chance for passage, after violent opposition by the friends of capital and the 
advocates of state cession. One of the strongest advocates of this national 
irrigation policy was Francis G. Newlands, representative to Congress from 

The principal reason why the Roosevelt dam was built is that the people 
of Phoenix went after it with all their might. They were especially favored 
in the fact that Field Engineer Arthur Powell Davis of the United States 
Geological Survey, who visited this valley in 1896 and made a magnificent 
report upon its irrigation capabilities, was in a position at Washington to 
explain the advantages of putting the first demonstration of the national irri- 
gation policy at a point where nature favored in such large degree and where 
the distribution of water already was provided for within one of the richest 
agricultural valleys of the Nation. 

In 1900, under authority of the Legislature, Chief Justice Webster Street 
appointed a water storage commission, consisting of J. T. Priest, chairman ; 
W. D. Fulwiler, Charles Goldman, Dwight B. Heard and Jed Peterson. This 
comiijission made a favorable report on the Tonto Basin dam site, but there 
was almost despair concerning the matter of finance. 

In 1900 Engineer Davis again was sent into the valley for further study 
of the local situation. He reported upon the McDowell Verde site unfavorably. 


and renewed his approval of the Tonto Basin site. This visit was largely due 
to the action of a committee of twenty-five members of the National Irrigation 
Congress, appointed in the same year. The Arizona member of this committee 
was B. A. Fowler of Glendale, who offered his personal guarantee for the 
expenses of the field investigation. 

The first definite local work toward the building of the Tonto Basin reser- 
voir was begun in Phoenix in March, 1901, when, under the leadership of Geo. 
H. Maxwell of the executive committee of the National Irrigation Association 
there was held a meeting of business men and whereat, to push the work, was 
selected a committee, headed by B. A. Fowler. The Legislature of that year 
had authorized a Maricopa County tax levy of $30,000 for preliminary work 
looking toward water storage. There had been a national appropriation of 
!|5lO,000 for the same purpose. 

The people of the Salt River Valley were perfectly willing to build their 
own dam and, in March, 1902, petitioned Congress for authority to issue bonds 
for that purpose in an amount not exceeding $2,250,000. There had been 
many other plans to reach the desired end. Governor Murphy had fought 
for the cession of the arid lands of the West to the states, with the understand- 
ing that the states would sell much of the laud to companies that would build 
the canals and reserToirs. Governor Wolfley, during his term of office, had 
addressed Congress suggesting that in the arid districts corporations be granted 
alternate sections of land, contingent upon the irrigation of the whole area. 


When, after the assassination of President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt 
assumed the presidential chair, there was a marked change for the better. 
Colonel Roosevelt called a consultation of scientists and congressmen interested 
in irrigation and to them stated, with even more than customary emphasis, 
"I am going to incorporate in my first message to Congress a clause favoring 
a Federal irrigation law." All he wanted to know was in what shape he 
should put his message. Thereafter there was redrafting of the bill that New- 
lands had pushed, and on June 17, 1902, the anniversary of the battle of Bunker 
Hill, the Reclamation Act became a law by the signature of the President. 
This act provided that the proceeds of land sales in the several states, should 
be utilized in the building of reclamation works. There was more or less 
assumption on the part of the western representatives that each state should 
be returned about what it had paid in. Arizona, however, had been decidedly 
favored in this respect, for she has received a score of times more money back 
than ever she has paid for lands into the Federal treasury, even though the 
Colorado River irrigation project at Yuma was partially charged against the 
Slate of California. 

Though plans for a number of irrigation projects already had been 
sketched by the Reclamation Service officials, the first work was upon the 
Truckee River project, near Reno, the home of Mr. Newlands, and upon the 
Salt River project, wherein the Reclamation Service engineers saw their best 
chance for the evolution of an ideal storage and irrigation system. 

Under the provisions of the reclamation law of 1902, the United States Recla- 
mation Service was organized as a branch of the United States Geological Sur- 



vey, of which Chas. D. Waleott was director and Fred H. Newell chief 

Return of the funds expended by the Government was to be made by the 
several projects in ten annual installments, commencing one year from the 
date of the formal notice of completion of the project. In 1914 this term was 
changed to twenty years. It was assumed at the start that the act was only for 
the benefit of unoccupied areas of land, which were to be taken up by bona 
fide settlers, under the homestead law, in small tracts. The actual working 
out gave results very different indeed. It soon was demonstrated that no 
poor settler possibly could exist upon a desert homestead during the years that 
would be necessary for the completion of the storage works and of the canals 
that would bring water to the arid acres. 

Another feature, which practically cut the original settlers of the valley 
out from participation in the benefits of the act, in effect gave the ordinary 
stream flow to the older settlers and the stored flow to the new homesteaders. 
The main reason for the passage of the act was the necessity for water regula- 
tion for the benefit of settlers whose irrigation flow had theretofore been cut off 
in the dryer periods of the year. It was found impossible also to keep the 
funds of any one state to itself, as the expenditure involved for any one 
project was far in excess of local land office revenues. 

But the new Reclamation Service tackled this job with enthusiasm, despite 
the deceiving limitations put upon its energies. Not only because of its natural 
advantages, but because its citizens had worked upon that line for years, the 
Salt River Valley was given preference as the site of the first large project, and, 
as a joint charge against Arizona and California, a diversion weir was planned 
across the Colorado. 

There was much to do, however, in Phoenix, in order that the bounty of the 
Government might be accepted. A local committee of thirty members, headed 
by B. A. Fowler, for months met almost daily, wrestling with serious prob- 
lems of organization and finance, much impeded in its work by local dissensions 
concerning the manner in which the stored flow should be distributed. Owners 
of some of the lands of oldest cultivation, secure in their claims upon even the 
lowest summer flow, demurred at assuming any share of the burden of the cost 
of the project. On the other hand, owners of the newer lands sought in every 
way to secure for themselves the benefit of participation to the extent of even 
a greater acreage than has been contemplated as irrigable under the project. 

Many of the difficulties were solved, however, by adoption of a plan for the 
organization of the Salt River Valley "Water Users' Association, for which the 
articles of incorporation were filed with the county recorder February 4, 1903. 
This plan of forming an association to repay the Government the cost of the 
proposed works had been evolved by Judge J. H. Kibbey. The articles of 
incorporation later were adopted by the Government as a general plan for 
similar associations under every governmental reclamation project. B. A. 
Fowler was the association's first president and Judge Kibbey its counsel. 


On March 12, Secretary E. A. Hitchcock, of the Interior Department, 
tentatively authorized the construction of the Tonto dam. Phoenix burned 


mueli red fire on the night of October 15, 1903, on receipt of word that the secre- 
tary had made formal order to begin construction at the Tonto Basin dam site 
and had authorized the expenditure of $100,000 of a total fund expected to 
aggregate $3,000,000. 

Soon after the passage of the Eeclamation Act, a camp of engineers was es- 
tablished near the junction of Salt River and Tonto Greek. The camp and 
postotiice were named Roosevelt, and this same name later was given the dam 
itself. A contract for the structure was awarded April 8, IdOo, to John M. 
O'Kourke & Co., of Galveston, Texas, at an initial price of $1,147,600, the con- 
tractors to receive free electric power and free cement. 

Something of a precedent was established in connection with the cement. 
Apparently in a trust, the manufacturers' lowest bid was $4.89 a barrel. The 
Reclamation Service, refusing to stand what was called a "hold-up," promptly 
proceeded to put in its own cement mill; a measure denounced at the time as 
socialistic in the extreme and a denial of the vested rights of capital. But the 
result proved the wisdom of the policy, for the gross cost of cement, per barrel, 
was only $3.11, or a saving of nearly $600,000 on the total cost of the structure. 
The cement cost was not a small one. Altogether were manufactured 338,452 
barrels, at a gross cost of $1,063,542. 

After bed-rock, at its greatest depth of forty feet, had been reached and the 
gravel and sand had been sluiced out by hydraulic jets, the first stone of the 
foundation was laid, September 20, 1906. The last stone, on the coping, 284 
feet above, was laid February 6, 1911. 

At the river level the dam is 235 feet long and at the top 680 feet. The 
entire length of the roadway on top of the dam is 1,080 feet, for 200 feet of 
length was added on either side for spillways, blasted from the mountain side. 
Its width at the base is 170 feet and at the top 16 feet. Within the dam are 
339,400 cubic yards of masonry, and eveiy stone was washed before it was 
cemented into place. 

But there was much more to do than to merely build the dam. To provide 
power there was built a canal, heading nearly twenty miles above Roosevelt and 
terminating just above the dam. The penstock leads, under pressure of about 
280 feet, to a power house in the canon just below, where the initial hydro-elec- 
tric plant has been developed into one capable of furnishing 11,000 horse power. 
A pai-t of this has been sold to mines at Miami, but the works also have connec- 
tion with Phoenix, seventy -six miles away, by means of a transmission line, whose 
steel towers are firmly set into the rocks of the Superstition Mountains. The 
total cost of power development was $2,741,000, not excessive considering the 
results achieved. The canals of the valley had to be bought, at a purchase and 
betterment cost of $604,000 and $126,000 went into pumping plants for exten- 
sion of the irrigated area. All these additions to the original plan were ap- 
proved by the "Water Users' Association, though through them the cost of the 
project has been raised from an estimate of $4,000,000 to $10,000,000. 

On the theory that there had to be connection between the dam and the 
valley it served, there was built the Roosevelt road, at a cost of probably $500,000. 
Tliis road, through the most rugged of mountains and abounding in views of 
the grandest character, now is a part of a transcontinental automobile highway, 
as well as serving to connect Globe and Tonto Basin with the state capital. 



In the summer of 1905 the Reclamation Service secured authority from the 
Interior Department for the construction of a bed-rock diversion dam across 
Salt River at Granite Reef, twenty-five miles above Phcenis. The necessity for 
such a structure had been shown by a drouth of about six months, with serious 
results to the farmers and orange growers on the Arizona canal, which had 
lost its timber dam in the floods of the winter before. Service from the diver- 
sion dam was inaugurated in May, 1908. The structure cost $622,784. 


Within the Salt River Valley were four small hydro-electric plants, pri- 
vately owned. Three of these have been acquired by the Reclamation Service, 
in pursuance of its plan for the development of about 25,000 horse power within 
the project. This led to some complications. The water power developed in 
two works along the Arizona Canal had been contracted for a term of twenty- 
five years, of which seventeen years were yet to run, to the local lighting 
monopoly of Phcenix. This contract stood very much in the way of the build- 
ing of a great power plant, contemplated at the end of a new cross-cut that was 
to connect the Arizona and Grand canals. So, finally. Project Engineer L. C. 
Hill solved the difficulty by a contract, that at the time excited the most violent 
criticism. This criticism simmered down, however, when the logic of the situa- 
tion became known. The Phoenix company was continued in its monopoly for 
the sale of small quantties of electricity, it to pay the Reclamation Service a 
charge of lyo cents per kilowatt for current furnished, but the power houses 
were surrendered to the service, and the term of the contract was reduced to 
ten years. 

The largely increased cost of the project has been the cause of many allega- 
tions of recklessness. To investigate these charges, the Sixty-second Congress 
appointed a committee of investigation, comprising Congressmen Jas. M. Gra- 
ham, Walter N. Hensley and Oscar Calloway, constituting a sub-committee of 
the Committee on Expenditures of the Interior Department. The committee 
met in Phoenix in April, 1912, and investigated the project, and also visited the 
Pima and Maricopa Indian Reservation, where electric pumping works had 
been established by the Reclamation Service for the benefit of the Indians. 

The report of the committee, submitted February 11, 1913, rather inferred 
that the difference between the original estimate and the actual cost had been 
due to mismanagement and waste, though figures were presented showing addi- 
tional cost not at first contemplated and that the purchases of the old canals 
of the valley were made at a cost considerably less than new canals could have 
been built paralleling them. The report clearly showed a desire to make political 

It is very probable indeed, that were this Salt River project to be built 
again, at this date, the cost could be pared, but the fact remains tliat the 
settlers have received much more benefit than at first was contemplated, that 
they now own their own distributing and power systems and that all legal ques- 
tions have been cleared away concei-ning the use of tlie normal flow of the 
rivers or of the water stored. 

The Salt River project is the first large enterprise of the sort ever handled 
by the Government and, in a v/ay, was experimental, but through this experi- 


meut the farmers around Phcenix have beeu placed years in advance of other 
regions iu the arid West, which may in time have irrigation works more econom- 
ically constructed, but which iu the meantime will reap no benefit from the flood 
waters that are flowing away unchecked. 


The formal dedication of the dam was delayed till March 18, 1911, when 
was secured the attendance of Colonel Roosevelt himself. Reference to his 
trip has been made elsewhere in this work. At the dam, the arrival of the 
colonel was the signal for a salute of dynamite that re-echoed down the canon. 
There had been gathered as speakers a number of men prominent in the irriga- 
tion movement. John P. Orme, president of the Salt River Valley Water 
Users' Association, the official host, introduced Governor Sloan as chairman for 
the exercises and, in order, followed addresses by Chief Engineer Louis G. Hill, 
Statistician C. J. Blanehard, of the Reclamation Service, and B. A. Fowler, 
president of the National Irrigation Congress and one of the men to whom 
largest local credit was due. Then the guest of honor expressed his gratifica- 
tion, not only over the completion of the structure to which had been given 
his name, but over the large degree of success that had attended the operation 
of the Reclamation Act, which had become a law during his term of office as 
President. He believed that the two most material achievements connected 
with his administration were the reclamation work in the West and the Panama 
Canal. The speaker paid especial tribute to Engineers Newell, Davis and Hill. 
At the conclusion of his address, Colonel Roosevelt, by means of an electric 
switch, opened sluice gates on the northern slope of the dam and from twin tun- 
nels leaped two great torrents of water that sei'ved to fill the bed of the river 
below, theretofore dry. 

At the time of the dedication, behind the dam was only about 100 feet of 
water. The years of construction had been notably damp ones and then there 
had come a period of drought. At seventy feet the rising water had eliminated 
the original Town of Roosevelt, which lay on a shelf above the river bank a half 
mile above the dam site and the residents had hurriedly moved to a new loca- 
tion on the mesa beyond. All apprehension vanished, however, in the spring of 
1915, when the water commenced to rise at the rate of several feet a day. 
Finally the reservoir was filled to its fullest depth of 225 feet on the evening 
of April 15, 1915. The first water that went over the spillway was saved for 
use in the christening in June of the new dreadnaught Arizona. The total 
capacity of the reservoir approximates 1,300,000 acre feet, in itself enough 
to insure the irrigation of the dependent lands below for about three years. 

The final judgment of a reclamation commission, issued earlj' in 1915, gave 
a net acreage of 180,599 acres, upon which will be assessed the cost of the 
project. In addition are 3,000 acres of Indian lands. Plans have been made 
for the irrigation of 220,000 acres, the balance generally by means of pumping. 
Still in addition will be the acreage to be in-igated by a proposed storage dam 
on the Vorde. 


On the Verde River, above ]\IcDowell, about sixty miles northeast of 
Phcenix, the Salt River Water Users' Association is to build a storage dam 

Lake at junction of Salt Eivor and Tonto 

Roosevelt Dam, Upstream Face 

Theodore Roosevelt addressing the specta- 
tors at the opening of Roosevelt Storage 
Dam, JIarch 18, 1911 

Louis C. Hill, chief engineer of Roosevelt 

Storage Project, speaking at opening 

of the gates, March 18, 1911 

Granite Reef Diversion Dam 

Roosevelt Dam, seventy-six miles east of 



at a cost of $1,000,000, to save the flood waters of that stream. This dam is on 
the site of one planned as early as 1889 by the Rio Verde Canal Company, 
which proposed to build a 140-mile canal to irrigate 250,000 acres in Paradise . 
Valley, a northern annex to Salt River Valley. A diversion tunnel was dug 
around the dam site, and a long stretch of canal excavated within the valley. 
The enterprise later had more or less notoriety from the manner of its 
advertisement. In one circular was stated that 

The canal should be considered a cause, iilanned primarily as a missionary undertaking, 
largely that Christianity might be thereby advanced, and that the hope of personal prosperity 
be the secondary matter. The history of the enterprise contains scores of proofs, which cannot 
be questioned by any reasonable man, that it has been the object of scrupulous care of Almighty 
God, who has nations and causes in his keeping and controls the wealth of the universe and 
the minds and the hearts of men. We feel deeply assured that God 's time is now near at hand 
to crown the enterprise with lull success. For the glory of his name we now feel led to ask all 
of the friends of the enterprise to stand with us in earnest prayer for the victory which W9 
believe is near at hand, having the deep conviction that millions for the development of tho 
enterprise are to be supplied in antwer to the united prayers of all who have been led to become 
interested in it. All that is needed is lor God to speak the word and make, clear his will to 
earnest Christian men of large means. 

In 1904 subscriptions were acknowledged of over $500,000, with water 
rights sold to 150,000 acres and with the expectation that irrigation would be 
started in 1905. 

When it is understood that this company collected nearly $1,000,000, very 
largely through appeals to Christian people, who were told that in Arizona 
was to be established a colony, wherein God's will was to be the law, the char- 
acter of the enterprise can be appreciated. These people, mainly under the 
Desert Land Act, located an immense amount of land and made one or more 
payments upon it, but their filings nearly all reverted to the Government. 

In April, 1899, bankruptcy proceedings were started in Phoenix against 
the Minnesota and Arizona Construction Company, which was alleged to be 
in debt $1,000,000, with solvent credits of only about $1,000. This was the 
construction company of the Rio Verde Canal Company. The principal claim 
was that of A. H. Linton, who rated as worth only $1 a note given by the 
Verde Canal Company for $120,273. 

A serious blow to the Rio Verde enterprise was given by Judge Kent in the 
United States District Court at Phcenix, January 11, 1912, though his judg- 
ment concerned only a canal right-of-way northwest of Phoenix. Since that 
time, however, the scheme appears to have fallen through. The Reclamation 
Service has reserved all ground on which a canal might be dug within the 
lower Verde Valley. The Rio Verde Company, in another form, was still in 
existence as late as 1914. 


In the early days of Salt River Valley irrigation, litigation ever was pres- 
ent between canals and communities and there even had been threats of force, 
as when the Mormon headgates were closed in the summer of 1879. There was 
an accession to the legal trouble as soon as the Arizona Canal Company (organ- 
ized December 22, 1882) began diverting water from the river. There had 


been an assumption that a water right had value in itself. Water rights were 
sold and even mortgaged, and were transferred from farm to farm, at the 
pleasure of the owners. On this theory, the Arizona canal interests, seeking a 
larger supply for their lands and the absolute control of the water supply of 
the northern part of the valley, purchased a controlling interest in the Grand, 
Maricopa and Salt River Valley canals and, on the authority of the transferred 
water rights, sought to cari-y the water thus appropriated to new lands of 
their own choosing. This action started law suits that continued for years. 
The principal cases were brought by Michael Wormser, who owned about 7,000 
acres of land south of Salt River, later included in the Bartlett-Heard hold- 
ings (this somewhat representing the Temple Canal) and by Martin Gold, a 
farmer southwest of Phoenix, whose water "right" had been sold, but who 
insisted that his land still was entitled to irrigation. 

However illogical the last contention seemed at the time, it later was given 
legal standing. In 1892 Judge Kibbey, in the United States District Court, in 
passing upon one of Wormser 's law suits, involving the right of the San Fran- 
cisco ditch to water, rather went out of the narrow track of the judgment in 
stating his views concerning the status of the irrigation flow. He then an- 
nounced his opinion that canals were merely carriers of water, that priorities 
of appropriation should be upon the basis of the first irrigation of the lands 
benefited and reclaimed and that the land and the water should not be separated 
in the manner theretofore assumed proper. This later was kno\vn as the Kib- 
bey decision, though the jurist always insisted that it was not a decision at all, 
but merely a bit of gratuitous advice. At any event, it since has become the 
law of the land, sustained by courts throughout the arid regions and now 
undisputed in its application. 

In February, 1899, Judge R. E. Sloan of Prescott, sitting temporarily on 
the bench of the Third Judicial District, in a decision on the case of H. E. 
Slosser against the Salt River Valley Canal Company took an advanced posi- 
tion in irrigation jurisprudence, sustaining the Kibbey decision. While the 
decree simply permitted Slosser to purchase the carriage of water in a canal 
in which he had no "water right," the court inclined toward the contention 
that to the farm and not to the farmer belonged the water that might be 
appropriated from a stream. The decision stated that water should go to the 
land that first uses it and considered the canal in question a carrier of water, 
though not a "common carrier" in the full meaning of the legal term. Float- 
ing or unattached water rights were held of little value. Judge Kibbey and 
Judge W. H. Stillwell were of counsel for plaintiff. 

About the same time Chief Justice Street heard other cases in which the 
same general idea was involved. On the day his decision was to be announced, 
the farmers, feeling sure of a judgment in their favor, paraded the streets, 
each man bearing a shovel or pitchfork. But the court found for the canals. 
However, the Supreme Court, in June, 1901, reversed the Street decision and, 
in the same period, sustained Judge Sloan. 

In 1910 water priorities in the Salt River Valley finally were fixed by a 
decision, made of record March 1, 1910, by Chief Justice Edward Kent in the 
District Court at Phoenix. The case was docketed as "Patrick E. Hurley, 
plaintiff, and the United States of America, intervener, against Chas. F. Abbott 

built the Roosevelt dam 


and 4,800 others, defendants." Abbott simply happened to be the first name 
on the list and Hurley was the representative of the Salt River Valley Water 
Users' Association. This suit had been brought on the advice of Counsel 
Kibbey and had been in progress for nearly five years. Evidence was intro- 
duced showing the date of cultivation of every plat of land within the valley. 
In the decree Judge Kent definitely declared that no corporation or individual 
may become possessed of a water right other than in the attachment of such 
right, for beneficial uses, to a certain plot of land. In the same decision tenta- 
tively was accepted a proposition that forty-eight miners' inches of water per 
annum to the quarter section should be considered a sufficient supply for the 
irrigation of crops, though this since has been modified and generally is con- 
sidered excessive. It should be explained that in Arizona a miners' inch is 
defined under the Reclamation Service standard as "the one-fortieth part of 
one cubic foot of water flowing per second of time." 


March 30, 1909, Yuma celebrated the harnessing of the American Nile, by 
which, in plainer language, is meant the completion of the Laguna diversion 
dam across the Colorado River, fourteen miles north of the city. Citizens of 
Yuma had provided a fete in honor of the occasion and had as specially honored 
guests Governor Kibbey and staff and a trainload of Los Angeles business men. 

The Laguna was the first finished of the three southwestern river dams 
projected by the Reclamation Service. In reality it is merely a weir for diver- 
sion and not storage. It raises the river level only about ten feet, thus being 
little more than an artificial reef. Its total depth is only nineteen feet, retain- 
ing place upon sand and silt through its own enormous weight, for there is no 
such thing in the lower Colorado Valley as bedrock. Up and down stream it 
has a total width of 244 feet, with length from bank to bank of over 4,470 feet. 
It is built of loose rock, dumped between three concrete walls, capped with an 
eighteen-ineh pavement of concrete, and with a downstream apron of large 

Work on this dam was begun in July, 1905, after preparations that had 
consumed a year. The contractors, who had bid $797,000 for the dam itself, 
failed and most of the work had to be done directly by the Reclamation Service. 
Early in 1908 there was a change in the first plans of the Reclamation Service 
and the main supply canal was transferred to the western side of the river. 
At first it was planned that the supply for Yuma should be brought by viaduct 
across the Gila River at a point some miles to the eastward. The total cost 
first was estimated at $3,000,000, though this has been about doubled, owing 
to extensions of the original idea. The gross sum is to be repaid by assessment 
on about 130,000 acres of land, which has been brought under the control of 
a water users' association, organized in the same manner as that of the Salt 
River Valley. The main canal leaves the dam on the California side and 
passes through the Yuma Indian reservation to a point just opposite Yuma. 
There the water is conducted into a siphon and is carried under the channel 
of the Colorado, again bubbling out on a hillside below the town and flowing 
away as far as the international line. The first water flowed through the siphon 
June 28, 1912, and the day was made one of rejoicing in the locality. Inei- 


dentally, 700 Yuma Indians are to be enriched in the irrigation of 16,000 
acres of their land, divided between themselves and white settlers. 

As a part of the Yuma project, there had to be built scores of miles of 
levees, protecting bottom land of wonderful richness. It is deemed probable 
that in days to come the canal on the California side will need to be enlarged, 
to act as a head ditch for the irrigation system of the Imperial Valley. 


When General Kearny in 1856 at last cleared the confines of the Gila River 
Caiion, he saw to the westward a plain of rare beauty and of vast extent, dotted 
with the ruins of a past civilization and scored by the lines of ancient irriga- 
tion canals. This same plain today is known as the Casa Grande Valley, 
stretching southward from the Gila and westward from the Butt«s past Florence, 
the Casa Grande ruins, Sacaton and the railroad town of Casa Grande as far 
as Maricopa, fully fifty miles in all. Throughout, the country generally is 
level, with deep and rich soil, its cultivation limited only by the water supply 
available for irrigation — for the rainfall of south-central Arizona is too 
erratic and too small in its gross annual volume for much benefit to agriculture. 

On the authority of Editor Thos. F. Weedin of Florence, the earliest irriga- 
tion of the plain around his home town, dating back to 1870, was by six small 
ditches, the Alamo Amarillo (Yellow Cottonwood), Montezuma, Holland, 
Adamsville, Spines and McLeUan. In 188-4 was started construction of the 
Florence canal, into which nearly all the smaller ditch rights were consoli- 
dated. A few years later, at the cost of a bond issue of $30,000, a reservoir 
was built on the canal line, especially to supply lands around Casa Grande 
and Arizola. 

Thereafter came trouble. Settlers on the upper river, in years of relative 
drought, diverted about all the summer flow of the stream. The canal failed 
to earn a sustaining income and became bankrupt. Bought by judgment 
creditors, it was neglected and was allowed to fill with silt. The system finally 
went into a receivership, from which it has been taken only lately. Naturally, 
development of the tributary farming country was retarded. The farmers 
along the Florence Canal arose in wrath and took possession of the waterway, 
defying the receiver of the canal company and the court that protected him. 
The grangers saved their crops by a proper handling of the canal and all was 
serene until the next term of court. Then about forty of the leading citizens 
of Pinal County were arrested and charged with contempt of court, assault 
and unlawful entry and detainer and, incidentally, were sued for $50,000 dam- 
ages. For several court terms the fanners stood off the litigation, but at last 
had to acknowledge judgment, though it was no more severe than a perpetual 
injunction and a mandate to pay aU costs of litigation. Now the main canal 
has been returned to ownership within the community and better days are 

For years at Florence there has been a struggle for water storage in the 
Gila. Keen disappointment was expressed when the Roosevelt dam was 
determined upon, for a dam site also was offered at The Buttes. Later The 
Buttes site was demonstrated unavailable, bed rock being too deep. Similar 
natural features caused rejection of a dam site near Riverside, but, still 


further up-stream, at last what is considered an ideal location was found in a 
narrow caiion of the river, a few miles below San Carlos. 

Over the San Carlos dam site arose complications due to a claim on a right- 
of-way through the caiion made by the Arizona Eastern Railroad Company, 
which sought a low-grade connection between San Carlos and AVinkelman. On 
the basis of an understanding that water storage at the point suggested was 
not feasible, due to unfavorable bed-rock conditions, silt and other reasons, 
there was general hope in Phoenix that the railroad would secure its right-of- 
way. In Tucson, per contra, there was even financial support for the reser- 
voir proposition. The discussion within Arizona having waxed too warm for 
the further maintenance of good will between the localities affected, the 
Phcsnix Board of Trade, on March 25, 1911, finally suggested that the whole 
matter be referred to the unbiased arbitration of a board of United States 
anuy engineers. It was believed such a reference was the only one logically 
possible, for eminent irrigation authorities had flatly contradicted each other 
on the subject. 

The suggestion was well received and, in due course of time, on request 
of the secretary of the interior, detail to the work was made by the secretary 
of war of three engineer officers. Their report was made public in February, 
1914, and declared in favor of construction of the dam, though at a site 1,000 
feet above the point where it originally had been planned. Bedrock was 
found within a reasonable average depth and the question of silt was con- 
sidered one of relatively slight importance. The cost of an adequate dam and 
diversion weir was estimated at $6,311,000, in this being included heavy con- 
demnation costs, payable to the Arizona Eastern for trackage damage to its 
Globe branch, and to the Interior Department, for Apache Indian agency 
buildings and property within the proposed reservoir's lines. 

It was decided that, while much more than that area of good land was 
available for irrigation below Florence, the average flow of the Gila River 
could be relied upon for the watering of 90,000 acres, of which 35,000 should 
be on the Pima Indian Reservation, for the benefit of 7,000 individuals, leaving 
55,000 acres to be served elsewhere. Of this about 30,000 acres on the old 
ditches around Florence already have prior rights. Repayment of the cost 
chargeable to the Indians could be assumed by the United States, while the 
white settlers would be assessed not over $70 an acre. As the Reclamation 
Service already is overburdened, a bill has been introduced in Congress author- 
izing construction of the San Carlos dam on the same plan of repayment as 
enjoyed by the neighboring Salt River Valley. 

The needs of the Indians in this connection are keen. Years ago they had 
an ample irrigation supply, gradually lost to them by the encroachment above 
of white men. With power for pumping secured from the Reclamation Serv- 
ice works at' Roosevelt, 10,000 acres lately have been added to the reservation's 
possible tillable area, but this method for securing water is considered imper- 
manent and conservative Indians refuse to profit by its utilization. With an 
assured water supply, the Pimas of the Gila Valley would become even wealthy, 
for they are industrious and are possessed of skill in agriculture, following 
cultivation of their lands for centuries past. 



Beside the Salt River Valley, Yuma and Florence districts, irrigation in 
Arizona for years has been known in the lower and upper Gila valleys, and 
on the Santa Cruz, San Pedro and Little Colorado rivers. In the last named 
section $200,000 damage was done the spring of 1915 by the breaking of the 
improperly constructed Lyman dam above St. Johns, the disaster involving 
also the loss of two lives. About the middle eighties, an immense sum was 
spent by the South Gila Canal Company, which started construction on a 
great storage and diversion dam near Agua Caliente. Further up the river 
near Gila Bend, to cover land that had been irrigated for a time in the early 
seventies, materialized one of the most ambitious irrigation schemes of the 
Southwest, that of the Gila Bend Canal Company. A short distance below its 
junction with the Hassayampa, the Gila was dammed by the company, which 
was headed by Governor Lewis Wolfley. The dam washed out and the enter- 
prise, renamed the Peoria Canal Company, was absorbed by the Greenhuts of 
Peoria, 111., who are said to have sunk over $1,000,000 in the scheme. The 
plans contemplated the irrigation of about 100,000 acres of excellent land, 
much of it along the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

The upper Gila Valley has been farmed and irrigated for over thirty years 
from the Apache Reservation eastward almost to the headwaters of the stream. 

During the past few years a Chicago corporation has spent over $1,000,000 
in the purchase of lands along the Santa Cruz and in the installation of an 
irrigation system that has served to add a considerable farming community 
within a short distance of Tucson. 

Near Prescott a similar enterprise has placed a concrete dam across Gran- 
ite Creek and is reclaiming a large expanse of land north of Granite Dells. 

Probably the first hydro-electric power system in Arizona was that of the 
Consolidated Canal Company, which in 1899 secured a right to carrj^ Tempe 
Canal water over the thirty-five-foot Mesa bluff, thus generating several hun- 
dred horse power. This power plant has been absorbed by the hydro-electric 
system of the Reclamation Service. Of importance to the mining industry of 
Central Arizona is a hydro-electric plant on Fossil Creek, where a compara- 
tively small volume of water tapped at a great height produces electric current 
to supply the needs of Prescott and all of the principal mines of Y''avapai 

Only within the last few months has a start been made to utilize the 
enormous power that is wasting in the Grand Caiion of the Colorado. The 
initial unit of what may become the largest power producing plant in the 
Southwest is now under construction at the foot of Diamond Caiion. north of 
Peach Springs. 

Joseph T. Woods; Nigger Jeff; Nat Greer; Hi Hatcli; Albert F. Potter 



Cowboys, Typical and Otherrvise — Stocking of the Arizona Ranges — Sheep and Their 
Faithful Shepherds — Antagonism of the Two Slock Divisions — Elk Imported from 
Wyoming — Rise and Decline of the Arizona Ostrich Breeding Industry. 

The cowboy of Arizona is often a composite character. To the east and to 
the west of him the range riders preserve a uniformity of style and trappings, 
but not so the cowman of the "Sun Kissed Land." His saddle may be "Colo- 
rado," his cinch "Texas," his bit "Mexico," and his riata "California." Still 
the eyes of the cattlemen are keen in all things and the locality of a newcomer 
is soon determined, and infallibly by a rapid glance at the equestrian trappings 
of the stranger. 

Unfettered by a social code, free to roam a boundless expanse of mountain 
and plain, it is remarkable that the land knows no more conservative individual 
than the "cowboy." His ideas are fixed at the outset of his career and rarely, 
if ever, changed. If he hail from Texas, mark you the characteristics of his 
"rig." A long, low-cantled, broad-horned saddle, loosely strapped to his pony 
by a double cinch, with buckles on the "latigo" straps. His bit will be a rather 
light concern, possibly reinforced by a "hackamore," and his "rope" will prob- 
ably be either hemp or Mexican grass. And especially should be noted the fact 
that "tapaderos" are never seen. Now, hitch up the stirrups until the knees 
of the rider are somewhat bent and you have the "rig" that a Texan most de- 
lights in. 

The Californian despises Texas methods and puts his foi'ty pounds of leather 
upon a horse's back in a very different shape. The saddle is higher and the 
"tree" broader, and the stirrups are so hung that the rider sits upon his animal 
in true clothespin fashion. Tapaderos are deemed a necessity and are often 
so long as to nearly sweep the ground. A single broad cinch is used, the girth 
strap being dexterously fastened by a slip knot. The headstall is usually an elab- 
orate affair and the bit a heavy one, of the "ring" or "half-breed" patterns. 
The "lariat," as he terms it, is made of braided rawhide or calfskin and is the 
pride of its possessor. 

These peculiarities are marked and unalterable. There can be no argument 
as to their respective merits, and each class of cowmen looks at the other with 
the same distrust and contempt that would be given a ' ' tenderfoot. ' ' 

As regards the horses, fully as broad a difference exists. The California 
"mustang" comes of proud lineage and, really, it would be difficult to find else- 
where, grander saddle horses for rough usage. A matured animal often is put 


to the strain of 100 miles' travel in a day, without injury. The mustangs are 
commonly tall, "rangy" animals, "buckskin," gray or "pinto" in color. They 
are broken when several years old and well experienced must be the vaquero who 
mounts them upon this interesting occasion. The exhibition of bucking, rearing 
and general cussedness given at the debut of a mustang is truly phenomenal; 
but through it all he comes unseratched, tough, willing and speedy. 

The Texas pony or "bronco" is somewhat undersized, fairly docile in tem- 
perament, and is of Mexican origin. He is thick-legged, strong and hardy, and 
if not as available as the mustang, has the doubtful advantage of being held at 
only half the price. In Arizona the Texas pony predominates. 

The cattle district of Arizona embraces the whole eastern half, and in this 
vast expanse the cowboy flourishes. But let me hasten to note, he is not the 
"wild and woolly" specimen that the eastern comic papers picture. You will 
find him an honest, hospitable sort of a fellow, not averse to whiskey, yet rarely 
intoxicated. A large portion of the livestock of the state is made up of small 
holdings, and upon the large ranches none but sober, steady men are wanted. 


The cattle rearing industry of Arizona has had many ups and downs, what 
with drought and with the necessity for feeding a large part of the Apache peo- 
ple. The rich grasses of Pimeria early caused the importation of cattle from 
Mexico. As early as 1770 is a record that tells of great cattle increases and of 
the depredations of the Indians, who drove off the herds and killed the herders. 
But around 1820 a number of great ranchos had been established, mainly in the 
upper San Pedro and Santa Cruz valleys, where yet are to be seen the ruins of 
large haciendas. By 1843 the Indians had become so bold that the last of these 
haciendas had been abandoned and the population of the region had been con- 
centrated in the walled presidios of Tucson and Santa Cruz. Large herds of wild 
cattle were encountered on the San Pedro by the Mormon Battalion in 1846. A 
rather better grade came after 1849, with the California goldseekers, whose 
cattle often gave out on the arduous journey. 

Bill Kirkland claimed that he was the first American to bring a band of 
cattle to Arizona, to the old Canoa Ranch, forty miles south of Tucson, in 1857. 
The stock was bought in Sonora. According to Colin Cameron, in 1864 the only 
domestic cattle were forty head of cows at Tucson, owned by Wm. S. Ourj', and 
the same number in Williamson's Valley, near Prescott, owned by a man named 
Stevens, these guarded by armed herders and corraled every night. A large 
number of cattle and sheep came with the Northern Arizona military parties of 
1863, brought for food. For this same reason, in 1866, cattle were driven from 
California by one of the Bannings and in succeeding years there were drives 
from Texas by Hooker & Hines, who were beef contractors supplying Govern- 
ment posts. In 1868, H. C. Hooker unsuccessfully tried to turn cattle on the 
range in Williamson Valley and in the following year tried to hold 4,000 head 
near Camp Crittenden, but the Apaches were too bad at both points. The latter 
band had to be wintered in the Papago country, 100 miles southwest of Tucson, 
where the friendly Indians took toll of 400 head and for a time "lived high." 
In 1872 Hooker's firm supplied 15,500 head to the posts, or in unwilling contri- 
butions to Apache appetites. 




In 1873 was the real modem start of the grazing industry of Arizona. Yet 
in 1877, according to Geo. W. Atkinson, interviewed by Col. Allen T. Bird of 
Nogales, "when he came to this region and located at Calabasas in 1877, there 
were but three herds of cattle in these parts. One was owned by Doctor Benedict, 
who was located at Guebabi, on the Santa Cruz, a couple of miles below the pres- 
ent site of the municipal pumping plant ; another was owned by Pete Kitchen, 
whose headquarters were at the place known now as the Saxon Dairy Ranch, 
about five miles north from Nogales, on the road to Calabasas ; and the third was 
owned by the late Sabino Otero, who lived at Tubac, and his cattle ranged in the 
hills on either side of the valley. In those days cattle were so few, and feed on 
the range so abundant, that farmers never considered it necessary to fence their 
cultivated fields, and produce of all kinds was raised along the Santa Cruz with- 
out fencing the lands at all." 

The present practice of fattening range stock was started in 1887 by the 
Hooker and Vail interests, when the railroad was completed into the Salt River 
Valley and its alfalfa fields, which since have turned off up to 50,000 head of 
beef cattle a year. The great drought of 1892-3 showed the cattlemen how 
grievously the ranges had been overstocked. Several varieties of the native 
grasses, once standing as high as a horse 's back, had perished through over-graz- 
ing, though, in the wool of the sheep had been brought from California the seed 
of the alfilaria (fileree), now one of the most valuable and most widely spread of 
Arizona's forage plants. 

Arizona has taken pride in her comparative immunity from the live stock 
diseases of Texas and other states around her. This has been due almost wholly 
to the efforts of the Live Stock Sanitary Board, which was established in 1887, 
with A. J. Chandler as veterinarian. Will C. Barnes, who led the board for 
a number of years, latterly has been in congenial employment with the grazing 
section of the forestry division of the Agricultural Department at Washington. 
Colin Cameron for years was a notably efficient member. From 1893 for many 
years the veterinarian was J. C. Norton of Phoenix. 


Marco de Niza in 1539 had something to say of the possession of sheep by the 
natives of Cibola, but probably was mistaken, unless mountain sheep then had 
been domesticated. In 1775 Padre Font wrote of the Pimas: "They own some 
large sheep, whose wool is good, and also Castilian fowl." 

Protected by the peaceful, sedentary Indians of the Rio Grande Valley, sheep 
raising had an early start in New Mexico and rapid development, the herds fur- 
nishing their owners with clothing, as well as food. Carson and other pioneers 
drove sheep from the Rio Grande to California, to feed the Argonauts. Bartlett 
wrote that in 1852 there had been lost near Yuma, stolen by Indians, a band of 
4,217 sheep, owned by Joseph White, started from Sonora for California. Near 
Tucson Bartlett met an American headed for California with 14,000 head of 
Chihuahua sheep. But none of these remained with the country. 

The first sheep raising within Arizona was by Navajo and Hopi Indians, whose 
bands were seized and slaughtered by the soldiery of the Civil War period, who 
thus brought the redskins into a state of comparative peace, befitting a people of 
property. In 1874 Felix Scott brought New Mexican sheep into the Little Colo- 


rado River Valley, and in the following year some Navajo sheep were taken by 
Frank Hunt into Yavapai County. In 1876, according to a rather uncertain 
item, one Robinson drove 2,000 sheep into Tonto Basin and in 1878 Wm. H. 
Hardy had 3,000 Angora goats on his Mohave County range. 

Really the pioneer sheep raiser of Arizona, however, was John Clark, now a 
resident of Flagstaff, still interested and prosperous in the live stock industry. 
In 1875 he started from Kern County, California, with 5,000 head of sheep. He 
lost over half of the band in a California snow storm, with the remainder crossing 
the Colorado at Hardy's Ferry on December 7. The winter was spent on the 
Big Sandy, but in the following spring a better and permanent range was found 
in what is now Coconino County, near Bill Williams Mountain. Soon thereafter 
he had a neighbor, William Ashurst (father of the present senator), who brought 
a large sheep band from Nevada. 

In the early days of the sheep industry there was incessant war with the 
cattlemen. Wandering sheep bands from New Mexico, herded in to consume the 
summer grasses of Arizona, were turned by force at the crossing of Caiion Diablo. 
There was the same opposition when Northern Arizona sheep were started south- 
ward into the Tonto Basin and the valleys of Central Arizona. Something of 
this is told in this volume in the chronicles of the wilder days of the territory. 
When the forest reserves were established, with their regulations and limitations, 
there was general protest from both ends of the live-stock industry. In practice 
the reserves have proved a blessing. Overstocking is prohibited, prior rights 
are protected, and, best of all, definite zones of occupancy have been established, 
as well as legal driveways, over which sheep may be sent southward in the fall, 
through the cattle country, to winter and lamb and to be sheared on the warmer 


The long-continued fight between the western cattlemen and the sheepmen 
now forms a study for the psychologist as well as for the economist. There was 
little in common between the two industries. Cattle and sheep could no more 
occupy a range in common than oil and water could flow coherently, so the cow- 
puncher hated the sheepherder with a hatred that was deep and intense, and the 
shepherd girded himself with artillery and sullenly stood on the defensive. The 
difference between the habits of the two classes of live stock is broad. Cattle 
are home-keeping and hard to lose, for a range cow will make her "run" wherie 
she was born. Drive a cow away even a hundred miles and back she will drift, 
although it may be to starve and to die. Sheep, on the contrary, necessarily are 
nomadic, gregarious, bunching by instinct, and can be handled in bands of even 
four to six thousand, though half the larger figure is usually preferred. 

The sheepherder socially has a lower place than the cowboy, though more 
often than not he is better paid, more saving and more prosperous. As a rule, 
he is a foreigner in Arizona, a Mexican, Frenchman or Basque. The American 
is too nervous to stand the life of a shepherd. He cannot endure the monotony, 
the necessary separation from humanity, with only a dog for company for months 
at a stretch. To the credit of the sheepherder may it be said that he is rarely 
unfaithful to his flock or its owner. There is nothing poetical about him, but 
he will risk his life for the safety of a lamb. He is much quieter in type than the 


cowboy, even when in his cups. In the "open" days of Arizona after the wool 
had been clipped and all hands were in town for a little fling, he had no wild 
yearning for shooting holes in the firmament. He is happiest on a sunny hillside, 
lying at ease where he may overlook his flock and hear the ceaseless voicing of its 


A herd of seventy-nine elk was turned loose in the forested mountains south 
of "Winslow in 1913, the animals brought from Wyoming at the expense of the 
Arizona Order of Elks. Protected by law, they have prospered in their new 
location and few have been killed by Indians or the casual hunter. When the^ 
white man first came to Arizona elk were plentiful in the forested North, but 
had been extinct for years before this importation. In the same region were 
large bands of antelope, a game animal now rarely seen. It is given protection 
in all seasons. Also protected are mountain sheep, which once were known in 
almost all parts of Arizona. 

It is told that the first breeding ostriches brought to the Western Continent 
came in 1882. The first brought into Arizona, other than in menageries, were 
purchased in California in 1888 by M. E. Clanton from the Cawston Company. 
They were twenty in number, but only two survived the trip. In 1891 the first 
ostrich was hatched in Arizona, the property of Josiah Harbert, who in 1896 had 
a flock of 123 birds. A few ostrich farms outside of Arizona were bought and 
the Arizona holdings increased, till in 1914, upon a half dozen farms, there were 
at least 6,000 ostriches in the Salt River Valley. About the time of the start 
of the European war it was definitely decided that the industry was unprofitable 
and the birds of the largest farm were offered for sale at prices that ran down 
to $5 a head, though held at $200 a head only the previous year. Through this 
sale ostriches have been placed on scores of Arizona farms, where they are handled 
under about the same conditions as fenced cattle. Indeed, they are listed as live 
stock for purposes of assessment. In 1914 and for several years theretofore a 
claim was made that within the Salt River Valley were more ostriches in confine- 
ment than known elsewhere in the world outside of South Africa. 


While honey is a valuable product of the agricultural valleys, the mountains 
of Arizona now abound in bees. In hollow trees are to be found the Italian or 
hybrid Italian type and in caves the little black bees, Kipling's "little people of 
the rocks. ' ' There can be no doubt that the yellow bees are escapes from the val- 
leys, but it is possible that the black bee is as indigenous to the country as is the 
rabbit. This is not believed by scientists who have studied the subject, though it 
has been stated that about 500 varieties of the genus apis have been found in 
Arizona and New Mexico, mainly in the mountains of the latter state. Bees were 
taken to Texas as early as 1820 and in 1845 trappers found honey in the rocks 
near the San Carlos River of Arizona. Several hives of bees were brought to 
Prescott early in 1864 by Joseph Ehle and wife. Around 1879 hives had been 
taken into the Salt River Valley and in that year J. B. Allen of Tucson brought 
two swarms from San Diego. 



The Church a Great Pioneering Force — John D. Lee Long a Refugee in the Grand 
Carton — Settlements in Northern Arizona — Missionary Work of Jacob Hamhlin — 
Founding a Stake in the Little Colorado Valle}) — Communities Established at Lehi, 
Mesa, Saint David and on the Gila. 

The Mormon Church (the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) 
probably was the greatest pioneering body the world ever has known. Like 
the Pilgrims of old, its leaders sought a home in the wilderness wherein they 
might not be hampered in the exercise of their peculiar religious beliefs and 
wherein they could found colonies of the proselytes that were expected, and 
that, indeed, did come. Brigham Young, a very level-headed sort of indi- 
vidual, early determined upon a spread of his faith southward by means of 
colonization and it woiild appear that at one time there was an ill-founded 
hope that in Mexico the faith might be extended materially. Wherever pos- 
sible he made friends with the Indians, the Lamanites of the Book of Mormon, 
and his missionaries even succeeded in converting some of the redskins. 

The Mormon occupation of Arizona has included many former residents 
of Southern Utah who in early daj's were sent by the church as colonizers to 
various parts of the Southwest. In 1851, C. R. Hakes, later president at 
Mesa, and President Flake were members of a party of 100 families that 
settled in San Bernardino, Cal., where some of the original settlers still reside. 
They were led by Chas. C. Rich and Amasa M. Lyman. The latter 's son now 
is president of the Mormon Apostles. They settled on the Lugo ranch of nine 
square leagues, for which they paid $77,500. To this sum 10 per cent was 
added for deferred payments and the total sum rose eventually to $140,000. 
They remained in peaceful possession till December, 1857, when Riley Morse, 
one of the brethren, came post haste from Sacramento with the news that 200 
mounted vigilantes were on the way southward to run the Mormons out of 
California. The Mormons, not wishing to fight, almost immediately took the 
back track and at least 400 of them in December started for Utah, leaving 
not over twenty families behind. On learning this, the Califomians returned 
to their homes. Probably a score of these San Bernardino pioneers later 
came into Arizona. 


The cause of the California anti-JIormon outburst was the Mountain 
Meadows massacre, which occurred September 11, 1857. The affair itself has 


no place in a volume of Arizona history, but has a connection through the fact 
that much of twenty years thereafter Northern Arizona was the hiding place 
of John D. Lee, leader of the white and Indian assassins of the 125 men, women 
and children ambushed in Southern Utah. Lee's Ferry, the only available 
crossing of the Colorado River in Northeastern Arizona, was named after Lee, 
and there is still standing in a caiion below a stone cabin occupied by him for 
a number of years. The time of himself and a number of followers largely 
was occupied in the washing of gold-bearing bars. Lee, sometimes known as 
Doyle (his middle name), was a veritable pioneer in Grand Canon explora- 
tion, and it is known that he traveled for many miles through the abysmal 
gorge and that he remained for months or even years at different points in 
the main caiion and in Kanab Wash, which branches northward into Utah. 
Several of his wives accompanied him on his exile and were scattered around 
at his various hiding places. 

For at least three years, Lee lived with the Havasupai Indians, in the bot- 
tom of Cataract Cafion, which at the time had been visited by few whites. He 
is credited with planting the first fruit trees known in the valley and with 
teaching the Indians much in the way of agriculture. The Powell party, in 
the summer of 1872, found Lee tilling a little farm on the Paria, a short dis- 
tance above the Colorado. At the time, Lee told Dellenbaugh that he had tried 
to stop the Mountain Meadows massacre and when he could not do so he went 
to his home and cried, and that the Piutes ever afterward called him ' ' Naguts, ' ' 
or "Cry baby." 

Lee finally was captured while visiting one of his families at Panguiteh, in 
Southern Utah, and he was legally executed, by shooting, March 23, 1877, on 
the spot where his crime had been committed. 

The execution was witnessed by Mr. Hakes, who knew Lee well, and who 
very lately has contributed some sworn evidence in opposition to the general 
understanding that the massacre had been with the sanction of the Mormon 
Church, and that Lee and his party later had been defended by the Mormons. 
Curiously enough, this evidence, though in the hands of the Mormon authori- 
ties as early as July, 1907, has not been used, as the Apostles seem to prefer 
to let the awful memory die. The white men engaged in the massacre were 
members of Mormon communities and were assumed to have been communi- 
cants of the Mormon Church, but the church has denied throughout that it 
had any responsibility for their action. President Brigham Young, referring 
to it, said that Lee and his confederates had "planned and executed that ter- 
rible deed without asking counsel or advice from Brigham Young or the Mor- 
mon Church, and he knew nothing of it until it was too late to stop it. They 
had done it on their own responsibilities and the results are on their own shoul- 
ders, for I say to them, and wish the whole world to hear it, that Brigham Young 
or the Mormon Church will never come to their aid in avoiding the conse- 
quences of their crime." 

Mr. Hakes came closely into the affair the day before Lee's arrest, which 
he had privately learned from his brother-in-law was planned by the United 
States marshal. Hakes took the news to Brigham Young and other church 
dignitaries, who happened to be at the nearby Town of Parowan. The presi- 
dent called the senior members of his party together and asked for sugges- 


tions. None were offered. If he had been given the word, Hakes was ready 
to ride across the mountain and warn Lee, that he might again take refuge in 
his caiion haunts. But the Mormon head, failing to receive any advice, 
turned and said, "Brother Hakes, we thank you for this information, but it 
is all right, for the time has come when they will try John D. Lee and not the 
Mormon Church. That is all we have ever wanted. Go to bed and sleep, for 
it is all right." 

At the execution, Lee arose from where he had been sitting on his own 
eofiin and said only a few words, that he had no fear of death and had only 
one deep regret, that he left his wives and children on the mercy of a cold 
world, but he added, "There are Brigham Young, George A. Smith and Daniel 
H. Wells, leaders of the Mormon Church, with whom I have been acquainted 
all of my life. I have traveled with them and stood guard over them. I have 
kept them at my house and I have been with them at their homes. We have 
been the most intimate of friends. Now, in my time of trouble they do not come 
to comfort me." 


Soon after the western exodus of the Mormons, scouting parties of the 
Saints were sent in all directions from Salt Lake. One of the parties, with a 
strong missionary trend, in 1846 visited the Moqui villages, but it is told 
received about as inhospitable a greeting as had Padre Garces, and soon re- 
turned northward. A Mormon settlement was at Tubac in 1852, but left when 
its irrigation supply dried up. 

According to Historian Andrew Jenson of the Latter Day Saints, the first 
Mormon settlement in Arizona was made by Anson Call in 1865 on the Colo- 
rado River. Callville's location now is in Nevada. In the same locality in 
1868 the Mormons settled Fort Thomas. A few years thereafter was estab- 
lished Fredonia on the Kanab Wash, on the very northern border of Arizona. 

One of the leaders in the settlement of Northern Arizona was Jacob 
Hamblin, who, though poor and of no high rank in his church, yet seemed an 
especially trusted agent of President Brigham Young, who sent him in the 
fall of 1858, with a party of twelve, to find if there might be a missionary 
field among the Hopis. Members of the party were Indian, Spanish and Welsh 
interpreters, the last considered necessary, for a report had come that there 
were evidences that the Indians were of Welsh extraction. This and a similar 
visitation the following year found the Indians not in receptive mood. On 
a trip led by Plamblin in 1860, the Navajos killed one of the party, Geo. A. 
Smith, son of one of the Mormon presidents. In the fall of 1861 Hamblin 
helped in the founding of Saint George in Southwestern Utah and from that 
point, two years later, was sent again to the Moquis, crossing the Colorado 
below the caiion and returning, by the Ute crossing, with three Hopis, who 
were taken on to view the glories of Salt Lake. Returning with his Indian 
visitors, Hamblin left Saint George in March, 1863, by the western route, 
taking the Garces trail through Cataract Caiion, where they assured the resi- 
dent Indians they would lead no one else into the gorge. 

In 1870 and 1871 Hamblin was of service to Major Powell in his surveys 
around the caiion and went with Powell to a great talk in which 6,000 Navajos 

President of St. Joseph Stake 


One of Mesa's founders Former president of Maricopa Stake 



participated. Four years later Hamblin, while on a peace mission to the 
Navajos, who had, in error, charged to the Mormons the killing of several of 
the tribe, was in serious danger, during an eleven-hour session within a council 
lodge, but escaped by his own argument and with the respect of the chiefs. 

In the winter of 1873, Hamblin laid out the wagon road now used from 
Lee's Ferry to the San Francisco forest and in the spring guided to Moencopie 
the first unit of 100 wagons, owned by a company that had been sent to settle 
on the Little Colorado or on the Gila. Hamblin remained at Moencopie, to 
plant vegetables and soon witnessed the return of all the emigrants, who had 
become demoralized and had turned back before they had passed the desert 
into the forested country beyond. On the Moencopie, in 1877, was established 
a Mormon settlement called Tuba City, named after, a friendly Hopi, who had 
traveled much with Hamblin. Substantial good was planned for the Indians 
by John W. Young in the establishment in 1879 at Moencopie of a woolen 
mill, to be run by water power, whereat were to be worked up the fleeces of the 
Moqui and Navajo herds. The mill was well equipped, with the best type of 
machinery of the day, but the Indians seemed to prefer their own hand looms 
and little wool was brought in. The old stone mill still stands at Tuba, but the 
Mormons are gone, for the reservation has been extended to the Colorado 
River. The settlers were bought out by the Government and their holdings 
made into a farm for a large Indian school. 

Not discouraged by failure, the church authorities stax-ted a more sturdy 
expedition southward in 1876. Covering this, nothing at hand is better than 
an article contributed by R. B. Porter, now a resident of Saint Joseph, Navajo 
County : 

At a meeting held in Salt Lake City in January, 1876, four companies, consisting of about 
fifty men each, besides th^ families of such as had families and chose to bring them along, 
were organized, with Lot Smith, Jesse O. Ballinger, George Lake and Wm. C. Allen as captains. 
These companies began their journey early in February, and on the 23rd of March, 1876, the 
lead teams reached Sunset Crossing of the Little Colorado Eiver at or near the place where the 
A., T. & S. F. railroad now crosses that stream, about two and one-half miles east of the present 
City of Winslow. 

On the day following, the companies, led by Allen, Smith and Lake, proceeded some twenty 
miles farther up the river. Allen 's company, which settled Saint Joseph, camped on the site 
of the present town of that name on the night of the 24th. 

It was decided at a council held here that Smith should go back as far as Sunset Crossing; 
and his company settled the Town of Sunset, some three miles north of that crossing and on 
the north side of the river. Allen's company first fettled about five miles east of the present 
Town of Saint Joseph ; but in a short time, moved to a place about one mile east of the present 
location, where the town now stands. This settlement was at first called Allen; but in February, 
1878, the name was changed to Saint Joseph. 

Lake's company settled about three miles south of Saint Joseph on the opposite side of 
the river and named their settlement Obed. It was located near some marshy land and because 
of the prevalence of chills and fever, broke up in 1877, the inhabitants scattering among the 
other three colonies. 

During the winter of 1876-77, these four settlements all constructed forts for their pro- 
tection against the Indians. At Obed, the outside walls of the fort were all constructed of 
rock. In the other three settlements, the forts were for the most part of the stockade type, 
constructed of Cottonwood logs obtained from the river bottoms. 

Considerable trouble was experienced by these settlements in controlling the waters of the 
Little Colorado for irrigation purposes — Saint Joseph buUt a new dam in that stream every 


year from 1876 to 1891, inclusive. The dam constructed during the latter year proved sufficiently 
stable to withstand the impact of heavy floods and is stOl in use. 

During the first few years, all these settlements adopted the communistic system of living, 
the division of labor in each settlement being arranged by the leaders or managers. 

Of these four settlements. Saint Joseph alone has remained permanent. The greater part 
of the inhabitants of Brigham City left during the tall of 1880, most of them moving to the 
Upper Gila Valley in Pima County and nearly all the remainder, during 1881, moved further 
up the Little Colorado, joining with other settlements which had been made in Eastern Arizona. 
. was abandoned about 1885, many of the settlers leaving as early as 1883. 

In 1878 the Village of Snowflake was founded by two sturdy Mormon 
families from Utah, those of W. J. Flake and Erastus Snow. The name evolved 
itself as a matter of course. The site had been the headquarters of the cattle 
ranch of James Stinson, who accepted $11,000 for his land, 550 head of cattle 
and control of water rights in Silver Creek. Snowflake now has about 800 popu- 
lation, and along Silver Creek is a total population of about 2,000, nearly all 
Mormons. Flake also was a pioneer of California, going in 1851, a member of 
a Mormon party that purchased the present site of San Bernardino. Another 
member of the party was the present bishop at Snowflake, John Hunt. 

In the same general section is Show Low, which has a name that needs a bit 
of interpretation. It is on ground once controlled by Captain Cooley and Marion 
Clark, both of whom were devoted to the game of "seven-up." At a critical 
stage of one of their games, when the stakes had risen to include about all the 
property of the players, Clark exclaimed, "Show low and you take the ranch!" 
Cooley showed "low." The same ranch was later sold by him for $13,000 to 
W. J. Flake. 

The agricultural valleys of Apache and Navajo counties today are occupied 
almost wholly by Mormon farmers, industrious and frugal, and thereby pros- 
perous. Saint Johns, once Mexican, now is a Mormon center, with a large 
denominational school. 


One of the first expeditions southward was led by Daniel W. Jones, one of 
the elders of the church, who had spent some years in travel in Spanish-speak- 
ing countries and who had a good working knowledge of the Spanish language. 
There had been a scouting party a couple of years before that had traveled down 
through Arizona and that had returned with the general report that the country 
was practically uninhabited and open for settlement. Jones' expedition left 
Nephi September 10, 1875. Crossing of the Colorado was at Lee's Ferry and 
thence the way led through the Moqui and Navajo country to the Little Colo- 
rado, whence the wa}^ was plain to Prescott and southward. The party camped 
near Phoenix and the next day traveled eight miles up stream to Hayden's miD, 
near which camp w-as made on the Winchester IVIiller ranch. The Mormons 
were welcomed by Chas. T. Hayden, the patron of the settlement and owner of 
the little cross-roads settlement and of much of the country around. They 
traded him a number of pack mules for light spring wagons and resumed their 
pilgrimage toward the southeast. Passing through the Pima Reservation, a 
church historian tells that they made a number of converts. Tucson was passed 
and the eastward way was maintained until at Fort Bowie the journey bent 
southward into Mexico. It would appear that little success attended this Mexi- 


can trip, for late in 1876 the party was back in Utah and Jones had reported to 
his superiors. 

In January, 1877, under orders from the church, Jones led a second expe- 
dition of seventy-one members. Tempe again was reached and, on recommenda- 
tion of Winchester Miller, the party settled on Government land a few miles 
above Hay den's, near the river, around what now is the Village of Lehi. The 
settlement at first was known as Gamp Utah and even yet is spoken of by old- 
timers as Jonesville. A small canal was dug from the river, with the assistance 
of a number of Indians, mainly Pimas, some of whom became converts. When 
the Indians wished to settle among the Mormons, there was a schism. Jones 
welcomed the Indians, but the larger number of the settlers did not and, led 
by P. C. Merrill (adjutant of the Mormon Battalion), moved to a new location 
on the San Pedro, where they established the settlement of Saint David. The 
Indians claimed a share of the water in the Utah ditch, but their aspirations 
toward land ownership finally were settled by their establishment upon a reserva- 
tion of their own, north of Lehi. Jones died in Lehi in April, 1915. One of 
the early leaders was Henry C. Kogers, who reached Lehi March 6, 1877. 

In 1878 a correspondent of the Prescott Miner wrote in praise of the work 
of Mormon settlers who had established a colony near "Maysville," on the pres- 
ent site of Lehi. He told : ' ' The work done by these people is simply astound- 
ing. The alacrity and vim with which they go at it is decidedly in favor of 
co-operation or communism." The correspondent was given a rather fantastic 
idea of the intention of the settlers, for he tells that their settlement was to be 
within a mile square, enclosed by an adobe wall about seven feet high, in the 
center a square around which are buildings fronting outward. 


A second expedition of seventy-nine members started from Paris, Idaho, 
late in 1878 under G. W. Sirrine and F. M. Pomeroy, moved by climatic con- 
ditions. The journey was made with little hardship, except from cold weather, 
and the party arrived without particular incident at a point northeast of Camp 
Verde. Thence a committee was sent southward to look up a site for permanent 
settlement. Jonesville was visited by the committee, but, unable to come to 
terms with Jones, it was induced to look into the possibilities of farming on a 
nearby mesa. The rest of the company arrived February 14, 1879, and work 
was started at once upon an irrigating canal. One feature that had determined 
the leaders of the new colony was the fact that the remains of an ancient canal 
were found leading out to the river to the very land on which the settlement 
was to be placed. This canal was cleaned out and deepened and the gradients 
of the ancient engineers were proven good. At the time it was estimated that 
utilization of this old canal had saved the Mormons at least $20,000 in the cost 
of excavation. Mesa soon outstripped her older neighbor, which today is a vil- 
lage. Mesa now is the second town in the Salt River Valley, in the midst of one 
of the richest and most carefully cultivated sections of the Salt River Valley. 

A part of its present Mormon population originally settled at Tempe, but 
later moved on lands west of Mesa. The IMormon element of Mesa now probably 
numbers less than half the population and, though still strong in the faith, no 
longer itself forms a concrete community. For many j^ears Mesa ranked as the 


richest colony of the church and from it have gone many missionaries and a 
considerable number of pioneering bodies into Mexico and various southwestern 

Soon after the Maricopa Stake of Zion was formed in 1879, Alexander F. 
Maedonald, an energetic Scotchman, was sent from Utah to be its president. A 
broader field was found for him in 1885 as president iu charge of the Mormon 
colonies in Chihuahua. About that time there was a hegira of Mormons from 
Arizona into Mexico, driven out by Federal prosecution, this one fact largely 
accounting for the number of Mormon colonies in Souora and Chihuahua at the 
time of the outbreak of the Mexican troubles, following the deposition of Presi- 
dent Diaz. President Maedonald died of Bright 's disease at Colonia Dublan, 
March 21, 1903. He was an orator of wonderful force, persuasive powers and 
memory and is worthy of a place in church annals as a pioneer missionary of 
the highest type. 

Another notable Arizona Saint was Benjamin F. Johnson, who died in Mesa 
in 1905, aged 87 years. A New Yorker, he had been a member of the church 
since 13 years of age and had been closely associated with the prophet, Joseph 
Smith. He was leader of the Mormon party that settled at Tempe. His eighty- 
seventh birthday, celebrated only three months before his death, had been made 
the occasion of a popular gathering whereat he blessed the attendants in the 
manner of a patriarch of old. It is understood that Johnson had at least seven 
wives and forty-two children and at the time of his death his posterity was said 
to include about 800 individuals. Scores of children and grandchildren are today 
resident in Arizona and are rated among the best of her citizenship. 

Geo. W. Sirrine, generally known as the ' ' Father of Mesa, ' ' died in his home 
town in September, 1902, aged 85. 


Within Graham County, including the Gila Valley, possibly a majority of 
the residents today are followers of Joseph Smith. The first, headed by Jos. K. 
Rogers, came in 1879, a small colony which had been unsuccessful on the lower 
Little Colorado and which found a tract of land of remarkably fine character 
in the vicinity of the present Town of Pima, which first was known as Smith- 
ville. It was then in the midst of a dense mesquite forest, which had to be 
cleared away before crops could be planted. The farmers at first also were 
handicapped by a necessity for digging a long canal from the river. 

Thatcher, three miles west of Safford, was laid off by Stake President Chris- 
topher Layton in 1886 and now is the administration point for the Mormon 
Stake of Saint Joseph. The name of the pioneer president, who died in 1898, 
has been perpetuated in the suburb of Layton, near Safford. President Layton 's 
memory is honored yearly on the anniversary of his birth. At a reunion lately 
held in Pima, there was announcement that the pioneer was survived by three 
wives and, including those married into it, that the family then embraced exactly 
594 individuals. President Layton was one of the most remarkable men ever 
known on the frontier. He first came to the Southwest in tlie Mormon Battalion. 
He had remarkable powers of administration, shown both by his conduct of 
church affairs and by his personal success in business, though handicapped by 
almcst entire absence of "book learning." 

President of St. Jolins Stake 


Former president Maricopa Stake Former president, Snowflake 



Thatcher, the location of a large academic school, now is considered the 
head of the administration of the Church of Latter Day Saints within Arizona, 
under President Andrew Kimball of Saint Joseph Stake. The denomination, 
once separate and isolated by its own preference, latterly has shown the fullest 
desire to join with the Gentile population in everything that leads toward the 
betterment of moral and civic conditions within the commonwealth. 


The years 1882-5 were sad ones for the Mormon people of Arizona. Not 
only were they prosecuted generally for "unlawful cohabitation," but they 
were practically disfranchised by an act of the Territorial Legislature that shut 
oxit even believers in the practice of polygamy. In Apache County there arose 
a feud, the Mexicans, led by Americans, relied upon to force the Mormons from 
the locality. Mormon town lots in St. Johns are said to have been seized with- 
out warrant of law and for a while Mormons there lived in dread of assassina- 
tion. There is said to have been even a movement to capture and mistreat Brig- 
ham Young, Jr., and F. M. Lyman, Mormon Apostles who were on a church 
visitation within Northeastern Arizona. 

The Thirteenth Legislature passed an act disfranchising polygamists and 
permitting challenge of any person accused of membership in any order or sect 
that countenanced plural marriage. This act seems to have had little consid- 
eration, as election officials in Mormon communities generally were of the faith 
of the majority. Governor Zulick two years later warmly defended the Mormons 
and called upon the Legislature for repeal of the law, as affecting opinions and 
not merely acts. The matter seems to have been settled by merely leaving out 
any reference to it in the Revised Statutes of 1887. This action, according to 
Governor Wolfley (Eeport to the Secretary of the Interior, 1889), followed a 
switch of the Mormon votes to the democratic party. Governor Wolfley urged 
that Congress disfranchise all Mormons, claiming that, "Morally and politically, 
they are an unwelcome and dangerous element." Acting-Governor N. O. 
Murphy in his report for 1890, possibly also on political grounds, stated his 
belief that the influence of the Mormon Church was "vexatious" and asked of 
Congress a "test-oath" law, similar to that known in Idaho. 


Popular Adminislraiion of Justice at Many Points — Phanix as a "Wild West" Toivn — 
Globe's Hanging Tree — The Bisbee Massacre — Heath Lynching at Tombstone — 
"Bad Men" and Frontier Sheriffs — Commodore Orvens — Pete Gabriel and Joe 

In the early summer of 1879, Phoenix was the supply point for the whole of 
the north-central territory, including rich mining districts which then were in 
a state of almost feverish activity, with hundreds of prospectors exploring the 
hills. The Southern Pacific Railroad had stopped construction work at Casa 
Grande, and a large representation of its camp followers had gravitated to 

The town then had about 1,500 inhabitants, about half of them Mexicans. 
There was a semi-organized vigilance committee, composed principally of farmers. 
This body had done some good work in the past, but seemed to sleep in the 
period under view. 

Men were wounded and killed till "a man for breakfast" no longer was 
interesting. The Semi- Weekly Herald seldom gave more than a half -column to 
a murder. Gilmer, Salisbury & Co. 's stage line furnished communication with 
the railroad, at old Maricopa station, twenty-eight miles distant. The coaches 
were held up by "road agents" about twice a week; even "old man" Stewart 
and the famous messenger Gilson were obliged to throw up their hands on several 
occasions. Billy Blankenship tried to hold down the "agents" once and had 
his hands filled full of duck shot for his pains. 

Race jealousy, too, ran high. One manifestation of it was rather dramatic. 
Sunday horse races on the main street were an important feature. One May 
Sabbath day, about half the population was stretched along "Washington Street, 
in two long lines, pressing toward the street center, looking westward to see the 
start of two racing ponies. Down the course a horseman came galloping, appar- 
ently to clear the way. But the fellow was running "amuck." In his hand was 
a long cavalry saber, with which he was savagely slashing right and left, as he 
yelled, "Muerte a los Gringos!" ("Death to the Americans!") 

He dashed down the line and escaped before the crowd had fully compre- 
hended his murderous mission. A half dozen people were wounded, two of them 
seriously. The "Saber-Slasher," as he was thenceforth termed, was followed 
far down into Sonora by a courageous officer, captured and brought back and 
lodged in jail in Phoenix, to await the results of the Avounds he had inflicted. 
He made a break for liberty, with the assistance of a mesquite club, and was 


killed by Attorney Stephenson and Jailer Hi McDonald, in pure self defense. 
The Mexican population chose to regard the killing as murder, and on an August 
evening a large number of "paisanos" began to display decidedly wicked tend- 
encies. Nearly every one seemed to be armed with a pair of primitive horse 
pistols. All things pointed to trouble on the morrow. Messengers were there- 
fore hurriedly dispatched to all parts of the valley, to assemble the vigilantes. 

The week preceding this day had been rather a lively one, even for a lively 
town. There had been six killings, including two murders of especial atrocity. 

Luke Monihan, brother of a later mayor, was a farmer living a few miles to 
the west. He was driving home in the dusk of the evening, when a wretch named 
Keller, with whom he had had trouble, shot him in the back, from behind the 
screen of the roadside sagebrush. The steady farm horses trotted home, and the 
wife, as the team stopped at the door, came out to find the lifeless body of her 
husband in the wagon bed. It didn't take long to run Keller down. Indian 
trailers followed his footsteps to the house where he lodged, and the little iron 
cage of the county jail received him forthwith. 

A stoutly-built, bluff, jovial man was Johnny LeBarr, who kept a saloon on 
Washington Street. On the evening of August 21 he was treating some friends 
in an adjoining saloon, but refused to provide liquor for a rough named Mc- 
Closkey. The latter left the saloon, returning a few minutes later with a long 
butcher knife, with which he slashed LeBarr across the body. His victim died 
a few hours later. 

Next morning, bright and early, the Mexicans commenced to assemble around 
the Plaza, hundreds of their ponies tied to the huge cottonwoods that then shaded 
the block. A little later the farmers commenced to ride in. All were armed with 
rifles and revolvers. The gathering place was on Jefferson Street. Marion 
Slankard, since deceased, was the captain. Around Montezuma Street, into 
Washington, swung the column of over a hundred determined men. All was 
quiet in the ranks and on the crowded sidewalks. Up to the little adobe court- 
house the men mai-ched and filed in. The officers knew what was coming and had 
discreetly found occupation elsewhere. The jailer was the only one on guard. 
He demurred to the suggestion of handing over his keys, but soon was convinced 
that he should do so. 

At least ten malefactors were imprisoned at the time, but the committee 
wanted only McCloskey and Keller. These men they took to the plaza. The 
fourth and fifth cottonwoods from Montezuma (First) Street, on Washington, 
were chosen as gibbets. The condemned men, singly, were put into a wagon, 
allowed a few parting words, and then the wagon was driven from under them. 
Keller confessed his guilt. He had plenty of drop and appeared to die easily. 
McCloskey made quite a sensible and really manly talk — said he deserved his 
fate and warned the spectators to profit by the spectacle of his punishment. He 
bitterly spoke of liquor as the source of all his many misdeeds. Just as the 
wagon commenced to move, McCloskey mounted to the endboard and voluntarily 
made the leap into eternity. He was a heavy man and the elastic limb bent till 
his toes touched the ground ; and so he died, a dreadful sight, death drawing 
but slowly across the uncovered face. 

McCloskey 's spirit had hardly flown ere there were two cowering figures 
more in the dreadful wagon. They were those of two Mexican merchants who 


had for several days been preaching a crusade against the "Gringos." They 
had been captured by a clever flank movement from among their demoralized 
partisans. Slankard spoke good Spanish and made himself quite plain. Point- 
ing to the swinging bodies, he warned the shrinking men that such would be their 
fate if another incendiary word were to cross their lips. They were then released ; 
and the Mexican insurrection was a thing of the past. 

The vigilantes then turned their efforts towards cleansing the town of its 
undesirable element. Everyone suspected of being a rough or a crook was given 
a canteen and a warning. Departure was forthwith, many finding an appro- 
priate field of operations in the newly-opened camp of Tombstone. For years 
thereafter Phoenix was as quiet a town as one could find in staid New England. 
This gratifying result was directly due to the vigilantes. That they accomplished 
a work of good is incontestable. They presented the law a peacful city and 
neighborhood, and peaceful has it remained. 

The first lynching in Phoenix occurred July 3, 1873, when Mariano Tisnado 
was hanged on a cross beam of the Monihau corral. On the face of things it 
would appear that he had been hanged for stealing a widow's cow, but there 
seems little doubt that he was guilty also of the murder of B. F. Griffin, a highly- 
respected pioneer who had lived south of the village. In 1877 was the execution 
of another popular decree in the hanging of a soldier who had shot Lew Bailey 
through the window of a hall in which the better element of the population had 
met to dance. This hall was the old stage station on the east side of Center 
Street, half a block north of Washington. The lynching Avas on a cottonwood 
on the site of the present waterworks. Bailey later died of his wounds. 


On August 23, 1882, Frank Porter, packer on the mail route across the 
Pinal Mountains, dashed wildly into Globe, shouting that the Apaches had taken 
in the mail train and that the express messenger, Andy Hall, was dead. The 
mules of the pack train were found dead on the trail. The mail, untouched, 
still was strapped to the back of one, but the express box, with $10,000 in gold, 
intended for the IMack Morris payroll, was gone. Two sets of tracks showed 
that white men had done the deed, rather than Indians, and other footprints 
showed that Andy Hall had followed the robbers, in the line of his duty. Across 
a hill, dying, was found Dr. Vail of Globe, who, with his last breath, told what 
he could of two robbers, whom he had accidentally come across as they were 
dividing the gold. Further on the trail, miles away, at dusk, was found the 
body of Andy Hall, who, ambushed, had fought to the end, his body stift'ening 
in a stunted shrub in which he had crouched, the last cartridge unfired in a 
magnificent revolver that had been presented him by the Wells-Fargo Company 
for faithful service. In the body were a dozen bullet holes. The next day, three 
arrests were made. One was of John Hawley, a well-to-do wood contractor; 
the second was Lafayette Grime, a cowboy-miner, who had done distinguished 
service with the Globe Rangers in a late Indian campaign, and the third Cicero 
Grime, the town photographer. The last-named confessed, for he had been 
only a scout, who had made sure of the coming of the bullion and had not par- 
ticipated in the actual shooting. There was a short conflict of authority at 
Bloody Tanks, where the prisoners had been held, and where Pete Gabriel, the 





noted sheritf of Pinal County, tried to take the men away from Bill Lowther, 
the equally brave sheriff of Gila County. In the evening, the men were brought 
into Globe, placed in a little adobe jail, whence, a few hours later, they were 
taken by an armed organization of citizens. Everything was done in orderly 
manner. Geo. A. Allen, the justice of the peace, was summoned and bidden 
forthwith to make examination into the case. The trial was held in Stallo's Hall 
and the defendants were given legal counsel. The evidence was such that Allen 
could do nothing else than bind the prisoners over, without bail, to the next 
grand jury. This, in effect, was a sentence of death. 

Hoping for a chance to escape, Hawley and Lafayette Grime assented to a 
proposition that they show where the money had been hidden. Escorted by a 
dozen horsemen, on the darkest of nights, the couple led the way twelve miles 
up Russell Gulch, where the loot was found buried some distance apart under 
separate trees. In Grime's cache was two-thirds of the spoil, thus demonstrat- 
ing the full guilt of the brother. Cicero Grime's case, in the meantime, was 
being put to a vote, and his life was spared by a very slight majority of the 
ballots cast. He was speedily taken away, for there would have been recon- 
sideration when the Russell Gulch party returned with the money and reported. 
The orderly proceedings to an extent were directed by J. J. Vosburg, the express 
agent, who had read to the crowd a telegram from his suijerintendent : ' ' Damn 
the money. Hang the murderers. (Signed) Valentine." 

When Hawley and Grime returned, they were given time to make their wills, 
Hawley 's wife getting his property, while Grime deeded his cattle to the girl 
he was to marry. It was past 2 in the morning when they had finished. Some 
one at the Methodist chapel around the corner commenced to toll a funeral knell. 
Out of the hall, down the street silently tramped the multitude, the prisoners 
under guard at the fore. Both walked firmly and made no complaint at their 
fate. Near where the creek bent to cross the street stood a large sycamore tree, 
one branch stretching nearly across the roadway. Over this branch were fiung 
two of the three ropes at hand, over the culprits' necks the nooses were drawn, 
and a hundred men grasped the ropes, quietly awaiting the word of command. 
A good and respected clergyman stepped forward. He was not there to stop 
the work, but to do his office for the dying. Hawley roughly refused his aid. 
Grime more gently said, "Mr. Calfee, I don't believe that anything you can say 
would aid me where I am going." As his handcuffs were taken off to more 
closely secure his hands behind him, Grime bitterly exclaimed, "Damned if I'll 
die with my boots on!" and down in the muddy street he sat and pulled off his 
high-heeled boots. Then he stood erect at the side of the imperturbable Hawley. 
' ' Now ! ' ' shouted the express agent. The line stiffened, and the bodies rose to 
the tree branch above. A few minutes sufficed to still the twitching limbs, the 
ropes were wound round the tree trunk and the work was done. Andy Hall 
and Doctor Vail had been avenged to the extent of man's feeWe power. 

On the whole, Globe rather has prided herself on her peaceful condition. 
Violence in the early days was unusual. Possibly all such expression of energy 
was saved for use against the surrounding Apaches. The first killing within 
the camp was that of a prospector named Jones by a miner, Burns, who sus- 
pected Jones of designs on his claim in the annual time of relocation. 


Tom Kerr, a tall, bloude miner, who at need acted as the camp 's auctioneer, 
murdered a man who lay asleep on a sidewalk bench — yet somehow, for a time, 
escaped retribution. On New Year's Eve of 1882, at Pioneer, he shot and 
killed a young teamster who had refused to drink with him. He was seized at 
once and the miners and prospectors were brought in by the sounding of the 
mill whistles. After a short trial Kerr was taken forthwith to a convenient tree 
and hanged. His last words were: "Here goes a New Year's present to the 
devil." The bitterest feature of it all developed in a letter from his mother 
in Illinois, written in reply to what was intended to be a mercifully inaccurate 
account of her son 's death, for she told how good he always had been to her. 


Bisbee had its only lynching September 11, 1882. A drunken Mexican re- 
turned after midnight to a saloon from which he had been ejected and from the 
darkness outside shot into the lighted room, wounding a miner. Jack Walsh, 
known as "Curly," as well as two others. One of the wounded, Jack Kehoe, 
died from his injuries. The Mexican ran up the canon and was found in a 
cabin, his identity established by identification of the rifle with which the shoot- 
ing had been done. The miners of the camp laid off work for the morning to 
attend to what they considered a public duty. The Mexican was marched up 
the caiion and hanged to a tree near Castle Rock. While the body was hang- 
ing, one of the principal owners of the Copper Queen Company, just arrived 
on a trip of inspection, was driven by Supt. Ben Williams past the swinging 
body. Horrified by local conditions, he refused to stay longer and hurried away. 
At least one good was done by the trip. He determined that such barbarism 
as he had witnessed could proceed only from the lack of education and informa- 
tion, and so he sent from New York a large number of well-chosen books, that 
served as a nucleus to the splendid Copper Queen Library. 

The Mexican hanged had a brother, who started a vendetta against the Ameri- 
cans concerned. A few months later "Curly" was assassinated on a trail near 
Globe and his brains were beaten out with a stone. The brother, according to 
James Kriegbaum, later sent an apology by a messenger, stating that he had 
learned that "Curly" reall.y had nothing to do with the hanging and, therefore, 
apologies were due, for he didn't consider the row between the miner and the 
late lamented anything more than a gentlemanly dispute in which neither was 
particularly to blame. Judge Duncan, however, tells that Walsh really did 
adjust the rope at the lynching. 

Bisbee never was really "bad" after the fashion of Tombstone and other 
early camps. As a rule her miners were of substantial and home-making sort. 
The management of the Copper Queen Company also had much to do with 
peaceful conditions and any man who started disorder found scant sympathy 
and immediate persuasion to leave. 

Bisbee 's first killing happened before there really was a town, in the latter 
part of August, 1880. A Mexican furnace man was shot down at his supper 
by an unknown Mexican, who was trying to kill, but only wounded, a girl who 
was waiting on the table. The Mexican escaped. Judge Duncan has chronicled 
a number of killings that followed, but this work is far too limited in space for 


the recording of any save the most striking of the hundreds of deeds of violence 
that have been known in Arizona towns since their American settlement. 

On the 8th of December, 1883, occurred what is known as the Bisbee Mas- 
sacre, when a number of rustlers "took the town," with three attendant fatali- 
ties. The rustlers were Dan Dowd, James ("Tex") Howard, Comer W. 
("Red") Sample, Bill Delaney and Daniel Kelly. About 7:30 p. m. a couple 
of them entered the store of Goldwater & Casteiieda. With presented pistols, 
they stood the occupants against the wall and robbed the store and safe of 
money and other valuables. Outside the three others kept the street clear by 
shooting at every one who appeared. John Tapiner was shot down on a saloon 
doorsill as he was seeking safety. D. Tom Smith, a deputy sheriff, and James 
C. Kriegbaum ran out in defense of the town, but the former was almost immedi- 
ately shot twice and killed. Kriegbaum was more fortunate in escaping unhurt 
and in wounding Sample. Mrs. Anna Roberts, a restaurant keeper, was shot 
through the body and killed, though the bullet was fired at a fleeing man. J. A. 
Nolly was fatally wounded by Dowd. Then the outlaw quintet left, "shooting 
up" the lower town as they escaped out upon the plains into the night. 

Kriegbaum mounted and made the distance to Tombstone, twenty-eight miles, 
in less than two hours, and sheriff 's posses soon were on the trail. Deputy Wil- 
liam Daniels, leading one party, found where the fugitives, in sheer cruelty, had 
thrown their wornout horses into a deep rocky crevice, after finding fresh 
mounts at a nearby ranch. 

The robber band broke up in the Chiricahua Mountains, but the pursuit was 
continued. Daniels arrested Dowd down in Chihuahua and, helped by a friendly 
American mining superintendent, smuggled him back into the United States. 
Delaney made his way to Minas Prietas, Sonora, where he was arrested by a 
Mexican officer, who, without extradition papers, delivered him over to be brought 
across the line in a box car. Kelly was arrested at Deming, identified by a 
barber who was shaving him. Sample and Howard were caught near Clifton, 
betrayed by a gold watch that they had taken from the safe. This watch Howard 
had given to a woman of the underworld. She had exhibited it to a male asso- 
ciate, who, jealous of Howard, and recognizing the timepiece by the description 
that had been sent out generally, was only too ready to deliver his rival into the 
hands of the law and to collect the reward offered. 

Among the first to join in the pursuit was a Bisbee resident, John Heath, 
whose services were of negative character. He soon was looked upon with 
suspicion after he had led the posse from the trail a few times. He was recog- 
nized by Frank Buckles as having been at the latter 's ranch with the five out- 
laws and other evidence of complicity soon warranted his arrest. The five were 
tried together and were sentenced to hang. Heath, tried alone, was found guilty 
of murder in the second degree. Judge D. H. Pinney thereafter set March 28 
as the date of execution of the five and, on February 21, sentenced Heath to life 

The verdict was not received approvingly in Bisbee, and a number of Bisbee 
residents promptly set out for the county seat. On February 22, 1884, a mob, 
mainly composed of miners, took Heath from the prison and hanged him to a 
telegraph pole in Tombstone, setting the sheriff and his deputies aside and leav- 
ing the other five prisoners untouched. Heath showed plenty of nerve. Quietly 


assuring the crowd he was not guilty, he took a handkerchief from his pocket 
and tied it over his eyes and asked that his body be not mutilated by pistol shots, 
as often had been the ease in frontier lynehings. This request was honored. 
By Sheriff Ward the five were legally hanged together March 28, the drops 
actuated by the cutting of a single string. All protested their innocence. 

Bisbee then formed a committee of safety, called the "Forty-five Sixty," the 
name derived from the cartridge caliber and load carried by the most popular 
rifle of the day. The committee found some work to do in ridding the camp of 
a number of individuals considered obnoxious or dangerous. 


At Tucson in 1873 the people began to appreeate that lax enforcement of law 
on the part of county officials made possible the escape, through legal technicali- 
ties, of too many desperate criminals. So, on August 8, the population rose, 
more or less en masse, and took from the county jail and hanged John Willis, 
Leonard Cordova, Clemente Lopez and Jesus Saguaripa. A coroner's jury 
summoned commended the executioners and stated that "such extreme measures 
seem to be the inevitable result of allowing criminals to escape the penalties of 
their crimes." A few months later a grand jury likewise approved the hanging 
as justice at the hands of "a large majority of our most substantial, peaceable 
and law-abiding citizens." Willis had been found guilty of killing Robert 
Swoope at Adamsville, in the course of a drunken discussion of the shooting of 
Colonel Kennedy by John Rogers, whose own fate seems to have escaped local 
historians. The three Mexicans, for plunder, had murdered in Tucson one of 
their own countrymen and his wife. The execution was without secrecy, upon a 
common gibbet erected before the jail door, after the condemned men had been 
given the benefit of clergy. 

The people of the young Town of Safilord, in August, 1877, took the law into 
their own hands and hanged Oliver P. McCoy, who had acknowledged the killing 
of J. P. Lewis, a farmer. McCoy was to have been taken to Tucson for trial, 
and there was fear of miscarriage of justice in the courts. 

In December, 1877, the people of the little Village of Hackberry, in Mohave 
County, hanged Charles Rice, charged with the murder of Frank McNeil, whose 
offense seems to have been the disarming of Rice's friend, Robert White, in the 
course of an altercation in which White appeared in the wrong. About the time 
of the hanging, White, fearing a similar fate, tried to escape and was shot down 
and killed by his guards. 

At Saint Johns, in the fall of 1881, was a summary execution, a gathering 
of citizens taking from the jail and hanging Joseph Waters and William Camp- 
bell, who had killed David Blanchard and J. Barrett at the Blanchard ranch. 
It was told at the time that the men hanged had been hired to do the murder 
by someone who wanted the ranch as a trading post. But nothing was done with 
the third party. 

April 24, 1885, popular judgment was executed five miles below Holbrook, 
where two murderers from the town, Lyon and Reed, were run into the rocks 
by a posse of citizens headed by Jas. D. Houck, and killed. The couple had killed 
a man named Garcia. 

Killed in Saint Johns Raid, ISS-l 


One of the most serious criminal episodes ever known in Yuma was early in 
1901, when Mrs. J. J. Burns, a farmer's wife, was shot and killed by a constable, 
H. H. Alexander, who had been charged with the service of a legal paper. 
About two months after the shooting, Alexander was convicted of murder and 
sentenced to life imprisonment. April 9, while being taken from the courthouse 
to the territorial penitentiary, waUfing between two officers, Alexander dropped 
dead, killed by a rifle bullet from the window of a building near by. It was 
assumed that a relative of the King family (to which Mrs. Burns belonged) 
had assumed the fullest degree of vengeance, but the matter was taken no 

In December, 1899, the county jail at Holbrook had a notable prisoner, George 
Smiley, convicted of the killing of a section foreman named IMcSweeney. Th§ 
sheriff at that time was F. J. Wattron, a school teacher-editor, who thought to 
make the first legal execution in the new County of Navajo a sort of social 
function. So he issued a "cordial" gilt-bordered invitation to visitors, assuring 
those invited that "the latest improved methods in the art of scientific strangu- 
lation will be employed and everything possible will be done to make the sur- 
roundings cheerful and the execution a success." There were hundreds of pro- 
testing letters over the sheriff's levity. Governor Murphy waxed indignant, 
scored the sheriff for flippancy and granted the prisoner a month's reprieve. 
Smiley was hanged January 8, 1900. The invitations for the second date were 
somber and funereal in tone. The sheriff tried to "even things up" with the 
governor by wording which was, "with feelings of profound sorrow and regret 
I hereby invite you to attend and witness the private and humane execution of 
a human being. You are expected to deport yourself in a respectable manner 
and any flippancy or unseemly language or conduct on your part will not be 


Some of the "bad men" of early Arizona really were decent fellows down at 
the bottom, men who would divide their last cent with a friend and in whose 
hands a trust, would be inviolate. As was commonly said at that time, such 
fellows merely had "a streak of the devil in them," and a disposition towards 
violence that seemed to be encouraged by local conditions. In Arizona, as in 
many other states, the carrying of firearms was traceable to the necessity for 
protection against Indians. The habit generally was discontinued when danger 
from Indians passed in the middle eighties. Later a territorial statute was 
passed forbidding the carrying of deadly weapons in towns. Some of the des- 
peradoes of early days had really childish characteristics. They liked to shoot 
much for the same reason that a child likes firecrackers. Very often they were 
full of a childish vanity, which they considered assertion of a sense of personal 
honor, supporting their reputation for bravery and truthfulness. There rarely 
was malice in the actions of a band of cowboys riding' through a settlement, at 
full speed, in a joyous pastime of "shooting up the town." It was only one 
way for relieving over-exuberant spirits. Naturally, individuals such as de- 
scribed would have what they called enemies, usually men of their own inclina- 
tions. Bitter feuds started from merely a casual comparison of the relative 
pluck of a couple of cowboys and on such a trifling basis two men often would 


tight to the death. However, in mauy communities there were spirits who 
seemed to take pleasui-e in evil doing, who robbed stage coaches and trains and 
who murdered in sheer blood lust. The fate of some of these is told in this work, 
for nearl}' every one eventually had disastrous contact with the courts of justice 
or with popular tribunals. To handle these rough characters seemed to demand 
men with just as much of their own reckless spirit, and of such men, drafted 
into the service of law and order, the conditions developed many. 


In the pioneer days of any western community peace officers usually were 
selected for personal prowess and quick-firing ability. On the doctrine that the 
devil should be fought with fire, each communitj^ sought the services of men 
individually able to cope with any desperado who might appear. This was a 
condition which usually meant battling with no evil other than mere violence. 

One of the most famous of frontier sheriffs was Commodore Owens, whose 
particular field was Northeastern Arizona. "Commodore" wasn't a nickname; 
he was thus christened. He looked the part of the frontier sheriff, with long hair 
down his back, large hat and high boots, carrj'ing at least one large revolver. In 
his life happened many sensational episodes, but what gave him more than local 
celebrity was a fight in 1886 at Holbrook, in which he kiUed three cowboys and 
wounded a fourth. 

At that time Holbrook was still included within Apache County, of which 
Owens was sheriff. One Andy Cooper had a few head of cattle in Pleasant 
Valley. He bore a bad reputation with the stock men generally and on numerous 
occasions had been accused of stealing cattle and horses, but the feUow had been 
canny in his operations and never could there be gathered together evidence 
enough to convict. Finally the Apache County grand jui-y found an indictment 
against him, but evidence was lacking. The sheriff was advised by the district 
attorney that the indictment had been found more as a "scare" than anything 
else. So Commodore practically let the matter drop, as was expected of him, 
but the public had not been taken into the confidence of the district attorney and 
only knew that the indictment had been found. On the day of the killing 
Cooper was in Holbrook visiting his mother, at a time when the sheriff inoppor- 
tunely also happened in town. The latter promptly was advised of Cooper's 
.presence by a number of saloon loungers. When Owens showed no inclination 
to make the arrest, he was baited by the crowd which finally struck a tender spot 
in the sheriff's makeup with a suggestion that Cooper was known as a hard 
customer and that probably Commodore was afraid to tackle him. Then it was 
that Owens lost patience. Seizing a rifle and jumping on his horse, he answered 
his tormentors, " I '11 show you whether I am afraid to arrest Cooper, ' ' and rode 
to the house of Cooper's mother, Mrs. Blevins, in the eastern part of the town. 
About thirty feet in front of the house he dismounted and then walked up on the 
porch. In response to his rapping, the door was opened slightly and Cooper's 
face appeared. "What do you want?" he inquired. Owens replied, "Andy, I 
want you." "All right, Commodore." said Cooper. "Just wait a minute," 
and he slammed the door in the sheriff's face. 

Owens took the hint of trouble and backed from the porch towards his horse, 
carrying his rifle at his hip, a position in which he could shoot practically as well 


as he could with his eye on both sights. He had backed nearly to his horse when 
the house door opened and a rilie ball sang past the sheriff's head and killed 
his horse. Before the door could be closed, Owens fired, shooting his would-be 
murderer through the shoulder. Then was appreciated the fact that he had 
several men to deal with, for the man he had shot was John Blevins, Cooper's 
half brother. At almost the same instant, Cooper's face was seen peering over 
the sill of a window. Commodore immediately fired through the boards of the 
house, directly below the window sill, shooting Cooper through the lower part of 
the body. A simultaneous attack from three points had been planned, for hardly 
had the sheriff's second shot sounded before a third cowboy, named Robei-ts, 
was seen stealing around from the rear of the house, with a revolver held over 
his head in readiness to fire. When he appreciated that the sheriff's eagle eye 
already was on him, he attempted to turn for shelter, but not soon enough, for 
a rifle bullet struck him in the back. He dragged himself into a back room and 
was dead in ten minutes. Then young Blevins, a lad only 16 years of age, 
appeared through the same front door from where the first shot had been fired. 
Clinging to him was his mother, shrieking and trying to hold him back, but the 
half-crazed lad, disregarding her, was dropping his pistol to shoot, when Owens 
sent a bullet through his heart. Owens expressed regi'et after the affair only 
over killing the boy, but observed that a "boy could kill as easily as a man" — 
there was no other way for him to do, he simply had to kill the boy or be killed 
by him. 

The scene of the tragedy has been well described to the editor by W. H. 
Burbage, who was on the ground at the time. The sight within the house was 
horrible. Andy Cooper was crawling around on the floor, on hands and knees, 
cursing and imploring anyone to put him out of pain. In an adjoining room 
John Blevins was sitting in a chair, bloody from his wounds. In another room 
young Blevins lay dead, and on another bed was the dead body of Roberts. 
Blood was everywhere, on the floors, walls, doors and furniture, and the air 
reeked of it. Most pitiful was the sight of the mother mourning her slain sons. 

Needless to say, there was no further adverse comment by the populace con- 
cerning the personal valor of the sheriff. 


Henry Garfias was appreciated by Arizonans as one of the bravest men ever 
known in this region of brave men. He came in 1874 from Anaheim, California, 
and was a native of the Golden State. In 1876 he was elected constable of 
Phoenix precinct and since that time had continued till his death to be a peace 
officer in some capacity. For seven or eight years he was city marshal. 

One of the famous episodes of Phoenix history was participated in by Gai-fias 
in his capture of "The Saber Slasher," who was trailed by the officer far down 
into Sonora, and was found in a den of cut-throats. Garfias, nothing daunted, 
marched boldly in, captured his man, brought him back across the border with- 
out any such formality as extradition and deposited him safely in the Phoenix 
jail where he was later killed. 

A desperado named Oviedo was to be arrested. As he and Garfias were per- 
sonal enemies, the latter was unwdlling to undertake the arrest, but did his duty. 
Oviedo had threatened to kill Garfias on sight. As the officer wallced toward 


him, his hands open and with pacific words, Oviedo snatched up a shotgun and 
tired pointblauls. Gartias was one of the quickest of men with a revolver and prob- 
ably beat the record on this occasion, for when the load of buckshot whistled 
over his head he had put two deadly bullets into Oviedo 's body. 

Several years later, while Gartias was city marshal, several Texas cowboys, 
fresh from their native heath, mistook the character of Phoenix and started to 
"shoot it up." They were plainly not acquainted with the reputation of the 
marshal. As the first joyful yell came to his ears and the sound of pistol shots 
opened the ball after the fashion of the Panhandle, Henry was on his horse. 
The four cowboys were gaily curvetting down Washington Street eastward, occa- 
sionally taking a shot at a promising looking door, sign or hanging lamp, when 
called upon by the lone marshal to surrender. They did not, and there lay their 
error. They opened fire. The marshal was unharmed, despite a very hail of 
lead and in his response was fortunate enough to wing two of the cowpunchers, 
one of them fatally. Then he rounded up the others and put them in jail. 

A dozen other stories might be told of the dead deputy sheriff. He seemed 
absolutely without fear. As one frontiersman put it, "'Henry isn't entitled to 
any credit for his sand, for he doesn't know any better." Liberal to the last 
degree, he spent his large earnings as fast as made and he left no estate. 

One of the most notable peace officers of the Southwest was George Scarbor- 
ough of Deming. ' He had killed a number of men, but always in discharge of 
his duty. There was nothing of the bully about him. It is probable that he 
was feared by the cattle rustlers as had been no other man. In April, 1900, 
Scarborough and Deputy Sheriff Walter Birchfield of Cochise County started 
from San Simon to investigate a case of cattle rustling. In the Chiricahuas 
Mountains they rode up to a couple of saddled horses, when they were fired upon 
from ambush. The two officers, revolvers in hand, galloped into the rocks under 
a hailstorm of bullets. Both officers were wounded, Scarborough so severely 
that he died two days later. His companion dismounted and built up a rock 
fortification, behind which, when darkness fell, he left Scarborough and, finding 
his own horse, dashed away for help. Before daylight in the morning he was 
back from San Simon with a force of cowboys, but the outlaws had departed, 
headed for Mexico. The outlaw band, which had five members, was met by the 
two officers unexpectedly. It had come from the mountains near Saint Johns, 
Apache County, where, on March 27, Frank Lesueur and Gus Gibbons, two 
young cowboys, were ambushed and killed. The next day the five bandits suc- 
cessfully resisted an attempt toward arrest made by Sheriff Beeler and a number 
of stockmen. Four of the murderers were known, namely, John Hunter, Ben 
Johnson, John Wilson and John Coley. 

For about fifteen years the peace of Preseott was kept by Jim Dodson, an 
officer typical in all respects of the accepted melodrama type of the city marshal. 
Jim handled matters rather after his own ideas and petty misdemeanors inter- 
ested him very little. He was always looking for large game and the carrying of 
a huge revolver in a belt where his hand could reach it quickest was not for 
ornament, for upon a silver-mounte.d belt that had been presented him by the 
citizens of Preseott he haij carefully cut eight nicks, the number standing for the 
number of men he had killed in the performance of his duty. Possibly on 
account of Jim Dodson, Preseott never was a disorderly town, however much 


the cowboys and miners might flock in from the hills. It was told that in the 
Civil war he had been a member of the Quantrell guerrilla band. In the course 
of time he retired from ofSce as marshal and served as guard on the wall of the 
penitentiary at Yuma, when his skill with the rifle proved valuable in at least 
one desperate attempt made by the prisoners to escape. The latter part of his 
life was spent in Phoenix, where he died May 10, 1907, at the age of 67. 


One of the historic "shooting scrapes" of Arizona was that between Pete 
Gabriel and Joe Phy on the main street of Florence, in June, 1888. Each was 
considered worthy of a high place among the gun men of the day. Gabriel had 
been sherifi:' and had done good work also as United States deputy marshal. Phy 
had had long service as an officer of the law and had been deputy sheriff under 
Gabriel. Bad blood had been developed between the two when Phy made an 
unsuccessful attempt to succeed his chief in office. For weeks it had been known 
that a meeting between the two would mean deadly work. This meeting came 
accidentally in Keating 's saloon. There was a quick exchange of shots, each 
man claiming that the other fired first, and then the battle was continued outside. 
Each man emptied his revolver and every shot told. Phy finally went down 
with a broken hip bone. Gabriel weakly stood above, to receive fierce summons 
from his foe, "Damn you! I can't get up. Get down here and we'll finish it 
up with knives." Gabriel, shot through the kidneys and otherwise desperately 
wounded, answered, "I guess we both have plenty," and tried to cross the 
street, reeled and fell. The only surgical attendance at hand was given Phy, 
who died in the night. Gabriel lay for hours in the office of Stevens' corral till 
a surgeon could be brought from Sacaton. He recovered and later moved his 
residence to Yuma. Of the two, Gabriel was rather of higher type, yet was a 
hard drinker, while Phy was an abstainer. Phy had gone to Florence from 
Phoenix, where, while serving as a peace officer, he had been ambushed by Mexi- 
cans in an alleyway, just north of the present site of the Adams Hotel, repeatedly 
stabbed and left for dead, a few minutes later found with his head under water 
in a large ditch. When he was able to travel, he left Phoenix, which he said was 
a bit too tough a town for him. 


Possibly the wildest time ever known to Saint Johns was San Juan's Day, 
June 24, 1882, when Nat Greer and a band of Texas cowpunehers thought to 
provide themselves a little entertainment by "shooting up" the sleepy Mexican 
town. On the border they had been accustomed to seeing Mexicans run when- 
ever the fusillade started. They were mistaken in the character of the popula- 
tion of Saint Johns, for the Mexicans there refused to be intimidated and 
returned the fire with interest, especially from an improvised fortress in the loft 
of Sol Earth's home. The defense was under the charge of Perez Tomas, a 
Mexican deputy sheriff, who, according to Charlie Banta, "was as fine a man 
as ever lived" Only one Mexican was wounded, Tafolla, whose son afterward 
was killed while serving in the Arizona rangers. "Father" Nathan C. Tenney, 
an elderly and beloved Mormon resident, accidentally was killed while trying 
to act as peacemaker. One of the attacking party named Vaughn was killed 


and Harris Greer was wounded. The Texans finally were repulsed and rode 
away. Later they were arrested and brought back to Saint Johns for trial. 
For a time there was serious danger of lynching and the JMexican population 
even organized to storm the jail. Summary action of this sort was avoided 
through the influence of Sheriff E. S. Stover and of Barth and the raiders in 
the end escaped with light punishment. It is notable that one of them was a 
negro only known as "Jeff," who had been brought by the Greers from Texas. 

One of the most lurid dime novel bandits the Southwest ever knew was 
Augustine Chacon, captured near the international line by Ex-Captain Moss- 
man of the Arizona Rangers, who had a personal interest in landing the des- 
perado. Chacon murdered a Mexican in Morenci in 1895 and thereafter was 
sentenced to hang. He escaped from jail a few days before the date of his 
execution and later was charged with the murder of two prospectors on Eagle 
Creek and of an old miner, whose body was found in an abandoned shaft. He 
then joined Burt Alvord and other outlaws in Sonora and participated in at 
least one train robbery. Chacon, after his later arrest, was duly hanged at 
Solomonville in December, 1902. 

In the list of desperadoes of the early days, a place undoubtedly should be 
reserved for a blacksmith named Rodgers, who, at the Santa Rita mines in 1861 
boasted of having killed eighteen persons, and who then produced a string of 
human ears to prove his tale. At the time he promised that he would make the 
number twenty-five before he quit. In this ambition, according to Professor 
Pumpelly, he later killed six men at El Paso, where he was caught and, in a 
laudable endeavor to make the punishment fit the crime, he was hanged by the 
heels over a slow fire — and his own ears made the twenty-fifth pair. 

The first legal execution in Yuma County occurred in 1873, and was that of 
Manuel Fernandez, hanged for the murder of D. A. McCarty, generally known 
as "Raw Hide." The crime was committed for loot, and, before it was dis- 
covered, the Mexican and his confederate had worked several nights carrying 
wagonloads of goods away from their victim's store. 

A rather noted criminal was Joseph Casey, hanged in Tucson, April 15, 1884. 
He was a deserter from the regular army and had been charged with a num- 
ber of murders and with other criminalities along the border, finally being 
arrested in 1882 in the larceny of cattle. October 23, he, three men held on a 
charge of murder and five other prisoners broke jail at Tucson, but Casey, six 
months later, was rearrested at El Paso. April 29, 1883, again an inmate of 
the Tucson jail, in a second attempt to escape, he killed Jailer A. W. Holbrook. 
A mob tried to get him out to hang him, but there was swift retribution and he 
was soon sentenced by Judge Fitzgerald to capital punishment and was duly 

A notable execution occurred at Tombstone late in 1900, in the hanging of 
the two Halderman brothers, found guilty of the murder of Constable Chester 
Ainsworth and Teddy Moore at the Halderman ranch in the Chirieahua AToun- 
tains. The brothers had been arrested on a charge of cattle stealing by Ains- 
worth and Moore and had been allowed to enter their home to secure clothing. 
Instead, they reappeared with rifles and shot the officers from their horses. The 
murderers fled, but were eaptiired near Duncan by a sheriff's posse and returned 
for trial at Tombstone. 



The Great Wham Robbery and Its Political Complications — Cribble and Barney Martin 
Murders — A Female Bandit — Train Robberies that Proved Unprofitable — Jim 
Parker's Path to the Calloivs — Burt Alvord and the Cochise Train Robbery. 

One of the most notorious crimes of the Southwest, possibly the onlj' 
instance of an attack by white men upon American soldiery, since has been 
known as the Wham robbery. May 11, 1889, Maj. J. W. Wham, paymaster 
U. S. A., started from Fort Grant for Port Thomas, taking with him in an 
army "Dougherty" wagon a box containing $26,000 in gold and some silver, 
for the pay of the troops at the latter post. As escort he had eleven colored 
soldiers, from the Twenty-fifth Infantry, led by a sergeant. The party had 
passed Cedar Springs, a point of sanguinary history in Indian wars, and had 
entered a small defile when the way was blocked by a large rock that seemed 
to have rolled down the hillside. A number of the soldiers were busying them- 
selves in removal of the rock, their rifles laid aside, when a fusillade of shots 
came from the brow of a nearby ridge. The soldiers acted well, deploying 
behind such cover as they could find, but the road was fully commanded by a 
foe that had constructed seven little rock shelters and who offered only the tar- 
get made by the smoke of their rifles. Five of the soldiers had been wounded, 
happily none of them seriously, when the major was found in full flight. Their 
only officer gone, the negroes followed and the field was left to the enemy and 
to the wounded. Three men were seen to come down to the road, pick up the 
chest and carry it over the ridge. Help soon came from Grant. The rock rifle 
pits were found deserted. Near by the contents of the box had been emptied 
into gunnysacks and the robbers had departed on horses and in all haste. At 
the time it was believed that thirteen men had shared in the robbery, but at 
the time only seven sets of tracks were found. 

Within a few days the military authorities had secured evidence on which 
were arrested eight Gila Valley farmers and stockmen, including Lyman, Ed. 
and Wal. Follett, Gilbert and W. T. Webb, Dave Cunningham, Tom Lamb, 
and Dave Rogers. A number of witnesses were gathered up, one of them 
swearing that he had seen several of the accused hide their booty in his hay- 
stack and use his fireplace in which to burn the gunnysacks in which had been 
carried the loot. 

Ed. and Wal. Follett and Tom Lamb were dismissed and no evidence was 
found against a Gila farmer who was popularly charged with having laid the 
plot and with having received his share of the golden booty. The others were 


bound over under very heavy bonds, which were supplied only in the case of 
one of the accused. 

The case was brought up in November. Serious as was the crime, the main 
issues early were beclouded. Though President Harrison had assumed office the 
previous I\Iareh, at Tucson were democratic "hold-overs," United States Marshal 
W. K. Meade and District Judge W. H. Barnes, incidentally bitter enemies. 
Barnes, an active partisan in politics, had at least one personal friend and 
political associate among the defendants and had arranged to have the case 
tried by Judge Hawkins, from Prescott. But the grand jury that found indict- 
ments against the prisoners had been told nothing of the proposed coming of 
Hawkins. So the next step was a telegram sent by the grand jury to the depart- 
ment of justice, recommending Barnes' removal, with the inference carried in 
the dispatch that the judge was in league with the attorneys for the defense. 

Judge Barnes got a copy of the telegram. When court opened, the follow- 
ing morning, the grand jury was summoned before him and was discharged, 
after it had been called "a band of character assassins, unworthy to sit in any 
court of justice." Then followed a few days in which "the wires were kept 
hot." Barnes lost, though probably with little reference to the pending rob- 
bery case, and to the place was appointed a young Florence attorney, Richard 
E. Sloan, whose name was destined to even higher position in Arizona's hall of 

The trial began in November and lasted thirty-three days. The Government 
was represented by District Attorney Harry Jeffords, who was assisted by Wil- 
liam Herring and S. M. Franklin. The attorneys for the defense were led by 
Marcus A. Smith and Ben. Goodrich. There were 165 witnesses, more than 
half of them at the cost of the defense. The five negroes who had been left on 
the field identified three of the accused, but were handicapped in the fact that, 
without exception, they had made the same identification at the preliminary 
examination according to their best "acknowledge and belief." Wham was as 
bad a witness as he was a soldier and by Llark Smith was led into a trap in 
trying to identify $1,000 in gold that had been seized by the Government after 
deposit by Gilbert Webb in a hotel safe. When the coins were spread out in the 
court room, the wily lawyer scrambled with them a handful of other twenty- 
dollar pieces and defied the paymaster to pick out his own. The defense brought 
testimony in quantity to show that they were far from the scene of the crime at 
the time of its perpetration. The man with the haystack declared he had lied 
in his first statements. 

At the time lawyers rather generally observed that the ease had been "over 
prosecuted." There was prejudice in Arizona communities over prosecutions 
by the Government, for the Government then had little standing except as a 
source of income in many communities. There was a disinclination to accept 
the testimony of the negroes and Wham had made a mess of his own evidence. 
So the verdict was for the defendants. There was a general disposition at the 
time to criticise the jury, but there was no aftermath, except a conviction for 
perjury of a witness who had done the defendants no particular good. W^hat- 
ever became of the money, the defendants emerged from the trial destitute of 
what they had had. Wham was debited with the money he had lost and not 
till several years thereafter was he released of responsibility by the passage of a 


special act in Congress. He died in Washington in 1908, after another "bad 
luck" episode in his official career that happened in the Northwest and in which 
the Southwest would have little interest. 


In July, 1883, on a road to the northwest of Tucson, there were a couple of 
stage robberies, somethiug not uncommon in the least in that locality ; but added 
interest was given from the fact that in the second robbery, the highwayman 
had pretended to lead a considerable number of other, though unseen, bandits, 
and from behind a clump of sage brush had protruded the muzzle of a shot gun. 
The passengers were rather irritated when it was found that the robber was 
alone, a fact demonstrated by none other than the famous Pete Kitchen, who, 
with some Papago trailers, tracked the robber about thirty miles into the Santa 
Cruz Valley, south of Tucson, where the trail had to be abandoned. Soon 
thereafter into town came a healthseeker, who had a milk ranch four miles 
from Tucson, with a tale that he was harboring in his house a desperado who 
had threatened him with death if he failed to return that night with provisions 
and ammunition. The rendezvous was kept in the mesquite thicket, where also 
was Sheriff Charles Shibell with a posse, and in the resultant melee the robber 
was killed. He proved none other than Jim Brazleton, who had been employed 
in the livery stable of R. N. Leatherwood, next to the courthouse in Tucson, and 
there was later evidence that the same man, within nine months, had robbed 
seven mail coaches around Albiiquerque, from which point he had come. 


In 1887, Superintendent Josiah Gribble of the Vulture mines and two guards, 
Johnson and Littlefield, were murdered a few miles from Vulture, as thej' were 
starting for Phcenix with a bar of gold bullion, valued at $7,000, the product of 
the Vulture mill. Gribble had been warned at Vulture by T. E. Farish of the 
risk he was taking, but replied that he had fought robbers in Australia and 
South Africa and was willing to meet any thieves in Arizona. The murderers, 
Inocente and Francisco Valenzuela and a younger Mexican, probably saw from 
afar the arrangement of the guards and killed the three at the first fire. The 
murderers fled southward, headed for Mexico. At the Gila River they separated. 
They tried to cut the bar with an axe, but failed, so buried the bullion in a 
cache near Powers' camp. The chase after the murderers was one of the most 
spectacular ever known in the Southwest, in it participating Sheriff Bud Gray, 
Hi McDonald, Henry Garfias and Jim Murphy, all hardy and determined men 
and hard riders. They followed the trail across the blazing desert and the 
Mexicans narrowly escaped capture. Francisco got safely into Mexico, escaped 
extradition, and in the course of time died at Altar. Inocente, from Phcenix, 
later stole back to the cache on the Gila. His ahsence was marked, however, 
and a posse descended upon him. Impeded by his golden burden he was unable 
to travel with any speed. He showed fight and was killed and the bar was 
recovered. The third Mexican claimed that he was compelled to take part in 
the robbery and his story was accepted, inasmuch as he had turned state's evi- 


The same Valenzuela gang for years terrorized the section along the Has- 
sayampa River, robbing placer miners and killing wherever they were opposed. 
They also are charged with the murder of Barney Martin and his family in 
the summer of 1886. Martin had kept a little store and had acted as stage 
agent at Stanton, in the Antelope Hill section of Southern Yavapai County, 
where he had incurred the enmity of the local gang of cutthroats and thieves. 
Martin finally sold out and, with the money for the sale of his property in his 
pocket and with his wife and several children, he loaded his few remaining 
effects into a covered wagon and started for Phoenix. Few men were more popu- 
lar than he and his departure was generally regretted, so his way southward 
was one of welcome and good cheer. Capt. M. H. Calderwood, at Coldwater 
Station on the Agua Fria, had been notified of the impending arrival of the 
Martin family and prepared a royal reception. But several days passed after 
the stage had reported ]\Iartin's departure from the Brill Ranch, on the Has- 
sayampa, and Calderwood became alarmed. Not far from the present Hot 
Springs Junction was found the track of a wagon, leading off into little hills. 
This track was followed a few miles, and the trailers came upon the remains 
of a wagon that had been burned and in the ashes the charred bodies of Barney 
Martin and the members of his family. The murders had been committed on 
the highway and the wagon had been driven away from the road to try to hide 
the evidences of the crime. Though revenge is supposed to have been a cause 
of the crime, as well as cupidity, nothing more than suspicion of the assassin 
could be fastened upon anyone, though Governor Zulick offered a reward of 
$1,000. The bodies of the murdered ones were brought back to the Brill ranch 
and there interred, the headstone a perpetual reminder to those who thereafter 
passed of the dangers of pioneer days. 

There was an understanding at the time that these Mexican outlaws had a 
secret leader in S. P. Stanton, who was assassinated by a young Mexican about 
1886, in revenge for an insult of several years before to the boy 's sister. Stanton 
long was a resident among the very worst Mexican population of the Southwest, 
ostensibly a storekeeper, supplying goods to the Mexican placeros. He was 
charged with complicity in the Barney Martin murder, but nothing could be 
shown against him. There was a general belief that Stanton had been a Catholic 
priest, but this was denied in 1901 by Hector Riggs, who told that ' ' Stanton was 
never a Catholic priest, though he went far upon the road toward priesthood. 
He was expelled from Maynooth College for immoral conduct, and, though he 
took his case in person to Pope Pius IX, he failed to get himself reinstated." 


In 1889 Arizona rejoiced in the possession of a female bandit. Pearl Hart, 
who carried shooting irons and who robbed stages. She was a woman of the 
half-world, with an insatiable craving for morphine, cigarettes and notoriety. 
According to Sheriff Bill Truman of Pinal County, she was a very tiger-cat for 
nerve and endurance and would have killed him if she could. When the sheriff 
came upon the woman and her male companion, Joe Boot, as they were sleeping 
on the gi-ound in camp in the San Pedro Valley, a couple of days after they 
had robbed a stage in Kane Springs Canon, she was attired for the road in rough 
shirt and blue overalls. Pearl for a while was held in the county jail at Tucson 


where, in October, she succeeded in escaping by cutting through a light parti- 
tion. She was recaptured in Deming, New Mexico, with a hobo companion, about 
the time, it is understood, she was preparing to depart with a bandit gang, 
wherein she was to rank as queen. She was tried in Florence in November, 
1898. A sympathetic jury found her not guilty of stage robbery. Judge Doau 
thereupon ' ' roasted ' ' the jurors and dismissed them from the panel for the bal- 
ance of the term. The woman was then again tried on the charge of robbing the 
stage driver of a revolver. She was promptly convicted and was sentenced for 
a terra of five years to the penitentiary of Yuma, where she was the sole female 
prisoner. Her companion. Boot, was given a sentence of three years. The 
woman was paroled by Governor Brodie in December, 1902, upon the condition 
that she at once establish her residence at some point outside of Arizona. Her 
real name was Taylor and her home had been in Toledo, Ohio. 


March 21, 1889, an Atlantic & Pacific train was stopped at the Canon Diablo 
station by four robbers, who, after searching the contents of the express strong 
box, fled northward. The scene of the robbery was in Y^avapai County and so 
the trail was taken by Sheriff Wm. 0. O'Neill, with three deputies. The posse, 
after a chase of 300 miles, consuming two weeks, finally sighted their men in 
Southeastern Utah, forty miles east of Caiionville. Then came a pitched battle, 
in which over fifty shots were fired, though the only effect was the wounding 
of one of the robbers' horses. The fugitives, leaving their horses behind, 
plunged into the mountains on foot, soon to be run down by the Arizonans. The 
capture included Wm. D. Stirin, "Long John" Halford, John J. Smith and D. 
M. Haverick. Upon them was found about one thousand dollars. A rather 
amusing incident was the attempt of citizens of Canonville to arrest the des- 
peradoes, but the attempt failed, for the large citizens' posse was held up by the^ 
robbers and made to stack arms and retreat. The return to Arizona was made 
around by Salt Lake. On the homeward journey Smith escaped through a car 

Another train robbery, September 30, 1894, occurred near Maricopa, where 
the through express was boarded by Frank Armer, a Tonto Basin cowboy, only 
20 years old, who climbed over the coal of the engine tender and, at the muzzle 
of a pistol, stopped the train where a confederate, Rodgers, was in waiting. Lit- 
tle booty was secured. The two men, before this, had ridden in circles around 
the desert in order to throw pursuers off of their track, but Indians, taking a 
broad radius, soon picked up the trail. Rodgers was caught far down the Gila, 
and Armer was taken at the home of a friend, near Phoenix, after a battle with 
Sheriff Murphy and officers in which he was desperately wounded. At Yuma 
penitentiary, under a thirty-year sentence, he made three attempts to escape. 
He dug a tunnel that was discovered when it had nearly connected his cell with 
the world beyond the great wall. A second time, when he broke for freedom 
from a rock gang, he had to lie down under a stream of bullets from a Gatling 
gun on the wall. A third time he secreted himself while at outside work and 
eluded the guards, but was run down in the Gila River bottom by Indian trailers. 
Finally, prostrated by consumption, he was released, barely in time to die at 


home in the arms of his mother. Eodgers, sentenced to a forty-year term, 
served only eleven, then being discharged for exemplary conduct. 


Grant Wheeler and Joe George on Januaiy 30, 1895, held up a Southern 
Pacific train near Willcox and robbed the through safe of $1,500 in paper 
money. The safe was broken open by dynamite, upon the explosive piled sacks 
of Mexican dollars, of which in the car there were about 8,000. The result 
was eminently satisfactory, the safe not only being cracked open, but the ex- 
press car nearly wrecked as well, the silver pieces acting upon it like shrapnel, 
sowing the desert around with bent and twisted Mexican money, which also 
was found deeplj' embedded in telegraph poles and in the larger timbei's of the 
car. Sections of the telegraph poles and of the car, stuck full of silver dollars, 
like plums in a pie, were valued souvenirs for years thereafter in railroad and 
express offices along the coast. Yet only $600 was lost from the silver shipment. 
The robbers escaped into the hills. They returned for more on Februaiy 26, 
when they stopped a train at Steui's Pass, but made the mistake of discon- 
necting the mail car instead of the express car, so got no booty. The trail was 
taken up by W. M. Breakenridge, then in charge of the peace of the Southern 
Pacific line in Southern Arizona, who trailed Wheeler into Colorado and ran 
him down near Mancos April 25. The next morning the outlaw, surrounded and 
appreciating the hopelessness of his position, after a brief exchange of shots 
with the pursuing posse, committed suicide. 


One of the sensational crimes in the first few days of 1897 was an att(!mpted 
robbery of the Santa Fe express train at Rock Cut in jMohave County by out- 
laws headed by Jim Parker, a Northern Arizona cowboy. The gang is believed 
to have had six members, but only Parker and one other participated in the 
holdup. While Parker covered the engineer and fireman, his partner cut off one 
car of the train, mistakenly thinking it the express car, but it was ouly mail 
that was found when Parker ordered a stop a few miles up the line. There he 
also found that he was acting alone, for his associate in crime had been shot by 
the overlooked express messenger. Parker took some of the registered mail and 
started into the wilderness with it. The fourth morning thereafter Sheriff Ralph 
Cameron tracked him down in the snows of the Grand Canon region, where 
Cameron knew about all the rocks and assuredly all the trails there were. After 
conviction at Prescott. Parker in May headed a jail break. The jailer was felled 
and Lee Norris, assistant district attorney, a young lawyer of brightest prospects, 
was killed as he was encountered in the corridor of the courthouse. One of the 
three who escaped was soon captured. Another, a Mexican, is supposed to have 
perished from wounds received in a skirmish with a pursuing posse. Parker 
himself got away on Sheriff Ruffner's best horse, "Sure Shot," and evaded a 
hundred men for nearly a month. He was finally caught, still with "Sure Shot," 
by an Indian trader and a dozen Navajo Indians on the very northern edge of 
the territory as he was making good his escape into Utah. Returned to Pres- 
cott. he was convicted of the murder of Norris and thereafter was hanged. 



For a while train robbery had popularity in Arizona, despite a statute 
passed, though never enforced, making the crime one punishable by death. One 
of the most daring train robberies of the Southwest occurred about midnight, 
September 9, 1899. Express Messenger Charles Adair, who had killed an over- 
adventurous train robber on the same run the year before, stepped to the door as a 
westbound Southern Pacific express reached the small station of Cochise. As he 
looked out it was into the muzzle of a revolver and he and the train force soon were 
lined on the platform with their hands in the air. The express car was detached 
and run a couple of miles westward. The messenger was known to be ignorant 
of the safe combination, so the safe was opened with dynamite The loot was 
rich, comprising a bag full of gold and currency, with value of at least $10,000. 
The four men involved struck into the Chiricahuas, unsuccessfully followed by 
posses headed by Sheriff Scott White and George Scarborough. 

The truth concerning the Cochise robbery came out a few months later 
(February 21, 1900) following a supplemental train robbery, that of the express 
car of a Benson-Nogales train, which was held up at Fairbank. The hero of the 
affair was Express Messenger Jeff D. Milton, who fought till incapacitated by 
a bullet wound that terribly shattered an arm. The wounded messenger who 
was given the highest praise for his defense of his trust, in previous days had 
been a cattle association detective, a customs inspector and chief of police of 
El Paso. The bandits numbered five. One of them was captured the next morn- 
ing six miles from Tombstone, where he had fallen from his horse and had been 
abandoned by his companions. He was Jess Dunlap, alias Three-Fingered Jack, 
a well-known cowboy horsethief. He died a few days later in the Tombstone 
hospital, having received in the body a buckshot load from Milton's shotgun. 
In a pass of the Dragoon Mountains Sheriff "White captured three of the others, 
who proved to be the leader, Bob Burns, and John and Lewis Owens. With them 
was the booty, which consisted of only seventeen Mexican pesos. The robbers 
had expected that the Fort Huachuca payroll would be in the express car safe. 
Soon afterward the score was made complete by the arrest at Cananea of Tom 
Yoes, alias "Bravo John," who had been shot in the leg. 

Before Dunlap died, he gave the officers the first authentic information 
concerning the Cochise robbery, implicating Burt Alvord, constable at Will- 
cox, and William Downing, a well-to-do cattleman. There was some humor in 
the situation, owing to the fact that Alvord had been one of the noisiest and 
most active pursuers of th^ train robbers. Later W. N. Stiles, deputy con- 
stable at Pearce, confessed the details of the whole affair. He and another cow- 
boy, Matt Burts, did the work alone, but the job was planned and supplies for 
it were furnished by Alvord and Downing. Alvord had provided the dj'namite, 
secured by breaking into a Willcox powder house. Immediately after the job 
was done, the spoil was taken to Alvord and Downing at Willcox for division. 
Stiles received only $480 as his share and consequent dissatisfaction is said to 
have been the reason for his confession. It is evident, however, that Stiles suf- 
fered from remorse, though not for his crimes. Considered merely a witness 
for the Government, he was allowed some liberty. He repaid confidence in April, 
1900, by entering the Tombstone jail and, after shooting the jailer through the 
leg, releasing Alvord and "Bravo John." Downing refused to leave, and 


Burts, who had been ari-ested in Wyoming, happened to be outside at the time 
with a deputy sheriff. So the trio hung upon them all the weapons they eould 
find in the sherifiE's office and took to the hills on stolen horses. They were 
next heard of at Alvord's ranch near Willcox, where they made announcement 
that they proposed to rob a few more Southern Pacific trains. When the Tomb- 
stone Prospector criticised the sheriff's office in connection with the escape, the 
sheriff's brother replied by hammering Editor Hattich over the head with a re- 
volver. In addition to various rewards offered by the sheriff and territorial 
authorities, W. C. Greene offered $10,000 for the capture of the two outlaws, who 
were understood to have especial animus against himself. 

Alvord surrendered in 1902, tired of the free life of a roving bandit, and ex- 
pressed himself well pleased at being back where he would be sure of three 
square meals a day. He had been in the bandit business three years since he 
laid the plans for the great train robbeiy at Cochise. He had spent most of the 
intervening time in Sonera, where Captain Mossman of the Rangers followed 
and secured expression of a wish to return to the United States if assured of 
reasonable clemency. But it was to his old friend Sheriff Del Lewis that the 
surrender was made on the border near Naco. Alvord's way was made easier 
by the fact that he had assisted in the capture of Chacon, a notorious Mexican 
murderer. At Tombstone he was discharged from custody, owing to the events 
of the territorial statute that provided death as the only penalty on conviction 
of train robbery, but he was rearrested and taken to Tucson on the charge of 
interfering with United States mails. Alvord and Billy Stiles came into the 
limelight again in December, 1903, when they dug out of the Tombstone jail 
and for the second time escaped. A week before Alvord had been convicted 
on the charge of robbery of the mails. He had been held at Tombstone merely 
as a witness in the case against Stiles. Alvord later was taken at Naco, but had 
only two years' imprisonment, managing to evade arrest on other charges at the 
time of liberation at Yuma. He is said to have made his way to Panama, where 
he bossed Spanish-speaking laborers for a while, thence departing for Argentina. 

When Downing was tried on a charge of train robbery he was acquitted for 
the reason that conviction would have meant hanging, but on another charge he 
served a seven-year term. Downing was happily removed from necessary and 
continuous consideration in Arizona by a pistol bullet in August, 1908. He had 
used bad judgment in defying Territorial Ranger Speed, after terrorizing Will- 
cox for months. After his death it was learned that he had been a member of 
the notorious Sam Bass gang of Texas and had been driven out of that state by 
Texas rangers. In Arizona he had seiwed two penitentiary sentences, one for 
train robbery and one for shooting Robert Warren. Burts went to Yuma for 
a term and was followed by Stiles, who surrendered in the summer of 1900. The 
latter was reported killed in December, 1908, while working in Nevada, where 
he was known under the name of Larkin. The killing was said to have been 
assassination, the man shot in the back while leading a horse. 


Maricopa County in all its history has had but one legal execution, that of a 
Mexican boy, possibly 18 years of age, by name Demetrio Dominguez, who had 
murdered, in the Bradshaw Mountains, a wood camp foreman who had dis- 


charged him from employment with, possibly, unnecessary severity. Dominguez 
located his victim, a large and powerful man, in a stage coach on the Prescott 
Road, near Gillette and, in the middle of the night climbed into the stage and 
found his quarry, knifing him to death. The official surveyors of Yavapai and 
Maricopa counties had to jointly meet to determine the venue of the crime, 
which was established only a few feet south of the joint county line. The trial 
was held in Phoenix in the fall of 1880 and in November Sheriff Rube Thomas 
hanged the lad on a scaffold erected in the old cemetery, in the southwestern 
part of the village, very near to a grave that had been provided. The Mexican 
population resented the conviction, and so the cortege from the jail to the 
scaffold, a distance of over half a mile, had an escort of about fifty citizens, 
armed with rifles. 



The Earps and Their Career al Tombstone — What It Cost to Take Sheep inlo Pleasant 
Valle]} — Justice as Rough Hervn on the Frontier — Arizona Rangers and Their Good 
Work — Arizona's Penitentiaries — End of the Wild West Era. 

Among the most notable of Arizona's many exponents of the gospel of vio- 
lence unto all men were the Earps, who early placed Tombstone on the map as 
well deserving its cheerless appellation. Wyatt Earp in 1881 was a deputy 
United States marshal and Virgil was city marshal, offices that afforded legal 
standing in the affairs in which they were engaged. They were very much at 
outs with Sheriff Johnny Behan, with whom they divided the influence of the 
gamblers, who had much to say in those days concerning the administration of 
affairs. All the Earps had been professional gamblers. They were charged, 
first and last, with about half of the robberies that were of such frequent occur- 
rence on the roads leading out from camp. It is told that, while not actively 
participating, they were parties to a notable robbery of the Bisbee stage, that 
the actual work was done by Frank Stillwell, and that the primary cause of 
trouble betwen Stillwell and the Earp gang arose out of his refusal to divide 
up the spoils. Bud Philpot, a well-known stage driver, was killed on the box of 
the Benson stage, near Contention. Bob Paul, later United States marshal for 
Arizona, was riding with him at the time, as guard, and it is possible that the 
bullet that hit the driver was intended for the messenger. The Earps and Doc 
Holliday were absent from the town at the time of this particular episode, but 
returned soon after from a jaunt into the country. They were not arrested. 
The shooting of Philpot generally was charged to Holliday. John Dunbar 
remembers that that particular day he had let Holliday have a horse. If it was 
from stage robberies that the Earps derived the major part of their income, the 
money only served for the purpose of dissipation. Another factor was that the 
town really was terrorized and the larger part of the population simply was 
trying to keep out of trouble and said little of things of which many knew. So 
popular support was not given to any effort toward the enforcement of the law 
or the detection of criminals. 


Undoubtedly the most notorious episode of Tombstone's early history oc- 
curred October 26, 1881. The Clanton gang of cowboys had refused to recognize 
the local supremacy of the Earps, and there was bad blood between the factions. 


On the night of October 25, Ike Clanton, a prominent, though decidedly not 
plucky, member of the cowboy faction, had been arrested by City Marshal Virgil 
Earp and had been fined $50 for disorderly conduct, which appears to have 
been merely in objecting to the marshal's abuse. On the morning of the 26th of 
the Clanton gang in Tombstone were Tom McLowery, Frank McLowery, Billy 
Clanton and Ike Clanton. They had appreciated the intimation that Tombstone 
was unhealthy for them and had saddled their horses to leave for their home 
ranch in the Babacomari Mountains. The horses were in the 0. K. Corral, which 
fronted on two streets. Fearing trouble, they planned to leave by the rear gate, 
on Fremont Street. Ike Clanton and Tom McLowery were not armed, for both 
the evening before had had their pistols taken from them by the city authorities. 
The other two had revolvers. 

The men were leading their horses out of the gate when they were confronted, 
almost from ambush, by four of the Earps, Virgil, Wyatt, Morgan and Jim, and 
by Doe Holliday. Virgil Earp, armed with a sawed-off express shotgun, and ac- 
companying his demand with profanity, yelled, "Throw up your hands." But he 
didn 't wait for the action demanded and shot almost as soon as he spoke. Tom 
McLowery showed his empty hands and cried, "Gentlemen, I am unarmed." 
Holliday answered with the discharge of his shotgun. Billy Clanton fell at the 
first fire, mortally wounded, but rolled over and fired two shots from his pistol 
between his bent knees. One shot "creased" Morgan Earp across the shoulder 
and he fell to the ground. Ike Clanton ran into a vacant lot and escaped. Frank 
IMcLowery remained, fighting bravely, and, holding his horse by the bridle, fired 
four shots at the three Earps in front of him. One bullet hit Virgil Earp in the 
calf of the leg. McLowery became aware that Holliday was shooting at him 
from the rear and had turned to answer the fire when his pistol hand was hit. 
He then raised his revolver with both hands and shot, striking Holliday 's pistol 
holster. At the same moment Morgan Earp rolled over and shot from the 
ground, his bullet striking ]\IcLowery on the temple, killing him instantly. The 
Earps and Holliday then marched back to the main part of the town and sur- 
rendered themselves. They were examined behind closed doors by Justice of 
the Peace Spicer, who discharged them as having acted as peace officers in the 
performance of their duty. 

Thereafter Virgil Earp received a bad wound in the arm, shot one night by 
some unknown person concealed in a building. Soon after, Morgan Earp was 
killed in an Allen Street saloon, about 9 p. ra., while playing billiards, his assassin 
shooting through a rear glass door, himself hidden in the darkness. The mur- 
derer was supposed to have been Frank Stillwell, a cowboy of the outlaw stripe. 
If it were Stillwell who did the shooting, he established a reasonable alibi by 
being in Tucson early the next morning. Ike Clanton already was in Tucson, 
under arrest for a stage robbery on the road between Tucson and Bisbee. A 
few days later, the Earps, Holliday and one Johnson, started for California in 
charge of Morgan Earp's body. The train, taken at Benson, arrived in Tucson 
about dusk. Ike Clanton, out on bail, learning of the presence of his enemies, 
secreted himself, but Stillwell, possibly to maintain his attitude of innocence, 
went to the depot and walked slowly along the train as it was drawing out. The 
next morning his body, riddled with buckshot, was found at the head of Penning- 
ton Street, possibly a hundred yards from the tracks, back of the railroad hotel. 


It was assumed that oue of the Earps had jumped off, shot Stillwell and then 
regained the train. 

At Killito station, a few miles westward, all but Virgil Earp left the train. 
They walked back to Tucson, and, a short distance east of the town, flagged a 
freight train and on it went to Benson, where they got horses and returned to 
Tombstone. There Sheriff Behan received a telegram to arrest them. When 
the sheriff notified them that they were under arrest they directed him to a 
torrid region, secured fresh horses and rode out of town. They were next heard 
from in the Dragoon Mountains,- where they shot and killed a Mexican w^ho was 
chopping wood for Pete Spence, one of their mortal enemies, possibly irritated 
over not finding Spence himself. Thence they rode to Hooker's Sierra Bonita 
ranch, where the owner gave them fresh mounts. They rode across country to 
Silver City, New Mexico, where they disposed of the horses and took a train for 

On hearing of the refuge of the Earp gang. Governor Tritle on May 16, 1882, 
issued a requisition on Governor Pitkin of Colorado, asking the return of Wyatt 
and "Warren Earp, Dos Holliday, Sherman McMasters and John Johnson, all 
charged with the crime of murder. The requisition was refused on the grounds 
that the papers were defective in form and because Holliday already was under 
indictment for a crime committed in Colorado. June 2, Governor Tritle sent 
amended papers, to again meet rebuff, Governor Pitkin replying on the ground 
that he "did not consider it possible for any agent to deliver the parties named 
in safety to Tucson." Just the character of influence brought upon the gover- 
nor of Colorado does not appear at this late date. It is probable the people of 
Tombstone cared little, as the exile of the Earps was the first possible move 
toward a lasting peace, which then began to be felt. 


Virgil Earp died of penumonia, in Goldfield, Nevada, October 19, 1905, aged 
63 years, and was buried in Portland, Oregon, where a daughter lived! He 
had been married twice. Of the flood of reminiscences, brought up at the time 
of his death, much was made public beyond the more notable episode of his 
Tombstone career. He came to Arizona first in 1876, in company with his broth- 
ers, Wyatt and Morgan, and Doc Holliday. While Ed Bowers was sheriff, Pres- 
cott was visited by two cowboys from Bradshaw Basin, who enjoyed themselves 
in true cowboy fashion, shooting up saloons, finally riding out of town firing 
their pistols as they went. They camped at the Brooks ranch, and sent back 
word that they would remain in case the sheriff wanted them bad enough. Bow- 
ers organized a posse, of which Virgil Earp was a member. In a pitched battle 
that followed, Earp found one of the cowboys crouched under an oak tree, re- 
loading his gun, and shot him twice, one bullet passing through his heart and 
the other only about two inches from the first. It was remarked, when the body 
was taken away, that between the man's teeth was still a cigarette he had been 
smoking when shot. The other cowboy also was brought in prostrate, dying two 
days later. Virgil Earp came back to Arizona, to the scene of his old exploits in 
Yavapai County, and engaged in mining in the Hassayampa district. In 1900 
he was nominated for sheriff, but failed to make the race. He had seen service 
in the Civil War in an Indiana regiment of volunteers. 


Wyatt Earp went to Colton, California, where relatives lived, and where he 
later was elected chief of police. He was given much publicity in his capacity 
of referee at the Sharkey-Fitzsimmons fight in San Francisco, in which his 
decision, awarding the battle to the former, was sustained by his reputation 
as a handy man with a gun. He was in Nome in its boom period. 

Holliday died of consumption at Glenwood Springs, Colo. Warren Earp, the 
youngest brother, a stage driver, in the summer of 1900 met his end at Willcox, 
where he was killed by John Boyett in a way that a coroner's jury considered 

In 1882 conditions were so bad in Southeastern Arizona that President 
Arthur issued a proclamation calling upon bandits to disperse and threatening 
extermination at the hands of the military authorities and United States mar- 
shals. This followed a letter from Acting Governor Gosper to the secretary of 
the interior calling attention to the seeming inability of the territory to sup- 
press the outlaws. 

Doc Holliday, the right bower of the Earp clan, possibly best was described 
by the equally famous Bat Masterson, who was interviewed on the subject, and 
whose history of the once-distinguished Arizonan, before his local advent, may 
as well be quoted: 

I never liked him and few persons did. He had a mean disposition and differed from 
most of the big gun fighters in that he would seek a fight. He was a consumptive and physically 
weak, which probably had something to do with his unfortunate disposition. He was of a fine 
Georgia family and was educated as a dentist. He went West after shooting down several 
defenseless negro boys in a quarrel as to who should occupy a certain swimming hole. He 
made Dallas in the early seventies and hung out his shingle, "J. D. Holliday, Dentist," but 
he soon quit that for gambling. His shooting of the negroes became known and so he got a 
reputation as a bad man from the start and associated on equal terms with men of more 
notable record. He finally killed a man in Jacksboro and fled. Then he killed a soldier, 
and to avoid being caught by the military authorities made a desperate flight to Denver, 
across 800 miles of waterless, Indian-infested desert. He made Denver in '76. The law 
forbade him to carry a gun there, so he slipped a knife into his boot leg and presently carved 
up the face of one Bud Ryan, who bears the marks to this day. He then fled to Dodge City, 
where I first met him. He kept out of trouble in Dodge somehow, but presently wandered to 
Trinidad, Colo., where the first thing he did was to shoot and seriously wound Kid Colton. 
Then he escaped to Las Vegas, a boom town in New Mexico, where he disagreed with Mike 
Gordon and shot him dead in a doorway. 

In their palmy days and even later the Earps had many friends, generally 
enemies of the even rougher element that the brothers opposed. It was claimed 
that in their former abiding place. Dodge City, Kansas, as well as in Tombstone, 
they were found opposed to the criminal element and that they never killed a 
man whom the community was not pleased to lose. Especially has been com- 
mended their good work in shooting "Curly Bill," who had considered him- 
self well above the law and left to go free after his cold-blooded murder of 
White, the first city marshal of Tombstone. Such a man as E. B. Gage has 
been quoted as stating that "Whatever Virgil Earp did in Tombstone was at 
the request of the best men in Cochise County. ' ' 


From 1879 to 1884 to the Indian atrocities was added the trouble caused by 
the advent of scores of outlaws, possibly driven out of other localities. 


attracted by reports of Arizona's remarkable mineral development during that 

In a message to the Twelfth Legislature, in IMarch, 1883, Gov. F. A. Tritle 
sharply called attention to the "thefts, murder and general lawlessness" then 
prevailing in the southern part of the territory and especially in Cochise and 
neighboring counties. The Tucson Star of March 28, 1882, related: "The 
officials of Cochise County, with all the available strength they can muster, 
seem to avail nothing in putting down the bloodthirsty class infesting that 
county. Ex-city and United States officials have taken to the hills as so many 
Apaches. A lot of loose marauding thieves are scouring the county, killing 
good industrious citizens for plunder. The officials are out in every direction, 
but nothing is accomplished." In the following month the Tombstone Epitaph 
gave added testimony, summing up thusly: "The recent events in Cochise 
County make it incumbent upon not only officials but good citizens as well to 
take such positive measures as will speedily rid this section of that murderous, 
thieving element which has made us a reproach before the world and so seriously 
retarded in the industry and progress of our county." 

The President of the United States was appealed to by petition of southern 
Arizonans to ask Congress to make an appropriation of .$150,000 to be used to 
place a force of mounted police or rangers in the field to pursue and arrest 
criminals and prevent raids from hostile Indians. Citizens of Tombstone sub- 
scribed $5,000 for maintenance of a small body of special officers, led by Deputy 
Marshal John H. Jackson. 


One of the bloodiest features of Arizona's oversanguinary history was the 
Pleasant Valley, or Tonto Basin, war. It began with the driving southward 
from near Flagstaff of several bands of sheep, reputed to have been the prop- 
erty of the Daggs brothers. Theretofore the Rim of the MogoUons had been 
considered the "dead line," soiith of which no sheep might come. There were 
allegations at the time that the Tewksbury brothers had been emploj'ed to take 
care of any trouble that might materialize over the running of sheep out of 
bounds. At first there seemed to be little active opposition, but early in 1885 a 
Mexican sheepherder was killed. The opposition centered around the Graham 
family, to which gathered a considerable number of cowboys and cattlemen. 

Tom Graham later told how at first he tried to use a form of moral suasion. 
Not wishing to kill anyone, there would be a wait till the sheepherder began 
the preparation of his evening meal and then, from the darkness, Graham would 
drop a bullet through the frying pan or coffee pot. This intimation out of the 
night usually was effective in inducing the herder to forget his hunger and to 
move his band very early the next morning. 

Several old residents of the Tonto Basin section, lately collaborating on the 
subject, decided that twenty-nine men had been killed in the war and that 
twenty-two graves of men of the Graham faction could be found in the vicinity 
of the old Stinson ranch. Only four of the Tewksburys died, but the most 
a-wful feature of all was the manner of the death of two of them. John Tewks- 
bury and one Jacobs had brought in bands of sheep, "on shares." Both were 
ambushed near the former's home and killed. Their bodies, in sight of the house, 


were left to be devoured by hogs, while members of the Tewksbury family were 
kept away by a shower of bullets from a hillside on which the Grahams watched. 
Finally Deputy Sheriff John Meadows entered the valley, to bury what was 
left, defiant of the wrath of the Grahams. The Tewksburys were half-bloods, 
their mother a California Indian, and it is probable their actions thereafter 
were based upon the Indian code of revenge. Few were left of the Blevins 
family of the Graham faction. The men shot at Holbrook by Sheriff Owens 
were active Grahamites. The elder Blevins was killed in the hills near the 
Houdon ranch and a skeleton found in after years is assumed to have been 
his. Al Rose was killed at the Houdon ranch by a party of a dozen Tewksburys, 
as he was leaving the house in the early morning. The favorite mode of assas- 
sination was from ambush on the side of a trail. One of the last episodes was 
the hanging of three of the Graham faction, Scott, Stott and Wilson, on the Rim 
of the jNIogollons by a large party of Tewksbui-ys. The three had been charged, 
possibly correctly, with wounding a Tewksbury partisan named Laufer and 
summary retribution was administered by hanging them on pine trees, hauled 
up by hand, with ropes brought for the purpose. John Graham and Charles 
Blevins were shot from their horses in the fall of 1886 by a posse from Prescott, 
headed by Sheriff William Mulvenon, as the riders were approaching under the 
impression that the officers had departed from a mountain store in which the 
visitors still were in hiding. Both were mortally wounded. IMulvenon made 
several trips into the Basin. There was a bloody battle at the Newton ranch, 
which had been burned and abandoned. Two cowboys, John Paine and 
Hamilton Blevins, had been killed at the Newton ranch, while William Graham 
had been ambushed and killed on the Payson trail. George Newton, formerly 
a Globe jeweler, was drowned in Salt River, while on his way to his ranch and 
it was thought at the time he had been shot from his horse, though this is not 
now believed. His body never was found, though his widow offered a reward 
of .$10,000 for its recovery. Sheriff O'Neill of Yavapai County led a posse into 
the valley, but most of the damage then had been done. 

Resident in the vicinity was J. W. Ellison, one of the leading citizens of the 
basin. He states that at first the Grahams had the sympathy of the settlers, all 
of whom owned cattle and appreciated the danger to their range from the incur- 
sion of locust-like wandering sheep bands. But the fighting soon became too 
warm for any save those immediately interested, for the factions hunted each 
other as wild beasts might have been hunted. Mr. Ellison frankly states that 
he saw as little of the trouble as he could and is pleased that he managed to 
avoid being drawn into the controversy. 

In the end the Tewksburys were victorious, with a death list of only four. 
One of the fleeing Grahams was Charlie Duchet, a fighter from the plains. He 
had celebrity from an affray in which he and an enemy were provided with 
Bowie knives and were locked together in a dark room. It was Duchet who 
emerged, but permanently crippled by awful slashes on his hands and arms. 

The end of the war was the killing of Tom Graham. His clan about all gone, 
in 1892 he had fled from Tonto Basin and had established himself and his young 
wife on a farm southwest of Tompe. He had harvested his first crop of grain 
and was hauling a load of barley to town. When about opposite the Double 
Butte school house he was shot from ambush and his body fell backward upon 


the gi-ain. The deed was witnessed by two young women, named Gregg and 
Cummiugs, who positively identified Ed Tewksbury as one of the murderers. 
A. J. Stencel, a Winslow cowboy, later declared that he had met Tewksbury, 
riding hard on the Reno road, ou his way back to Pleasant Valley, 120 miles, 
whence a strong alibi later was produced. Tewksbury and one of his hench- 
men, John Rhodes, were arrested and charged with tlie crime. Rhodes was 
discharged at a preliminaiy hearing before a Phcenix justice of the peace, after 
a dramatic attempt on his life by Graham's widow. She tried to draw from 
her reticule her husband's heavy revolver, but the hammer of the weapon 
caught, giving time for her disarmament. Tewksbury was found guilty of 
murder in the first degree, although well defended. His attorneys, however, 
found that his plea of "not guilty" had not been entered on the record of the 
District Court and so the verdict was set aside. There was a second trial, at 
Tucson, on change of venue, at an expense probably of $20,000 to Maricopa 
County, resulting in a hung jury. Over 100 witnesses had been called. Then 
the case was dismissed. Tewksbury died in 1904 in Globe, where, for a while, 
he had served as a peace officer. 

Soon after the Graham murder, a lad named Yost was assassinated while 
traveling through Reno Pass, on the Tonto Basin road. There was general 
belief at the time that murder had been committed by the Apache Kid, but it 
was considered significant that Yost had been connected with the Graham 

Thus ended one of the bloodiest range wars of the West and, like most wars, 
one that had no result save unnecessary cnielty and bloodshed. 


The Daggs brothers had been hard hit financially by the wool slump during 
the first Cleveland administration. Two of them, P. P. and "W. A., moved to 
Tempe, where they secured control of the Bank of Tempe and where they pur- 
chased thousands of acres of land for the consideration of remotely dated notes. 
The bank soon thereafter failed, with practically no cash left in the treasury 
and no satisfactory accounting of just where the cash had gone. The laud had 
been transferred twice and thrice, so the original sellers generally got nothing. 
Two more Daggs brothers, R. E. L. and A. J., came from Missouri to handle 
the long-continued legal trouble that had arisen over these transactions. A 
record of family immunity from violence finally was broken when A. J. Daggs 
was assassinated. Though mainly engaged in corporation work in Phoenix, he 
had secured valuable mining interests in the Superior District and on January 
1, 1908, paid a visit to his claims, accompanied by a body-guard, George Dit- 
more. From a distant hill top a prospector saw the men shot from ambush. 
Daggs dropped and two men broke from bi:shes beside the trail to pursue and 
slay the fleeing Ditmore. Then the pair returned and completed their bloody 
work. It developed, however, that Daggs had utilized his few remaining 
moments of life. Already mortally wounded, he had mustered up enough 
strength to scribble in his note book, "Stewart and Fondren have killed me," 
then threw the book and pencil behind a near-by bush, M'here later they were 
found. Robert J. Stewart and Edward Fondren were promptly arrested. They 
had quarreled with Daggs over mining claims and had made threats on his life. 


but the prospector who had seen the murderers from afar could not identify 
them, and they might have escaped punishment had not one of them, in his 
cups, boasted of his deed. Both went to the penitentiary. 


Frontier justices are famous for the rough hewn brand of law dispensed in 
any court "west of the Pecos," their variations on ordinary judicial procedure 
sometimes based on ignorance and sometimes on sheer contempt of precedent. 
Possibly sometimes they were mere instruments of the community, such as 
Justice George Allen of Globe, on whom was placed a decision that resulted in 
the summai'y execution thereafter of two murderers. In iMohave County in its 
earliest days, a ]\lineral Park justice is said to have sentenced a murderer to be 
hanged and the district attorney had trouble in keeping the camp constable 
from executing the sentence. A Tempe justice of the peace in the eighties 
divorced a Mexican couple which he had united a few months before. A south- 
ern justice, with the courage of his convictions and backed by a rather good 
knowledge of the law, took it upon himself to pronounce unconstitutional, illegal 
and void an act of Congress, and it is pi'obable he was right. Another justice 
of the peace in Graham County, finding a willing maiden, but no available 
magistrate or minister, himself performed his own marriage ceremony, answer- 
ing tlie questions propounded to himself by himself and finally making a nota- 
tion on his marriage records and issuing himself a certificate. 

In the early part of the last decade Judge Fitzgerald occupied the bench 
of the First Judicial District at Tucson. The judge proposed to check the 
laxity of conduct he thought he found in his courtroom. The attorneys were 
informed that smoking would not be tolerated and that coats must be worn 
under pain of displeasure of the court. The grand jury was called for the 
first time. Among the jurors summoned was a brawny miner, who appeared in 
his usual costume of dark shirt and overalls. "What do you mean, sir," thun- 
dered the magistrate, "by appearing in this courtroom in your shirt sleeves? 
Where is your coat?" "At home, Judge," mildly responded the juror. "Then 
go and get it. Not a word, sir, or I'll commit you for contempt." About two 
weeks later, the miner, dressed as the court had demanded, stepped within 
Judge Fitzgerald 's range of vision. To the irate court he tendered the explana- 
tion that his home and coat were both in the mountains, near the Mexican border, 
over a hundred miles away, and that he had but obeyed the orders of His 


Possibly Arizona's most noted justice of the peace was Jim Burnett of 
Charleston, who was killed by W. C. Greene in Tombstone. According to an 
old resident of Cochise County, the degree of lawlessness in Tombstone "wasn't 
a marker to Charleston, where they began the day at dark and where the San 
Pedro cowboys were allowed the fullest of swing. But the toughest of all was 
Burnett." Burnett had a number of followers, who seemed to do about what 
he wanted and who maintained him in authority as dictator of the town. 
Burnett made only one quarterly report to the Cochise County Board of Super- 
visors, and with it he made demand for a balance of $380 in fe«s. The super- 


visors cut it down. Burnett thereafter pocketed all fees and fines and advised 
Tombstone that, "Hereafter the justice's court of Charleston precinct will look 
after itself." Jack Schwartz, a saloon keeper, killed an assistant foreman in 
one of the mills, one Chambers. Burnett is said to have levied a fine of $1,000. 
Schwartz, not exactly satisfied with the judgment, is said to have consulted 
Mark Smith, with the idea that an appeal might be taken from the justice's 
court. The lawyer assured him that he was getting off light. Schwartz appre- 
ciated the gravity of his crime just in time to escape, before District Attorney 
Lyttleton Price sent a posse for him from Tombstone with a warrant. An 
instance of Burnett's operations was when he walked up to Jack Harrer when 
that desperado was crazy with drink, pulled him from his horse, disarmed him 
and on the spot fined him twenty head of three-year-old steers. Through such 
transactions as this and through trading in cattle that had "strayed" across 
the border, the Charleston justice attained a competency. It is singular that 
his killing was for one crime that in all probability he did not commit. 


The organization of the Arizona Rangers was on recommendation of 
Governor Murphy to the Legislature of 1901. As the first captain was appointed 
Burton C. Mossman, a Northern Arizona cattleman, who proceeded with an organ- 
ization of a company that at first consisted of only twelve men, with Dayton 
Graham of Cochise County as first lieutenant. Mossman made his organization 
wholly non-political and men were sought for enlistment on account of their 
records as efficient officers, good shots and good frontiersmen, well acquainted 
with the country. In some cases, men were enlisted whose previous records 
would not have entitled them to distinguished consideration in a Sunday school, 
but who had reputation for courage and endurance. Such men usually gave a 
very good account of themselves. According to Mossman: "I have never 
known a body of men to take a more intense interest in their work. They were 
very proud of the organization, proud of the record that they were making, 
and there was great emulation among the men to make good." Every section 
of the territory had its representatives, so that wherever the command might 
be called there would be some ranger familiar Avith the country, water holes, 
trails, etc. During the first twelve months after organization, 125 arrests were 
made of actual criminals, who were sent to the penitentiary or back to other 
states to answer for crime. The deterrent effect of these many captures was 
great, serving to drive from the territoiy a large percentage of its criminal 

Organized in August, the rangers proved effective from the first. In Novem- 
ber two of its members, Carlos Tafolla and Dean Hamblin, reinforced by four 
Saint Johns cattlemen, chased the Jack Smith band of outlaws into the Black 
River country south of Springerville. The outlaws were headed for Mexico 
with a band of stolen horses and were surprised while in camp. After apparent 
surrender, they dodged behind trees and opened fire. Tafolla and a cattleman 
named Maxwell were killed and two of the outlaws wounded. The latter escaped 
in the darkness on foot, leaving their camp outfit and horses behind. Captain 
Mossman, with three more rangers, soon was on the trail, but the gang, stealing 
fresh horses, managed to escape in the snows of the New Mexican mountains. 
Ta folia's A\idow was pensioned by the Legislature. 


Captain Mossman early established amicable relations with the Mexican 
authorities, and an agreement was entered into with Lieutenant-Colonel Koster- 
litsky of the Mexican Rurales that either should have the privilege of chasing 
outlaws across the border and that they should work in unison with the definite 
object of ridding the Southwest of the "rustler" element. 

In 1903 the force embraced twenty-six officers. Six years after organization 
report was made that the rangers in that time had made 4,000 arrests, of which 
25 per cent had been for serious felonies. The best work was against horse 
and cattle thieves. Especial value was found in the fact that the Rangers were 
independent of polities and were not controlled by considerations that often 
tied the hands of local peace officers. This very feature, however, led to occa- 
sional trouble with disagreeing sheriffs. 

After Governor Brodie assumed office a change was made in the leadership 
of the Arizona Rangers, to the position being appointed T. H. Rynning, who 
had been a lieutenant of Rough Riders. Under him the organization did splen- 
did work, especially in the labor troubles at Bisbee and Morenci. At the latter 
point, one episode most worthy of mention was when a band of several hundred 
rioters, coming over the divide from Chase Creek, encountered a few rangers, 
commanded by Sergeant Jack Foster. Foster was hailed and a demand was made 
upon him for his guns. The sergeant, remembering his experience in the Rough 
Riders, deployed his men along the crest of a ridge and laconically answered: 
"If you want the guns, come and get them." The rioters concluded to move 
on, and Foster saved both his rifles and his self-respect. 

The history of the rangers, under whatever leadership, was one of devotion 
and of rare courage, w41 worthy of a separate volume. Some of it is told in this 
work, but much more necessarily left unchronicled. There is the story how 
Ranger Frank Wheeler, with Deputy Sheriff John Cameron, killed Herrick 
and Bentley, former convicts wanted for horse-stealing, in the course of a battle 
in the rocks, after the fugitives had been tracked for five days. There might be 
mentioned, as typical, the encounter in Benson of Capt. Harry "Wheeler with 
a desperado named Tracy, wherein the latter died with four bullet holes in his 
body and Wheeler received wounds that disabled him for months. There was 
the case of Willis Wood, an outlaw of worst type, who was taken by Rynning 
from a roomful of the prisoner's friends. All such things were merely in the 
day's work. 

Rynning resigned to become superintendent of the territorial prison during 
the period of its reconstruction at Florence and, March 21, 1907, was succeeded 
by his lieutenant, Harry Wheeler, later sheriff of Cochise County. Wheeler 
notably was successful in handling difficult border conditions. But politics 
finally caused the disbandment of the rangers. The Legislature of 1909, striving 
to take away all prerogatives and power from Governor Kibbey, voted to abol- 
ish the force. Since that time county rangers have been authorized, though not 
as effective, assuredly not as picturesque, as were Wheeler's men. It is possible, 
however, that the old-time need for the organization no longer is known. 


Provision was made in 1867 for an Arizona penitentiary building by an act 
of Congress, that left the designation of the sites of the buildings to the Legis- 


latures of the several territories favored. December 7, 1868, was approved an 
act of the Arizona Legislature locating such prison at or near the Town of 
Phoenix, then in the County of Yavapai. In 1873, however, the Federal Govern- 
ment had done nothing in the premises and so a legislative resolution was sent 
to Congress, seeking earlj^ construction of the building contemplated, it being 
told that there was pressing necessity, as criminals under sentence were con- 
fined in the insecure county jails, where their health was impaired by reason 
of close confinement and where useful employment was impossible. 

Congress still failing' to contribute, on February 12, 1875, was authorized a 
loan to provide for the erection of a territorial prison and two years later pro- 
vision was made of a sinking fund. The location finally was fixed at Yuma, 
where, in 1876, Supt. Geo. Thurlow started with seven prisoners. 

Few prisons have had a larger degree of publicity than the old territorial 
penitentiary at Yuma. It was built upon a site most admirably adapted for the 
purpose, on a high tongue of land thrust far out into the channel of the Colorado 
River. It was little more than an open corral, though from the outside, the thick 
wall, built high of sun-dried adobe brick, with watch towers on the corners and 
armed wardens pacing the top, it had close similitude to a castle of days medieval. 
Though the prisoners at night were locked in long tiers of rock-built cells, there 
was little about the prison itself to hinder escape. The true barriers were the 
rifles and the old-fashioned pepper-box Catling gun that was mounted high 
on one of the corners, where it commanded both the jail yard and the quarry. 
This same Catling was used with effect in several outbreaks 

October 27, 1887, occurred one of the most serious attempts to escape ever 
known at the prison In the resultant fight. Convicts L. Puebla, E. Bustamente, 
Jose Lopez and F. Vasquez were killed and Superintendent Thomas Gates was 
seriously wounded. The superintendent had entered the jail yard in the early 
morning, when he was seized by five knife-armed Mexican prisoners, who, as 
they pushed him toward the sallyport, demanded their liberty, with Gates' life 
as the alternative. The convict doorkeeper threw open the main portal in the 
wall, the gate later closed by Assistant Superintendent J. H. Behan against a 
threatened exodus of all the convicts. The gang with Gates tried to use him as 
a shield against the bullets of several prison officers who were closing in. Par- 
ticularly admirable was the work of old Guard Hartlee, who, from the top of 
the prison wall, used his rifle as coolly as though at target practice, his rifle 
bullets finding their marks within a few inches of the superintendent's body. 
Puebla finally drove his sharp butcher knife into Gates' body, through the lungs, 
and was about to administer even a more deadly stroke when he was seized by 
another convict, Barney K. Eiggs, who, securing a pistol, shot Puebla near the 
heart. Riggs himself had a narrow escape from death, for Hartlee 's deadly 
aim for a moment was directed against him, till his defense of the Superintendent 
became apparent. Eiggs, a life prisoner, sentenced from Graham County for 
murder, was pardoned, of course. Upon leaving the penitentiary he resumed his 
old ways and, a few years later, was shot and killed in a brawl at Stockton, 
Texas. Gates never quite recovered from his wound and never regained his old- 
time spirit. Finally, four years later, in his quarters outside the prison wall, he 
shot himself through the head and was dead when md, kneeling beside his 



From Graham County Laustenneau, leader of rioters in the Morenei strike 
of 1903, and a number of his lieutenants were sentenced to terms in the peni- 
tentiaiy. Laustenneau again was heard from May 28, 1904, when he headed 
an attempt to break out. An attack was made upon Supt. W. M. Griffith and 
Asst. Supt. "Wilder and both were beaten, though not seriously injured. They 
were saved by the help of a convict cook, W. G. Buck, who, at the risk of his 
life, came to the assistance of the officers with a carving knife. Buck left 
several of the would-be escapes in such shape that they had to be taken to the 
hospital for surgical assistance. He received a pardon as reward. For his part 
in the attempted outbreak, Laustenneau was given an additional sentence of ten 
years, after trial in the District Court at Yuma. He died in prison of consump- 
tion, August 20, 1906. 

Penitentiary removal was determined upon in the Legislature of 1907, with- 
out material opposition from Yuma. Before the change, an appropriation was 
made of $120,000 for the construction of modern buildings on a site near 
Florence. The new penitentiary structure was erected almost wholly by the 
labor of convicts, directed by Supt. T. H. Rynning, himself a practical builder. 
Within a high concrete wall were placed a number of detention and shop struc- 
tures, also of concrete, and the prisoners found time, in addition, to build a 
concrete bridge across the nearby Gila River and later to do much road building. 

The deed to the old prison lands had come to the Territory of Arizona with 
a reservation that the title should return to the City of Yuma whenever the land 
ceased to be used for prison purposes. So, within the old adobe battlements 
were placed offices of the Yuma City government and a section of the Yuma 
schools. To the north of the walls, on a rough pebbly slope, still remains the 
old prison cemetery, with rough crosses and wooden headboards that usually 
bear only numbers. 


In the listing of crimes of desperadoes, of lynchings and of hangings, the 
Editor would state that by no means has he tried to illustrate more than typical 
phases of border outlawry and crime. The lists in any particular intentionally 
are incomplete and it is possible that there have been passed over many events 
that might be considered worthy of notice. But enough undoubtedly will be 
found to show that to Arizona, as the scum of the ocean drifts toward its edge, 
came many of the worst of humanity, seeking a land without law or religion. 
This scum had been driven steadily westward and comprised many who had 
won notoriety in the camps of the plains and Rockies. Most of them are dead, 
and the greater number died by violence, as they had lived by violence. 

It should not be understood that the bloody deeds of these men had any 
degree of approval from the communities they seem to have dominated. It was 
easier to let a gun fighter pass than to take up any unorganized and possibly 
fatal opposition to the wrongs of the community. The days of the "bad man" 
are gone in Arizona, where the carrying of firearms was made a crime by a 
Legislature of many years ago. The gambling halls and drinking places they 
frequented no longer are known within the new state. In brief, Arizona, under 
a new dispensation, is peaceful and law-abiding to a degree unknown in many 
other commonwealths. 



HoTV the Work of the Missions Was Taken Up — Establishment of the Diocese of Tucson 
— Entrance of the Episcopal Church — Bishop Kendrick's Good Deeds — Earl's 
Protestant Missionaries — Foundation of the Public School System — The Universit]) 
and Normal Schools. 

In 1850 New Mexico was made a vicariate apostolic of the Catholic Church 
and to it as bishop was appointed the Rev. John B. Lamy, a young Cincinnati 
priest and a native of France. Doctor Lamy had to make a trip into Slexico 
and interview the Bishop of Durango, under whose charge New Mexico had been, 
before his authority was acknowledged by the priests of the new diocese. His 
trip to Durango was made on horseback, his total journeyings before he was 
seated in office amounting to 1,900 miles. Bishop Lamy found a dozen priests 
within his new charge, most of them within Indian pueblos. To this force he 
added from time to time, mainly by recruiting priests in France. 

In 1859 the western part of New Mexico was annexed by papal decree to the 
diocese of Santa Fe and Vicar General Machebeuf was sent to make inspection 
of religious conditions. Tucson at that time had about six hundred inhabitants. 
Since the expulsion of the Franciscan fathers there had been no resident priest. 
Father IMachebeuf assumed the station himself. The old church was in ruins 
and a chapel had to be improvised. The new priest took a great interest in the 
nearby mission of San Xavier, where he found that some of the Indians still 
"could sing at mass in a very tolerable manner" and could remember the Span- 
ish prayers that had been taught years before. The same priest in 1860 per- 
formed the same work of pioneering in Denver and in 1868 there was consecrated 
as bishop. 

In November, 1863, Bishop Lamy traveled through Northern Arizona by way 
of Prescott to Los Angeles and thence returned by way of La Paz, Maricopa 
Wells and Tucson. A new parish, that of Saint Augustine, was founded at 
Tucson, administered by Rev. C. Mesea and Rev. L. Bosta, Jesuits, who in 1864 
were recalled by their superior and the territory again was left without priests. 
Two started from Santa Fe, but were turned back, for the road had effectually 
been blockaded by the Apaches. This lack was not filled until January, 1866, 
when from New Mexico started three volunteers, Fathers J. B. Salpointe, Francis 
Boucard and Patrick Birmingham. Fathers Salpointe and Boucard were estab- 
lished at Tucson and Father Birmingham at Gila City. 

September 25, 1868, the Territory of Arizona was organized as a separate 
diocese, at its head Bishop J. B. Salpointe. In 1869 it was transferred from the 


Missionary Bishop of Arizona (deceased) 


Durango see to that of Santa Fe. The bishop-elect had to postpone for a while 
his ordination trip to Europe because in the whole territory there was but one 
other priest, Rev. Francisco Jouvenceau. On liis return from Europe the bishop 
brought six French missionaries, one of them Rev. Peter Bourgarde, later his 
successor as Bishop of Tucson. In 1875 Santa Fe was erected into a metropoli- 
tan see and Bishop J. B. Lamy made its archbishop. In February, 1885, Bishop 
Salpointe was sent to Santa Fe to become coadjutor to Archbishop Lamy, to 
whose office he succeeded July 18, 1885, with the resignation of his predecessor. 
Archbishop Salpointe resigned January 7, 1894, and was succeeded by his 
coadjutor, Bishop P. L. Chapelle. Archbishop Chapelle later was transferred 
to the see of New Orleans. Successor to the Bishopric of Tucson is Rt. Rev. 
Henry R. Granjon, a strong administrator of church affairs, with keenest interest 
in the history of the church in the Southwest. 

A Catholic parish was organized in Phceuix in 1881 and the first church, of 
adobe, was erected in the same year, under the direction of Rev. Ed. Gerard, 
parish priest at Florence. The parish passed into the hands of the Franciscan 
order in 1896. On the site of the first little adobe Catholic Church in Phoenix, 
erected in 1880, there was completed early in 1915 the finest cathedral in the 
Southwest, erected at a cost approaching $200,000. It is especially a monu- 
ment to the energy of Father Novatus Benziug, a Franciscan, who for years had 
been in charge of the parish. 


It is almost impossible within the scope of a work such as this to give an 
accurate and authentic record of the early religious work of Arizona. Without 
doubt itinerant Protestant preachers of various denominations were found within 
the territory far back in the days of the passage of the California immigration. 
At Navajo Springs at the time of the inauguration of the territorial government 
was Wm. H. Reid, who offered a prayer, but who appears to have not been a 
regularly ordained clergyman. He and his wife in 1864 probably started the 
first regular religious services ever known in Northern Arizona in the gathering 
of a Sunday school. 

Baptist and Methodist missionaries had been working in New Mexico as early 
as 1850, particularly Rev. J. M. Shaw and Rev. E. G. Nicholson. A Baptist 
church was built in Socorro in 1854. The first Baptist work in Arizona was 
done by J. D. Bristow, an unlicensed preacher, on the Verde in 1875. The first 
authorized church was at Preseott in 1879, under the supervision of Rev. R. A. 
Wiudes, now a resident of Tempe. 

According to church records, the first Methodist minister to preach within 
Arizona was Rev. J. L. Dyer of the Colorado Conference, who came in 1868, and 
there is a record of the general service of Rev. G. H. Reeder of Ohio, appointed 
by Bishop Simpson in 1872 to work in the territory. In 1874 he was at Tempe. 
Rev. D. B. Wright of the New York Conference came to Ehrenberg in 1874 and 
Rev. J. J. Wingar reached Preseott in June, 1877. In 1879, a general Meth- 
odist organization was effected under the superintendency of Rev. Geo. H. 
Adams, who in September of that year found only four Protestant places of 
worship in all of Arizona. Mr. Adams was a great builder of churches. 


About 1871 in Phceuix was an organization of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South, with Alexander Groves as pastor. In 1878 under Pastor L. J. 
Hedgpeth, was built an adobe house of worship on a site that the congregation 
stiU occupies. The same denomination also was early in occupying the Prescott 

The Presbyterians in 1868 authorized the sending of a missionary into Ari- 
zona. In the following year Rev. J. M. Roberts was with the Navajos and Rev. 
Jas. A. Skinner of Stockton, Cal., was transferred to a charge at Prescott, ap- 
pointed by the American Bible Society. The church seems to have started about 
its first formal work on the advent of Rev. William ileyer, sent to Phoenix in 
September, 1878, by the Board of Home Missions. His congregation for a while 
found accommodations with the South Methodists, but in April, 1879, the mis- 
sionary and 0. P. Roberts erected a church of a novel sort, a brush arbor on the 
south side of the courthouse plaza upon a lot owned by the Methodist Church. 

One of the strongest religious forces of the state is the Arizona Sunday School 
Association, of which Rev. E. D. Raley is general secretary. It was organized 
in Phoenix j\Iarch 31, 1890, its first president Rev. F. D. Rickerson, an early 
day Baptist pastor of remarkable ability and large attainments. 

The Young Men's Christian Association for years has had strong branches, 
with well-equipped homes in Bisbee, Douglas, Phoenix and Tuscon. Bisbee, 
Phoenix and Tucson have branches of the Y'oung Women 's Christian Association. 


Possibly the first Episcopal clergj'man to visit Arizona was Bishop 0. W. Whit- 
aker. Though he had been appointed missionary bishop for Nevada and Arizona in 
1868, he waited till 1874 before visiting the southern part of his diocese, taking 
two months for a trip from Virginia City to Tucson, Florence, Phoenix and Pres- 
cott. On his suggestion, the missionary jurisdiction of New Slexico and Arizona 
was created at the general conference of the same year and Rev. Wm. F. Adams 
from Louisiana was created its first bishop. He never came West and resigned 
in 1877. A similar disinclination was shown by his successor, Rev. D. B. Knick- 
erbacker, of Minneapolis. For the three years following Arizona was under the 
charge of Bishop Spaulding, of Colorado. In 1880 there was a church report 
from Rev. Wm. H. Hill, of California, who visited the territory, where he found 
Phoenix a pleasing place, Tucson an important town and Tombstone a conden- 
sation of wickedness. It is probable that the establishment of the Episcopal 
Church in Arizona is really due to ^Irs. Jessie Benton Fremont, wife of the 
governor, who, in 1879, wrote Bishop Spaulding suggesting that Prescott might 
support a clergyman of the faith. Tucson she considered rather unavailable 
because of its large Mexican population, while the pretensions of Phoenix were 
put aside as the town "recently had been included in an Indian reservation," 
developing a hitherto unsuspected historical lapse. November 21, 1880, Rev. 
Geo. K. Dunlop was consecrated bishop for New ]Mexico and Arizona, trans- 
ferred from Kirkwood, Missouri. He found in Arizona "not a church building, 
not a piece of property, not an organized congregation, not a elerg>'man and 
only forty communicants who had in any way reported." Bishop Dunlop died 
March 12, 1888, leaving church buildings at Tombstone and Phoenix and a con- 

1 \j^ 




gregation also at Tucson. Pkoenix, headed by J. W. Pearson, had 176 

Then, with appointment date from January 18, 1889, came Bishop John 
Mills Kendrick, held in affectionate remembrance as veritably one of the saints 
of the Southwest. His diocese extended eastward from the Colorado River, 
including Arizona and New Mexico and Texas west of the Pecos. Not only did 
he establish congregations in all the largest settlements of the two territories, 
but he branched out among 35,000 Indians, one of his works being the establish- 
ment of an Indian hospital on the Navajo reservation near Fort Defiance. 
Bishop Kendrick had been a soldier in his youth. He served as first lieutenant 
and adjutant of the Thirty-third Ohio Infantry, later being promoted to be 
captain and assistant adjutant-general of volunteers. Yet he was not a militant 
sort of Christian. He was one who went up and down his laud spreading confi- 
dence in his faith by gentle words and good deeds. It is probable that a sweeter 
character never lived nor one of greater compassion for the frailties of mankind. 
By his clergy and his congregations he was regarded as little less than a saint and 
his memory will long endure. In 1911, with advancing load of years and of 
religious cares, the diocese was divided. Bishop Kendrick taking the New Mexi- 
can side. He died in Pasadena, Cal., December 16, 1911. Burial was at Phoenix. 

When the diocese was divided, Arizona was given to Bishop Julius W. At- 
wood, formerly of Ohio, who had served as archdeacon and as rector of Trinity 
Church, Phoenix. Dr. Atwood, a ripe scholar and a religious executive of excep- 
tional force, already has his monument in Saint Luke's home, near Phoenix, a 
church institution for the treatment of tuberculosis. He has made progress also 
on the erection of a cathedral in the city of his episcopal residence. 


The first schools of the Southwest were those of the Catholic Church. At 
Santa Fe in 1852 was established a girls' school taught by four sisters of the 
society of "The Friends of Mary at the Cross." In 1859, also at Santa Fe, the 
order of Christian Brothers started a boys' school. One of Colonel Poston's 
first acts was to help in the establishment of a Catholic school at Tucson or San 
Xavier, especially for the Indians, but the institution had short life. In 1866 
a Catholic school was started in Tucson imder a teacher named Vincent and in 
1870 the Sisters of St. Joseph there organized a girls' school and erected a 
building, for which the lumber was brought from the Huachuca Mountains by 
wagon. A number of Arizona communities now have large parish schools. 

One of the important educational institutions of the state is St. Joseph's 
Academy at Thatcher, a Mormon institution with an attendance of about three 
hundred. A handsome new building for the use of the school was dedicated 
December 15, 1911. A similar church academy is maintained at St. Johns. 

Schools were slow in coming to Arizona, probably because of the absence of 
children other than Mexicans. Few of the pioneers brought families into the 
territory. It is probable that most of the pioneers simply had an idea, like the 
first California adventurers, of "making their pile" and going "home." Upon 
the groundwork they laid, however, was established a more permanent civiliza- 
tion, within which schools were a necessity. The First Territorial Legislature 


passed a school code, but there seems to have been only one school, a small private 
one in Prescott, and that maintained largely by private subscription. 

The educational system of Arizona had its beginning January 1, 1865, on 
which date became effective an act of the First Legislative Assembly that set 
aside $500 for the benefit of a public school in Tucson "in which the English 
language shall form a part of the daily instruction" and $250 each to Prescott, 
La Paz and Mojave, in each case conditioned upon the I'aising of a similar sum 
by the residents of the locality affected. An additional $250 was appropriated 
and donated to the Mexican school at San Xavier del Bae for the purpose of 
purchasing books of instruction, stationery, and furniture. A more permanent 
method of public school support was a direction to the treasurers of the different 
counties to pay over to the county commissioners all moneys that might accrue 
from licenses and not otherwise appropriated to be used as a fund for the 
benefit of such public schools. 

The creation of school districts was effected by the Legislature of 1868, which 
gave the county boards of supervisors power to organize such districts in any 
village with a resident population of not less than 100 and covering an extent of 
countiy of not more than four square miles. For support of the schools of such 
districts should be levied a tax of not more than one-half of 1 per cent on the 
assessed value of all its taxable property. 

Governor Safford in 1871, referring to a school census of 1,923 children, made 
declaration that in that year Arizona had not a single public school, though the 
school code provided county school superintenuents and a territorial board of 
education. Safford became interested in pushing education and soon there were 
schools in every community of any size. 

Augustus Brichta, a pioneer Arizonan, appears to have made the first at- 
tempt in the teaching of a public school in Tucson in the spring of 1869, with 
fifty-five pupils, all boys. He had good backing in Wm. S. Oury, John B. Allen 
and W. W. Williams. In 1871, under L. C. Hughes, county superintendent of 
schools, with Samuel Hughes, W. F. Scott and W. C. Davis as trustees, John A. 
Spring opened a school on the corner of McCormick and Meyer streets, with an 
enrollment that reached 138, all boys, mainly Mexican in parentage. The same 
year the Sisters of St. Joseph started a denominational school, especially for the 
benefit of girls. Another girls' school was started in 1872 by Mrs. L. C. Hughes 
and in 1873 regular school sessions were started in Tucson, with Miss Harriet 
Bolton and Miss Maria Wakefield as teachers. The former became Mrs. John 
Wasson and the latter Mrs. E. N. Pish. There was a regular school building, a 
long adobe structure on North Congress Street in 1874, when the trustees were 
R. N. Leatherwood, Samuel Hughes and Estevan Ochoa. The principal study 
was the English language, for Spanish was the tongue of the community. 

Miss Mary E. Post, now an honored resident of Yuma, opened a public school 
at Elirenberg in 1872. About this time a graded school was opened at Prescott. 

Phnenix had its first public school September 5, 1872, the teacher J. D. Daroche 
and the trustees J. D. Rumberg, W. A. Hancock and J. P. Osborne, in the 
court room on the present First Avenue, just south of Washington. Later there 
was a permanent school building, on North Center Street, a little adobe, where 
the teacher was Miss Nellie Shaver, later Mrs. J. Y. T. Smith. In 1879 the 




teacher was R. L. Long. He had an assistant teacher in Mrs. Beverly Cox, whose 
primary class was accommodated in the South Methodist Church. 

In the Legislature of 1875, at Tucson, there was much discussion concerning 
a possible division of the public school funds with the Catholic parochial schools. 
Already there had been several specific appropriations toward the support of 
Catholic schools in Tucson, where the church had been an educational pioneer. 
But any suggestion for legislative recognition of Catholic schools received bitter 
opposition. To combat this, Chief Justice Edmund F. Dunne delivered an ad- 
dress, pro-Catholic, in the hall of the House of Representatives, soon after the 
holding of a ball, whereat there had been raised a considerable sum to be ex- 
pended in local education. The bill dividing the funds with the church came 
up in the council a few days later and came within one vote of passing. 

In 1879 Colonel Hodge made a record of all the schools of the territory. 
There were public schools at Yuma and Ehrenberg, Mineral Park, Cerbat, Pres- 
cott, "Williamson VaUey, Verde, Walnut Creek, "Walnut Grove, Chino "Valley, 
Kirkland Valley, Peeples' Valley, "Wickenburg, Phoenix, Florence, Tucson, Tres 
Alamos (on the San Pedro), Safford, and a few other points. There were Cath- 
olic schools at Y^uma and Tucson and Indian schools had been established by the 
Government at San Carlos and Sacaton. 

In 1882 there were ninety-eight school districts, with over 10,000 pupils and 
the value of school property was given as $116,750. In 1883, under still more 
definite legislative provisions, M. H. Sherman, who had been principal of the 
schools at Prescott, was elected territorial superintendent of schools and later 
drafted a short code of school laws. The election of a territorial superintendent 
was in reality a violation of the governor's prerogatives, but continued for a 
number of years thereafter, unchallenged. Superintendent Sherman, who also 
served as adjutant-general and thereby gained a military title, later became one 
of the millionaires of Southern California. 

A still more amplified school code was enacted in 1885. It was prepared by 
R. L. Long, who had been in charge of the schools at Phoenix and who in the year 
mentioned started a term of service as territorial superintendent. 

The growth of Arizona's common school system may be indicated by con- 
trasting with the early allotments the present expenditures for primary and 
grammar school maintenance, which this year will amount to the enormous sum 
of $2,674,930, this in addition to $1,057,813 that will go to the university and 
normal schools and for vocational training. This is not all by any means, merely 
constituting the general allotments. 


The university was established at Tucson by the Legislature of 1885, in 
pursuance of a legislative distribution of spoils in which there was little con- 
sideration of the probable value of such an institution. At the same time Tempe 
was given a normal school and Phoenix the insane as.ylum, while Prescott retained 
the capital. Under the authority of a congressional act of four years before, 
School Superintendent M. H. Sherman selected seventy-two sections of land in 
the forested area of the MogoUon plateau, to be preserved for the benefit of the 
university. A tract of forty acres was donated by B. C. Parker, E. B. Giflford 
and W. S. Reid for the university site. 


The committee that secured the university showed wisdom iu this choice of 
state institutions, for from the Morrill Agricultural College fund and the Hatch 
Agricultural Experiment fund from the fii-st were available about $37,000 an- 
nual income, an income from national sources that has increased with the 
years. The University Board of Regents was organized in November, 1886, with 
Dr. J. C. Handy as chancellor, C. M. Strauss as secretary and M. C. Samaniego 
as treasurer. The original building, on which construction was started the 
following spring, cost about $32,000. 

Theoretically the school was started in July, 1889, with the appointment of 
Selim M. Franklin, a Tucson attorney, as professor of agriculture and director 
of experiment stations, in order to comply with the national laws and save the 
appropriation. The first regular term of the university, beginning October 1, 
1891, ended in the following June. Dr. Theo. B. Comstock was the first ap- 
pointed president after the administrative consolidation of the colleges of agri- 
culture and mines. At the head of the latter was Prof. Wm. P. Blake, who had 
won distinction as a geologist as early as 1854. Prof. F. A. Gulley headed the 
agricultural college. Dr. Comstock resigned during the Hughes administration 
and was succeeded by M. M. Parker, who was removed in 1902. 

Dr. K. C. Babcoek, late of the Univei-sity of California, was made president 
in the fall of 1903. Dr. Babcoek in 1910 accepted an appointment in the Bureau 
of Education of the Interior Department and departed for his new field of labor 
liearing a gold loving cup as a testimonial of the esteem of the students of the 
institution. He was succeeded, May 1, 1911, by Dr. Arthur H. Wilde, from the 
department of history of the Northwestern University. Ad interim, the admin- 
istration of the university had been under Dr. A. E. Douglass, professor of 
physics and astronomy. President A. H. Wilde resigned in May, 1914, and 
acceptance was made effective in the following September. He was succeeded 
by Dr. R. B. Von KleinSmid, from Depauw University, Indiana, where he had 
been head of the department of education and psychology. 


The Normal School of Arizona at Tempe started from an idea in the mind 
of Chas. Trumbull Hayden, ' ' Don Carlos, "the " Father of Tempe. ' ' A creating 
act passed the Legislature March 10, 1885, pushed by Assemblyman J. S. 
Armstrong. The first building, of which illustration is here given, was a low 
structure of four rooms, costing $6,500, placed in the middle of a donated tract 
of twenty acres. The first principal, and only paid teacher, was Hiram B. 
Farmer, who came to the position from the principalship of the Prescott schools. 
Incidentally, the present head of the school, A. J. Matthews, was taken from the 
same place. Among the principals of the intervening years, especially are to be 
mentioned R. L. Long, twice superintendent of public instruction ; D. A. Reed, 
who had been at the head of the PhcBnix schools; and Dr. James McNaughton. 
For years the school seemed to have little success, with only a small output of 
teachers. Since then it has been firmly established and has turned out hundreds 
of graduates, exceptionally well qualified to take charge of schools within the 
territory and state. The faculty now numbers nearly thirty and the buildings 
liave grown from the single one-storied stinicture to a dozen, several of them 
expensive, and all equipped according to the most modem standards. 


The establishmeut of the Northern Arizona Normal School at Flagstaff was 
due to a sequence of changing ideas rather than to any demand for an additional 
educational institution. The main building was erected under a legislative 
appropriation of $3&,000 for the establishment of a branch insane asylum, on 
ground donated by the Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Company. In 1897 an addi- 
tional appropriation was made of $18,000. Then the people of Flagstaff became 
rather dubious concerning the near prospect of such an institution in their 
midst, so in a succeeding Legislature a switch was made and the designation of 
the institution was changed. This time it was to be a reform school and within 
the handsome brown stone building a start was made toward the construction of 
a number of cell-like rooms. Still again there was local doubt concerning the 
advisability of bringing into the community a flock of incorrigible boys and 
there was a happy thought that the building might be utilized as a normal 
school. This change was made in the Legislature of 1899, which turned the 
Flagstaff building over to the Board of Education of the Normal School of 
Arizona. The buildings were fitted up for school purposes and the school itself 
was opened September 11, 1899, with a faculty of only two teachers, A. N. Taylor 
and Miss Fannie Bury. The school today has a faculty of sixteen, led by R. H. 
H. Blome, an educator of large ability, transferred to the position of principal 
from head of the psychology department in the Normal School at Tempe. 



Beginnings of Arizona Journalism al Tubac and Fort Whipple — Tree Journalistic Duels 
thai Were Bloodless — How Editor Bagg Evened an Old Score — Newspapers Knomn 
in Every Section — Hopes and Ideals of the Frontier Scribes. 

The first printing press in the Southwest was brought to Taos and Santa Pe 
from Mexico in 1834, and there is extant one of its first impressions, a proclama- 
tion of Governor Perez, dated June 26, 1835. Probably from this same press was 
printed the first newspaper of New Mexico or Arizona, El Crepusculo (The 
Dawn), published by Padre Martinez in Taos. It had a life of only four weekly 
numbers, of which the first was printed November 29, 1835. There appears to 
have been no very lively demand for news in those days. In 1840 in Santa Pe 
and for three years thereafter was published an official paper, La Verdad (The 
Truth). It was succeeded in 1845 by El Rayo de Nuevo Mejico. 

The Santa Fe Republican made its first appearance September 4, 1847, with 
its text divided between English and Spanish. It was published by Hovey & 
Davies, with G. R. Gibson as editor. . December 1, 1849, Davies and Jones started 
the New Mexican, but the present publication of that name dates back only to 
January 22, 1863, when it was founded by Charles Leib. It became a daily as 
far back as 1868. Sonora had a periodical publication as far back as 1850. It 
was La Sonoriense, published at Ures, especially for printing official announce- 


Arizona's first newspaper was The Weekly Arizonian, the initial issue prob- 
ably in March, 1859, for the editor of this history has the eighteenth number, 
printed June 30. It was a decidedly neat four-paged paper, four columns to 
the page, reading matter and advertisements set in small type, very well dis- 
played, considering the period and the remote location. In the issue at hand, a 
well-written editorial declares unfeasible the plan for a separate territorial 
government for Arizona, as called for by a convention held at Mesilla on June 
19. It was frankly stated that a territory such as proposed would be under 
the control of the Mexicans, a situation far from agreeable. 

One of the advertisements called for the return of a Mexican peon, who 
had run away from his employers, Hoppin & Appel of Tubac. In the news 
columns was much of interest: A party from Tucson had returned after explor- 
ing the Pinal Mountain region, where two of the expedition had died from eat- 
ing wild parsnip. A soldier at Fort Buchanan had been drummed out of the 

On left, office of Tubac Arizoiiian, 1S59 The Arizona Jliner's first omco, 1864 

Prescott's Pioneer Journal 

OfTiee of the Phoenix Semi-Weekly Herald, 1879 



service after having been whipped, having had his head shaved and having been 
branded with a red-hot iron with the letter "D, " standing for desei-ter. The 
people of Tubac, following the killing by Mexicans of John Ware, had organized 
their own civil government, with James Caruthers as justice of the peace. The 
first case was that of a IMexican who on conviction of theft was given fifteen 
lashes at the hands of the new constable, N. Van Alstine. 

The printing material, including a hand press, was bought in Cincinnati and 
was brought in by way of Guaymas. The paper was owned by the Salero Mining 
Company, but the plant was in charge of the Wrightson brothers, with whom 
was associated Col. Ed. Cross, who appears to have done much of the editorial 
work. Colonel Poston was, at least, a valued contributor and is understood to 
have written much of the editorial matter at one time or another. 

Cross, a New England man, had political opinions very much at variance 
with those of Sylvester Mowry, a local mining magnate, and the two soon clashed, 
after Mowry had been attacked violently in the editorial columns of the Ari- 
zonian. So Cross was sent a challenge, which was accepted promptly, with 
rifles as weapons. Mowry 's second was none other than Bill Oury of Tucson, 
while J. W. Donaldson acted for Cross. The toss was won by Cross and Mowry 
was placed with the sun shining in his face. Both missed at the first fire. At 
the second fire Cross missed and Mowry 's rifle failed to explode. Mowry then, 
as was his right, coolly reprimed his weapon and raising it to his shoulder aimed 
it at his opponent, who stood calmly with his arms folded, awaiting what seemed 
inevitable death. This continued for possibly half a minute, when Mowry raised 
the muzzle of his weapon and fired it into the air. Thereafter, it is told that the 
pair became sworn friends. Mowry soon after assured himself against hostile 
newspaper criticisms by purchasing the Arizonian. 

There is a tale, here repeated without any guarantee of its truth, to the 
effect that two of the Tubac printers, Jack Sims and George Smithson, were 
charged with complicity in a stage robbery, that Smithson was killed while 
resisting arrest and that Sims was discharged after an able defense by Grant 

According to Sam Hughes, the Arizonian ended its career in Tubae in 1860 
(Bancroft makes it in the following year) and the paper was brought to Tucson. 
J. Howard Mills is said to have edited it for a while after the change, possibly 
representing Mowry 's friend, "W. S. Oury. S. R. DeLong supplements the story 
by telling how the plant was utilized for a few weeks by a traveling printer 
named Pearce, who proved over-bibulous. Then DeLong bought the material 
and published the Arizonian himself. L. C. Hughes tried to buy the paper, but 
found that it was for sale to anyone except L. C. Hughes. 

The Arizonian 's press is now in Tucson, a sacred relic in the rooms of the 
Arizona Pioneer Society, after service in handling the first issue of the Tucson 
Citizen, utilization on the Tucson Star and Dos Repiiblicas and in the printing 
of the first and many subsequent copies of the Nugget, Tombstone camp's first 
paper. It was given to the Pioneer Society by William Hattich of the Tomb- 
stone Epitaph when he abandoned the Arizona newspaper field in August, 1913. 

According to some correspondence in the Arizona Republican, the first news- 
paper in northern Arizona was the Mojave Dog Star, which came off the press 
October 1, 1859. The editors and proprietors were Montgomery, Peters and 


Johns. Montgomery stands for Montgomery Bryant who afterward was a 
colonel in the regular army; Peters otherwise was known as Peter R. Brady, 
who at the time was post trader at Fort Mojave, and Johns was Dr. John J. 
Milhau, an army surgeon. The paper was issued more for pastime than other- 
wise, its ostensible object being to correct the free love tendencies of the Mojave 


The next newspaper came with the territorial government, the material 
brought overland, purchased bj' Governor Goodwin and Secretary McCormick. 
This material included a Eamage press, understood to have been made in Phila- 
delphia as early as 1825, and in use in Prescott as late as 1880. It was in the 
big fire of 1900. Its bed was recovered, however, and lately was in use as an im- 
posing stone in one of the Prescott printing ofiSces. The first issue of the Arizona 
Miner came out March 9, 1864, and the very first copy that came from the 
press still is preserved. The nominal editor was Tisdale A. Hand, though it is 
understood that "Dick" McCormick was responsible for much of the editorial 
matter. The paper's date line told of its publication at Fort Whipple, which 
then was at Postle's ranch, near the later better-known Banghart place, and 
near the present railroad station of Del Rio. As was the fashion of the times, 
it had a motto, "The Gold of that Laud is Good." It was a neat little sheet, 
with four columns to the page. Advertising occupied only a single column. 
The news mainly was of Indian depredations, in which the pluck and audacity 
of the Pinal Apaches made them foes much to be feared. 

When the military camp was moved to Prescott, the newspaper came also. 
Its first issue in Prescott, in June, 1864, was with the press set up between two 
log walls, without a roof, on the western side of the plaza. Soon thereafter 
Hand was succeeded by B. A. Bentley. 

The JMiner's lineal successor still is in existence, the Daily Journal-Miner, 
a consolidation of two papers, effected in August, 1885. For years it has been 
under the management of J. W. Milnes. 

Of the many who were associated with the publication of the sheet in any- 
thing like pioneer times, only two survive, A. F. Banta, who was employed in 
1864, and J. C. Martin, who was editor after the consolidation. Some of the 
names of the departed ones are bright in history, including John H. Marion, 
who in years thereafter published the Prescott Coui'ier with B. H. Weaver. 
Hand and Meecham, the earliest editors, are dead, the latter from wounds re- 
ceived in an Indian fight in Copper Basin. Col. H. A. Bigelow and "Long 
Tom" Butler, later territorial treasurer, have passed away. Chas. W. Beach, 
for many years owner of the sheet, was assassinated near Prescott in 1889. One 
of his successors, S. N. Holmes, was burned to death in the Sherman House fire 
in Prescott. "Buckey" O'Neill died at the head of his troop in Cuba, during 
the Spanish war. 

The claim of the Journal-]\Iiner to lineal succession from the original Miner 
has been disputed by E. E. Rogers, editor of the Prescott Courier, himself suc- 
cessor to the chair of John IMarion. 

Indicating the vicissitudes of early-day journalism, Banta has a story, in 
which the leading characters are Editor Hand and a desperado, Lou Thrift, 

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who had come from New Mexico with the Peck party and who, still later, 
was killed, almost accidentally by an inoffensive fellow named Jay, whom he 
had been bullying. Jay, in turn, met a violent death, killed by Apaches in the 
Big Bug district. The Hand story follows: 

Thrift was a native of Virginia and an ardent sympathizer of the southern cause, and 
was likely to grossJy insult anyone "wearing the blue." One day at dinner in the Prescott 
House, early in the summer of 1S64, he had a dispute with Tisdale E. Hand, the nominal 
editor of the Arizona Miner, over some incident of the war then in progress between the states. 
The two sat at opposite sides of the table, and in the dispute Hand was so indiscreet as to call 
Thrift a liar. At first Thrift was more astonished than otherwise; soon recovering himself 
he proposed to settle the matter there and then with "Colonel Colt" as arbiter. To this 
Hand demurred and said he was "unarmed and never carried a pietol. " Thrift replied, "Such 
cowardly curs as you are ready to shoot off their mouths and then hide behind the law." 
Thrift carried two six-shooteis; drawing one, he cocked the gun and placed it beside Hand's 
plate, remarking at the same time, "Now you are armed; cut loose." Hand w-as badly 
frightened and dared not touch the gun; but begged Thrift not to shoot him, and said, "Mr. 
Thrilt, you have the advantage and could kill me before I made a move." By this time Thrift 
was simply lolling with rage; jumping up, leaving his pistol on the table. Thrift stepped back 
to the wall some distance away; he hissed through his teeth, "Now, you white-livered scoundrel, 
you have the advantage." Notwithstanding the cocked gun lying beside his plate Hand 
very prudently declined to do any shooting. He lacked the nerve, even with all the advantage 
Thrift gave him. Had he attempted to shoot and had shot, unless the shot was suddenly fatal 
ThriJ t would surely have killed him. Thrift picked up his gun and made a move to kill Hand ; 
but instead, he slowly returned the gun into the scabbard, remarking as to himself, "No 
credit to kill a cur like that. ' ' Shortly after this Mr. Hand left the country for the East. 


Following the brief career of the Arizonian in Tucson, the Arizona Citizen 
was established October 15, 1870, by John Wasson, surveyor general of the 
territory, and edited by W. W. Hayward. For a while in that year there were 
only two other Arizona newspapers, namely, the Miner and the Enterprise, 
both published in Prescott. Capt. John P. Clum, fresh from experiences as 
an Indian agent, bought the Citizen from Wasson in 1877. The following year 
he moved it to Florence where official patronage could be commanded through 
the land office, but it was back again in Tucson soon. "Wasson established the 
Daily Citizen in 1879, selljng out in 1880 to go to Tombstone. For many years 
prior to 1901 the Citizen was edited by Herbert Brown, now deceased, who left 
a name fully as notable for natural history researches as for editorial work. 
Brown, one of the mildest mannered of men, for a term served as superintendent 
of the state penitentiary at Yuma. Wasson also is dead, passing away only a 
few years ago in Pomona, Cal. The Tucson Citizen for several years was pub- 
lished by O'Brien Moore, a man of national reputation as a journalist and long 
the representative of large newspapers in the press galleries of Congress. He 
had made the Citizen a forceful exponent of democratic principles till the date 
of his death, late in 1909. Purchasers in 1910, returning the sheet to the 
republican ranks, were James T. Williams, former member of the United States 
Civil Service Commission, and Allen B. Jayne, the latter an Arizona journalist, 
who has retained management of the paper to the date of this writing. 

The first daily paper in Arizona, The Bulletin, was started in Tucson in 
March, 1877, by Tully & Hughes, with only four columns to each of its four 
pages. It prided itself on its telegraphic service, that came, when the wires 


were not down, across the desert from San Diego. That was a fearful and 
wonderful telegraph line, strung even on giant cactus, its wires frequently 
utilised by unfeeling teamsters for wagon repairs. The Bulletin lasted only a 
month or so, when it was succeeded by the Tri-Weekly Star, later a daily, and 
edited by Louis C. Hughes, for a while attorney general of Arizona and, during 
the second Cleveland administration, governor of the territory. Attached to the 
Star edited by Charles H. TuUy, was a Spanish publication, Las Dos Republicas. 
The Star was sold to W. B. Kelly in July, 1907, by Governor Hughes, who told 
in his last editorial that only once in thirty years liad an issue been missed and 
only thrice had there been failure to publish a telegraphic report. 

It is notable that the earliest newspapers of Tucson are also the last. Not 
less than twelve daily and ten weekly newspapers have died in the old pueblo. 
The most notable of the lot was the Morning Journal, published in 1881, the 
first seven-day dail.y ever issued in Arizona. 


In January, 1878, Phoenix was given its first newspaper, the Salt River 
Valley Herald, a weekly edited by Chas. E. McClintock and owned by him, 
Territorial Secretary J. J. Gosper and C. W. Beach. McClintock furnished 
the experience, Gosper a note of hand and Beach some printing material. All 
three are dead, Gosper dying a few years ago in dire poverty, in Los Angeles. 
In 1879 the name of the publication was changed to the Phcenix Herald, and it 
was made a semi-weekly. In the fall of the same year was commenced publica- 
tion of a daily. ilcClintock died in the summer of 1881. About a year later 
N. A. IMorford, later territorial secretary, secured control and managed the 
paper until its consolidation with the Republican in May, 1899. 

Among the various Phoenix newspapers that have been born only to soon 
pass away, one of the earliest and one of the most interesting was the Weekly 
Expositor, moved up from Yuma in 1879 by Judge Jas. A. Reilly. The paper 
for a while was issued daily. Reilly was an early-day iconoclast, who knew 
well how to write interestingly in the vernacular of the time. He was a charac- 
ter unique even in the Southwest. When he first struck Arizona his living was 
earned by cutting wood on the Colorado banks for the river steamboats. He 
had managed to study a little law at Yuma. In Phoenix he printed his thoughts 
too freely and thus lost the democratic county printing. His income cut off, he 
left for Tombstone during the early days of the camp, where his legal pickings 
were not very profitable before he became attorney for Martin Costello. Wher- 
ever an,y lack of legal training presented itself, he had a shrewd native wit that 
carried him far. There is an old story to the effect that he was visited by a 
young man who asked the cost of admission to the bar, under Reilly 's instruc- 
tion. Reilly gravely considered the matter for a moment and answered : "Well, 
that will be according to the amount of laaw you want to know. Now, if you 
■want to know as much laaw as, we'll say, ]\Iark Smith, it'll cost you about tin 
dollars ; if you want to know as much laaw as Allen English, you will have to 
raise it to about twinty dollars; but, me son, if you want to know as much laaw 
as I do it '11 cost you wan hundred dollars. ' ' 

The daily Arizona Gazette was founded in 1880, by Chas. C. and H. H. 
McNeil, two printers from San Jose, California. The first editor was Wm. 0. 


O'Neill. July 4, 1887, the Gazette was sold by H. H. McNeil to several South- 
ern Arizona la^vyers and John 0. Dunbar of Tombstone. This paper still covers 
the evening field in Phosnix, after years of vicissitudes and of many changes of 
ownership and of policy, now being in the democratic column. It is owned by 
Chas. H. Akers, former territorial secretary, and H. A. Tritle, son of former 
Governor Tritle. Dunbar still remains in the harness, publishing a weekly that 
bears his own name and that deals particularly with political criticism. 

The Arizona Republican was started as a seven-day daily May 19, 1890. Its 
manager was Ed. S. Gill, its editor, Ghas. 0. Ziegenfuss, a newspaper man of 
long experience and large ability. Ziegenfuss, a victim of his own convivial 
habits, after having served in editorial capacities on a number of the leading 
newspapers of America, finally died in San Francisco by the gas route. The 
Republican was started as an organ, pure and simple. Its stockholders were 
Governor Wolfley and the officials of the territorial government, each assessed 
to make up a monthly deficit in income. The first year of its publication cost 
the stockholders not less than $25,000, and the only possible return was their 
gratification in the issuance of what was undoubtedly a paper far ahead of the 
time, with the first full Associated Press report ever taken in Arizona. Ziegen- 
fuss and Gill were succeeded by W. L. Vail, and he by T. J. Wolfley, the last 
a Saint Joseph, Mo., newspaper man. In 1898 the paper was bought by Frank 
jr. Murphy of Prescott and returned again to high value from a newspaper 
standpoint, under charge of C. C. Randolph, a Washington journalist. After 
several years of success, Randolph sold his interest to former State Auditor 
Geo. W. Vickers, who secured the services of Sims Ely as editor. Mr. Ely 
remained in that capacity till 1905. September 1, 1909, the Republican was 
purchased by Mr. Ely and S. W. Higley, a former railroad man. In the mean- 
time Mr. Ely had served as private secretary to Governor Kibbey, as territoiial 
auditor and as chairman of the Arizona Railway Commission. In October, 1912, 
the journal passed to the ownership of a company headed by Dwight B. Heard 
and its policies were changed to conform to Mr. Heard's progressive ideas. For 
the greater part of the Republican's history it has profited by the services of 
J. W. Spear, who latterly has occupied the editor's chair. 


Tombstone had its first newspaper, the Nugget, in the fall of 1879, A. E. Fay 
and Thomas Tully bringing from Tucson a printing outfit of most primitive 
sort, including the historic hand press on which had been printed the Tubac 

May 1, 1880, was the date of the first issuance of the Tombstone Epitaph, 
founded by John C. Clum, postmaster and mayor of the town, Chas. D. Reppy 
and Thos. R. Sorin. There are two versions of the manner in which the paper 
received its name. One is that it was suggested by John Hays Hammond, the 
celebrated mining engineer, at a banquet given at the Can Can restaurant. The 
other is that while on the incoming stage, Clura asked his fellow travelers to 
make a suggestion for the name of the paper he was about to start. One of the 
passengers was Ed. Schieffelin. From him came the sage observation, "Well, 
I christened the district Tombstone ; yon should have no trouble in furnishing 
the Epitaph." 


The early days of Tombstone journalism decidedly were not monotonous ones. 
The camp was "wide open" and human life and money both were held in little 
account. Good items and good fellowship were on tap everywhere. Just as 
Virginia City took the cream of west coast newspaper men, so Tombstone 
skimmed to itself the brightest minds of the Southwest. Some of the writers 
of the pioneer days of the camp were Pat Hamilton, Harry Brook, John 0. 
Dunbar, Sam Purdy, Harry "Wood, Dick Rule, Wm. 0. O'Neill and O'Brien 
Moore, men who knew what was news and how to write it well. 

Pat Hamilton, of more than local fame as a writer, was editor of the Inde- 
pendent. Sam Purdy, who later controlled the political destinies of Yuma 
County, edited the Epitaph. It was the habit of the day for editors to slam 
each other editorially on every possible occasion. Hamilton and Purdy, with 
somewhat more than ordinary ability on either side, did the ordinary thing 
in such extraordinary fashion that a personal encounter at last seemed inev- 
itable. So in the fall of 1882 a duel formally was arranged between them. Ned 
MacGowan for Hamilton and Billie Milliken for Purdy arranged all details, 
proceeding solemnly on the basis of procedure secured by them in a study of 
Lever's novels. Dr. George Goodfellow, who died only a few years ago, chief 
of the Southern Pacific surgical staff, and Dr. McSwegan were official surgeons. 
The party started out with ostentatious secrecy. Everyone knew all about it 
and bets promptly were offered in gambling saloons concerning the one or the 
other to be brought back feet foremost. The sad cortege reached a point in the 
San Pedro Valley a little below Hereford, where it was determined to start the 
carnage. A number of stories came back about the subsequent proceedings. It 
would appear that neither of the principals was very keen and that the seconds 
themselves were far from bloodthirsty. The seconds went to the extreme of 
pacing off the ground, then got in such a row over the position of the principals 
and the selection of pistols that they finally had to declare the whole affair 
"off" and the two parties made their way back to Tombstone by night. Next 
day they were forced to endure chaffing of the roughest sort. 

Tombstone, at the date of this writing, has only one newspaper, the Daily 
Prospector, which has the Epitaph as its weekly issue. More than twenty years 
ago the Prospector passed into the unwilling hands of a local merchant, S. C. 
Bagg. Following the habit of the country, he was most outspoken on public 
matters and became adjudged in contempt of court for remarks passed upon 
a decision of District Judge W. H. Barnes. Bagg was fined $500 and committed 
to jail in default of payment. The sheriff being a good friend of his, Bagg had 
his cell nicely fitted up as an office and from it conducted the affairs of the 
newspaper and the store, his imprisonment made lighter by the sympathy of 
friends. He was well able to pay the fine, but was obstinate and preferred to 
be a martyr. Finally, the pleadings of his friends proving unavailing, they 
took up a subscription among themselves, paid the fine, and, presenting a legal 
release to the sheriff, dragged Bagg out of the cell and threw him into the street, 
the jail door being locked behind him against his indignant protests. 

A few years thereafter, Barnes was attorney for the Phoenix Gazette and 
its managers in a libel suit brought before Barnes' successor, Judge R. E. Sloan, 
in the District Court at Tucson. Barnes, seeking a change of venue, had his 
clients sign an attack upon the probity of the court. The signers were hailed 



before the bar and asked why they should not be committed for flagrant con- 
tempt of court. Barnes' authorship of the afSdavit then developing, he and 
Editor Dunbar were ordered to jail, Judge Sloan sorrowfully commenting on 
the necessity of having to maintain the dignity of his court when attacked by his 
predecessor in office. Judge Barnes went through the jail doors in a state 
approximating mental collapse. Sympathy and stimulants were extended by 
local partisans, however, and the judge cheered up to some extent. A messenger 
boy arrived with a telegram. Barnes opened it with a flourish, exclaiming: 
' ' Ha, Ha ! Friends from afar have heard of this outrage. ' ' The telegram, held 
out, was read by a half-dozen at once. It was from Tombstone, Arizona: 

"Judge W. H. Barnes, County Jail, Tucson, Arizona. 

"Are you there, Moriarty? (Signed) S. C. Bagg." 

For twenty years, until August, 1913, the Prospector and Epitaph were 
managed by William Hattich, the date of his retirement being the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the Epitaph's publication. 


Possibly the most distinctive type of southwestern journalism was repre- 
sented by Judge Aaron H. Hackney, of beloved memory, who, on May 2, 1878, 
issued the first number of the Silver Belt, Globe's first newspaper. With him 
for a month or so was associated A. H. Morehead. Hackney had had prior 
experience in the business, in Silver City, New Mexico, where he had bought a 
small weekly. Not satisfied with the name of the Silver City sheet, he changed 
it to "The Herald." No large type being available, the Judge had the new 
heading carved on a block of wood he sawed from a well-seasoned ox yoke. He 
had gone to New Mexico in 1857, after serving as a writer for the old Missouri 
Republican. He went to Silver City when it had but a single house, and it was 
he who gave the town and the new County of Grant their names. From Silver 
City he brought a small printing outfit, including a foot-power press on which 
the paper laboriously could be printed, one page at a time. His only absence 
from Globe was a trip to Tucson in 1882. From his window he saw the coming 
of the railroad, but he never visited the depot. After several years of paralysis 
that failed to more than slow down his mental activity. Judge Hackney died 
December 2, 1899. He was one of the most interesting of characters, a veritable 
father in the community, though confined for many years to his chair, by reason 
of failing strength and excessive weight. His kindliness even extended to con- 
sideration for the Apache Indians, and he was never quite ready to believe all 
the tales that were brought him of outbreaks or of frontier deviltry. The Silver 
Belt was continued after the death of Judge Hackney by his nephew, J. H. 
Hamill. The paper later was acquired by C. W. Van Dyke, who moved it to 
Miami. Hamill then returned, to start in Globe the Arizona Record, which still 
occupies the daily field under the management of C. E. Hogue. 

In the very early days of Globe, from 1880 till the time of the copper slump, 
also flourished the Globe Chronicle, a newspaper founded by W. H. Glover and 
edited successively by Hinson Thomas, Judge Julius S. Van Slyke and Jas. H. 
McClintock. The paper was owned by a local mining company. It gave espe- 
cial attention to mining and to the Indian news that Judge Hackney did not 
want to print. 



Geo. W. and R. C. Brown (not related by blood) made a strong journalistic 
team in early days. For a while, around 1881, they managed the Tucson Citi- 
zen. Later they owned the Florence Enterprise, one of the best of weeklies 
that carried the news of the entire territory. After the Enterprise had been 
moved to Tucson, the Browns became engaged in the bitter fight waged in 1892 
against the administration of Governor Hughes. Tried for criminal libel against 
the good name of a Tucson attorney, they were sentenced in the District Court 
to one day in the territorial penitentiary. The journalistic fight really was 
being made against Frank Heney, then attorney-general of the territory. His 
demands for dominating authority later caused a break with Governor Hughes 
and the retirement of the attorney-general from office. If the sentence had been 
to the county jail, there would have been little criticism, but a penitentiary 
sentence carried with it not only added stigma but the loss of rights of citizen- 
ship. At the state capitol was held a session of the Arizona Editoi-ial Associa- 
tion. The indignant editors then called at the executive offices to demand the 
pardon of the Browns before execution of sentence; Heuey, behind Hughes' 
chair, was referred to for legal answer, but the editors refused to hear him. 
They made point blank demand upon the governor for the pardon, inferentiallj- 
threatening dire consequences if it was not issued, and left the office with the 
precious document. It is an odd fact that the official record of this case, in the 
biennial message of Governor Hughes, shows that the Browns had been sen- 
tenced to five days in the penitentiary. This is one case where the memory 
of all participants questioned fails to agree with the record. 

As a rule the press of Arizona has been untrammeled in its expression of 
opinions of men and things. One notable exception was in April, 1910, when 
a large part of the population of Parker gathered to expel from the town Editor 
Jas. J. Healy of the Parker Herald. Healy was marched into the desert several 
miles, interest in the trip added by several stops at telegraph poles, whereon 
the editor was gently drawn by the neck toward the crossarm, each time with 
the idea that the experience was to be his last. Healy finally was allowed to 
escape to Bouse, from whence he complained to the governor and district attor- 
ney, but seemingly with little result. 


The first paper of Bisbee was the Democrat, a weekly edited by Frank 
Detheridge. Its first issue was August 9, 1888. It lasted only six months. 

The Bisbee Review came into being early in the campaign of 1900, a number 
of Warren District democratic capitalists feeling the need of a journal to 
support their cause. As editor was engaged Paul Hull, a Chicago man, who 
for twenty-eight weeks had conducted a high-class illustrated weekly, the 
Arizona Graphic, at Phoenix. The newspaper that he published at Bisbee was 
good, but the income for the first month was about !f;2,000 less than the outgo. 
Hull soon abandoned the attempt to publish a Chicago n&wspaper in a western 
mining camp and the journal thereafter had months of vicissitude. During the 
campaign in which Mark Smith was opposed for Congress by Governor Murphy 
it was split for financial reasons between the democrats and republicans, each 
r.\' wlioin had half of the front page fr,r editorial pabulum. Then caiiic mnr;' 

Pioneer newspaper publisher of Globe 


prosperous times under G. H. and "Will Kelly. Latterly the Review has pros- 
pered under the management of Frederic Sturdevant. 

The Sentinel was established in Yuma in 1869 by a local company, with 
John W. Dorrington at its head. W. T. Minor, Judge W. M. Berry and Geo. E. 
Tyng successively edited the little journal, which still endures, issued weekly 
by W. H. Shorey. The newspaper establishment twice has been burned out and 
once was submerged in a flood. John "W. Dorrington, whose ownership has 
extended over most of its years, has defended during the years libel suits that 
would have cost him $125,000 had they been successful — which they were not. 

For many years Florence has been served by the Weekly Blade and Tribune.- 
a combination of papers, for the greater time controlled or edited by Thos. F. 
Weedin, a pioneer printer and miner, who, under democratic auspices for several 
years, has been filling the position of register for the United States land ofSce 
at Phcenix, where the receiver is John J. Birdno, likewise an editor, taken from 
the tripod of the Graham Guardian of Safford. Weedin 's first experience in 
Arizona newspaperdom was on the Florence Enterprise, getting out its first 
issue JIarch 20, 1881. 

Of pioneer rank also are Anson H. Smith and Kean St. Charles, whose 
Arizona journalistic work has been upon rival journals in Kingman. There 
should be special mention also of the founder of the Coconino Sun, C. JI. Fun- 
ston, who early established in the north the grace of fine typography, continued 
to this day by his successor, F. S. Breen. 

One of the personal pillars of Arizona journalism has been Geo. H. Kelly, 
now editor of the daily Douglas International, for years owner of the Solomon- 
yille Bulletin, one of the very best of the early weeklies. A son. Will Kelly, 
reared in the work, now operates the Copper Era at Clifton. At Douglas also is 
a second daily, the Dispatch. 

The Arizona Press Association was organized February 9, 1891, with L. C. 
Hughes as president. The other offices were filled by John H. ]\Iarion, Geo. W. 
Brown, S. C. Bagg, W. L. Vail, J. W. Dorrington, N. A. Jlorford, John 0. 
Dunbar and Ed. S. Gill. Two subjects especially were discussed at the first 
meeting, the price of legal printing, which was thereupon set by the Legislature 
at a high rate, and methods of combination of the newspaper men in order to 
get favorable consideration of the craft from the legislatures. 


The names of Arizona newspapers frequently have been given with keen 
appreciation of local conditions. For instance, a great industry is appropri- 
ately represented by Our Mineral Wealth and the Mohave Miner of Kingman, 
the Preseott Journal-Miner, the Wickenburg Jliner, the Miami Silver Belt, the 
Tombstone Prospector, and Preseott Pick and Drill, the Pinal Drill, the Clifton 
Copper Era, and the Jerome Copper Belt. The Sentinel of Yuma, the Vidette 
of Nogales and the International of Douglas naturally are on the border, watch- 
ing out. The Sun is not out of place in Yuma, though another paper of the 
same name is published in the less-torrid Flagstaff, wherein the first journal 
was the Flag. The Nogales Oasis surely is an agreeable name in a desert land. 
The long-stilled Voice of Casa Grande might have been likened to one crying 
out in the wilderness. Clifton had a Weekly Clarion and Saint Johns an Apache 


Some people still write to Arizona for the Arizona Kicker. There never 
was such a sheet, outside of the Detroit Free Press office, though the editor 
of the Tombstone Epitaph once thought the name a valuable one and tried to 
hold it for the outside circulation of his strictly sober and unemotional weekly. 
There never was a paper in Arizona that looked like the Kicker, or that had an 
editor of the pistol-carrying, swash-buckling type. 

Outside of a sort of psychic fascination, there appears to have been no 
possible reason for the way in which men have plunged into the deserts and 
mountains of Arizona to establish newspapers. Yet there has been pride in 
many an Arizona hamlet, with its people gathered around the little hand press, 
to welcome the birth of a journalistic babe of promise that should carry afar 
the story of their greatness and of their hopes. Damp and limp the first copy 
came off the press, and with its appearance the camp forthwith stepped full- 
panoplied into metropolitan magnitude. The editor would not have changed 
jobs with Horace Greeley. There was a paper at Quijotoa, the Prospector, 
created February 23, 1884, by Harry Brook, one of the pioneers of Arizona 
newspaperdom, and later an editorial writer on the Los Angeles Times. Gay- 
leyville in the Chiricahua Mountains is only a memory, for it was gutted and 
burned by the Apaches more than thirty years ago; but it had a newspaper 
before then, and at the nearby more modern, yet scarcely larger, camp of Para- 
dise was established another. Just think of the immense optimism that named 
a mining camp Paradise, though it may look that way to a newspaper martyr. 
There have been papers at Tubac, Mineral Park, Chloride, Masey, Naco, Con- 
gress Junction, Pinal, Gila Bend, Arizola, Courtland and a score of other places 
today of relatively small population or utterly off the map. 

About sixty publications are being issued today, about a fourth of them 
daily. It is a notable fact that Arizona has ten members of the Associated Press 
taking news daily by wire, though the state's population is only about 220,000. 
There are eight memberships in Arkansas, population 1,574,000; two member- 
ships in Delaware, population 202,000 ; three in the District of Columbia, popu- 
lation 331,000; six in Idaho, population 325,000; five in North Dakota, popula- 
tion 571,000; and the comparison could be carried further into a half-dozen 
other states and would further sustain the journalistic pride of Arizona. There 
is little doubt that Arizonans are better patrons of the public press than almost 
any other people within the Union. 

Major A. J. Doran, one of the earliest pioneers, has stated, with all warmth 
of expression, that the press has been the most potent of the factors that have 
worked for the civic and material uplift of Arizona. It is probable that he is 
right, and yet not because all Arizona papers were uplifters and reformers. 
Some of them had decidedly bad policies and a few editors possibly had quit 
their former homes under pressure, but most of the editors of the pioneer period 
in Arizona were men of even more than average standing in their communities. 
Most of them, undoubtedly, would be out of place in the modern newspaper, 
where the old tramp printer, such as Bill Luddy or George MacFarlane, has 
been succeeded by an expert machinist, who sits before a wonderful erection of 
steel and piles up more composition in a night than one man used to put up 



in five, and where the perfecting press has succeded the old hand press, with its 
laborious output of a "token" an hour. Yet, after all, the press in Arizona 
remains the same in this, that it voices its community's best hopes, that it prints 
little of evil and much of good, and that it advocates betterment in all things 
material and civic. 



Participation of the "Rough Riders" in the War With Spain — Honor to the Flag of the 
Arizona Squadron — Captain O'Neill and the Monument at Prescott — The First Ter- 
ritorial Infantry — National Cuard of Arizona and Its Service on the Field. 

Though itself a battle ground for centuries, and though the blood of slain 
thousands has sunk into its sands, much of the warlike fame of Arizona rests 
on its record in the war with Spain. It cannot be said that Arizona was very 
particularly interested in this war. It was rather remote, and the circum- 
stances were noi such as to arouse any great patriotic fervor, but the adventur- 
ous spirit of the Southwest caused the offer of far more men than the quota 
allotted to the territory. The war was rather slow in coming. President 
McKinley had used every diplomatic means to avoid it and it is probable that 
war would not have occurred had not the Maine been blown up in the harbor 
of Havana. Thereafter the jingo press simply led the Nation into a demand 
for war, which finally was declared April 21, 1898. 

Two days later, the President issued a call for 125,000 volunteers and on 
May 25 for 75,000 more. These were in addition to the strength of the stand- 
ing army, which at that time was 2,143 ofiicers and 26,040 men. The total 
strength gathered approximated 275,000 men. 

The act of April 22 empowered the Secretary of War to recruit from the 
Nation at large, troops with membership possessing special qualifications not 
to exceed 3,000 men in all. Under this authority were created volunteer 
cavalry regiments, known as the First, Second and Third United States Volun- 
teer Cavalry. It was assumed that their membership would be almost exclu- 
sively cowboy in character, every soldier a horseman and a rifleman, inured to 
hardship and able to take care of himself and his horse in any difficult situation. 

Secretary Alger commissioned as commanders of these regiments Colonels 
Leonard Wood, Jay L. Torrey and IMelvin Grigsby. The Second and Third 
regiments, which appeared to have had rather disappointing commanders, never 
got farther than southern concentration camps. They were recruited mainly 
in Montana and Wyoming and seem to have been generally of excellent enlisted 

The First United States Volunteer Cavalrj^ later became known as Roose- 
velt's Rough Riders. It would appear that the name grew out of an observa- 
tion by Roosevelt that he was to join a command of "rough riders," men who 
could ride bad horses, though Roosevelt himself refers to the christening of the 
. 512 

Lieut. Samuel Gieenwald Capt. W. O. O'Xeill Lieut. .1. n. Carter 

Lieut. George B. Wilcox Capt. .T. L. B. AloNaiu 



regiment by the public as "for some reason or other." Within itself it was 
known also as "Young's Horse Marines" and as "Wood's Weary Walkers." 

It should be told that when the Arizona contingent of the regiment was 
being raised, there was no knowledge of its ultimate destination in a military 
sense. The idea itself was that of AVm. 0. O'Neill, better known as "Buekey." 
O'Neill always had had military aspirations. In 1880, when the citizens of 
PhcBnix had organized a troop of rangers under Maj. C. H. Vail, to chase 
hostile Indians, O'Neill was one of his lieutenants, though to be disappointed 
in seeing active service. In Prescott, he was made captain of a militia com- 
pany. His military leaning was not because of any fondness for bloodshed. 
Indeed, when his company was called out to guard the scaffold during the 
execution of Dilda, a murderer, he fell in a faint, suddenly struck by the horror 
of the scene. Later he served as adjutant general under Governor Wolfley. 

O'Neill wanted to raise a full regiment of cavalry, and proceeded on that 
line. He took up the recruiting in the northern part of the state. The southern 
enlistment was looked after by his old friend, Jas. H. McClintock. The colonel 
was to be Alexander 0. Brodie of Prescott, a graduate of West Point. Brodie 
had had distinguished service on the frontier as a lieutenant in the First Cavalry 
and had campaigned against the Apaches. He had I'esigned from the army to 
take up the work of a civil engineer. Held in the highest esteem throughout 
northern Arizona, he was elected recorder in Yavapai County. Also he was the 
first line colonel of the National Guard of Arizona. 

About 1,000 recruits for the proposed regiment had been enrolled by the 
date of the declaration of war. The services of the regiment had been offered 
to the war department almost daily for weeks, in letters and telegrams, sent by 
Governor Myron H. McCord. 

The governor accepted with pleasure the suggestion that Colonel Brodie 
should be the ranking officer of the proposed organization. But he did not like 
O'Neill, who for several years theretofore had been his active political enemy 
and who had scored him severely in writings in the public press. There had 
to be some stiff argument on this point before McCord could be shown that 
public duty should be placed above personal prejudice. 

April 26, five days after the declaration of war, there came to the governor 
the formal call to arms. It was disappointing in one respect : He was advised 
that from Arizona would be taken anly 210 men, to form a part of "a crack 
regiment of cavalry, that would be specially armed and equipped for special 

The governor promptly wired the war department nominations of Brodie 
as major and of O'Neill and McClintock as captains. Very soon thereafter 
were added the junior appointments. O'Neill's first lieutenant, and later his 
successor in troop command, was Frank Frantz, a young Prescott business man, 
and his second lieutenant was Robert S. Patterson, a Graham County banker. 
In McClintock's troop, the lieutenants were J. L. B. Alexander, a prominent 
Phoenix attorney and democratic politician, who also had been an active political 
enemy of McCord 's, and George B. Wilcox, who had had prior military service 
in the Fourth Cavalry and who was senior hospital steward at Fort Huachuca 
when Colonel Wood was surgeon at that post. 


April 27, only a day after the call came, the time mainly consumed in 
physical examinations and with forced rejections of about two- thirds of the 
applicants, the lirst of the southern Arizona contingent, twenty-eight strong, 
left for the rendezvous at Whipple Barracks, probably the first movement of 
organized volunteers to the front. It was deplored at the time that many cow- 
boys, just the timber needed to rely upon, failed to pass the tests set by the 
medical officers. 


The scenes of parting were affecting in the extreme. The troop had been 
given God-speed by Governor McCord, in his chambers at the temporary capitol, 
in a speech that brought tears to the eyes of nearly all. At the depot had been 
gathered practically all of the population of the city, so massed that the little 
column, flower-laden, could scarcely break its way through to the train. The 
last straw, as the train slowly moved out, was the singing, by the massed church 
choirs of the city and a chorus of normal school girls, of "God Be With You 
Till We Meet Again." 

Further detachments from the north and south, summoned by telegi-aphic 
orders, came into Whipple for several days thereafter, until the last possible 
man had been enlisted in the two troops. The muster-in at Fort Whipple was 
made by Second Lieut. Hershell N. Tupes of the regular army. This muster 
proved erroneous in some points and was duplicated on May 15 by Lieutenant 
Tupes, who traveled to San Antonio for the purpose. Thus it follows that the 
Arizona contingent is not given its true credit for seniority in the records of 
the war department. There were busy days at Whipple Barracks, for Major 
Brodie was anxious to be off. The last man had hardly had his physical exam- 
ination when the squadron, on May 4, started for the regimental rendezvous in 
Texas. Entrainment was at Prescott. The squadron was marched from Whip- 
ple to the Courthouse Plaza, where there was brief ceremonial. 

The command had been routed around through Oklahoma, via the Santa Fe, 
but opportune washouts caused the selection of a more direct route over the 
Southern Pacific, through El Paso. Colonel Wood already was on the ground 
with his adjutant. Lieutenant-Colonel Roosevelt had remained behind at 
Washington to hurry up tlie shipment of war munitions. Aided by his 
full knowledge of departmental procedure, this he did with wonderful success, 
securing tentage, saddles, arms and everything else that was necessary. The 
regiment itself was favored over all other volunteer commands that went to 
Cuba in being armed with Krag-Jorgensen carbines, of a type that had lately 
been given the mounted troops of the regular establishment. These carbines, 
using smokeless powder and with high muzzle velocity and low trajectory, 
placed the regiment at least on an equality with the IMauser-armed Spanish. 

At San Antonio there was much work of drilling, of mounting and of 
equipping, and in this the Arizona squadron grew to full appreciation of the 
ability and knowledge of Major Brodie. The regiment, as organized in Texas, 
comprised twenty-seven officers and 994 enlisted men. To secure the full 
formation of twelve troops, there was somewhat of a shake-up and the two 
troops from Arizona with strength of 107 men each, were called upon to give 
thirty -seven men each to a third organization, lettered as "C." Lieutenant 


Alexander was px'omoted to the commaud of this. Second Lieutenant Patter- 
son was made his first lieutenant, and Hal Sayre of Colorado, son of a high 
army olBcer, was made second lieutenant. In Patterson's place in O'Neill's 
troop was promoted Quartermaster Sergeant J. D. Carter of P'reseott. In 
Troop B, Wilcox was moved up to first lieutenant and First Sergeant T. H. 
Rynniug secured promotion to shoulder straps. Rynning was a skilled officer, 
who had had service up to the grade of first sergeant in the Eighth United 
States Cavalry. Special mention should also be made of First Sergeant W. W. 
Greenwood of Troop A, an old soldier, and of First Sergeant Wm. A. Davidson 
of Troop B. The latter, like Rynning, had been a first sergeant of regular 
cavalry. Troop B was rich in soldiers of experience, including its quarter- 
master sergeant, Stephen A. Pate, who later died at Fort Bayard, after service 
in the Philippines, from the result of a gunshot wound through the lung, re- 
ceived in the Cuban campaign, Sergeant Elmer Hawley, who was an old Fourth 
Cavalry regular and Sergeant John E. Campbell. Campbell, who lately died 
at the Soldiers' Home in Sawtelle, California, was a soldier of rare ability, 
whom lack of education alone kept to the rank of a non-commissioned officer. 
Later he had distinguished service in the Philippines as first sergeant in the 
Thirty-fourth United States Volunteer Infantry. 

When 'Neill was killed, John C. Greenway was transferred from Troop G 
to be first lieutenant under Frantz. Greenway then hailed from Hot Springs, 
Arkansas, but later came to Arizona as manager of mines at Bisbee. Sergeant 
Sam Greenwald of Troop A was commissioned as a second lieutenant .iust be- 
fore the muster-out of the regiment. 

Under the final organization, Troops A, B and C, with Troop D of Oklahoma, 
Capt. R. D. Houston, constituted the First Squadron, under Major Brodie. 
Under this readjustment, the original local subdivision of the troops was very 
much broken up, and into the Arizona squadron were placed a considerable 
number of new recruits, who came from almost anywhere except Arizona. Thus 
were gained, however, a considerable number of eastern college men of excep- 
tionally high character, who were soon taken into the fullest comradeship by the 
men from the Southwest. Several of these new comrades later secured com- 
missioned and non-commissioned rank. 

It was at San Antonio that the regiment first learned of its popular designa- 
tion of "Rough Riders." Assuredly a lot of rough riding there was done, for 
the regiment was equipped fully with horses, which afterwards proved to have 
been unnecessary. These horses were purchased as broken, but many were 
right from the ranges. It was no unusual sight, when the Arizona squadron 
reined into line for three or four horses to bolt wildly out and start "bucking," 
in defiance of all military rules and regulations. It is not remembered that 
any of the men were dismounted thereb}% though they complained bitterly that 
their McClellan saddles had no horns. 

The term "Rough Rider" in the popular mind usually is associated with a 
khaki uniform, a hat turned up on the side and a polka dot handkerchief. 
The regimental service uniform, till after the return from the Cuban cam- 
paign, really was of brown duck, the ordinary fatigue clothing of the regular 
army. When double sewed, it was all that could have been desired, cool, strong 
and neutral-colored. 


It was in San Antonio also that the regiment had fastened upon it the war 
song, later generally recognized as especially its own. San Antonio had a fine 
military band, led by corpulent Karl Beck, whose greatest joy was to come to 
the camp at the fair grounds, take station before the Colonel's tent, and noisily 
execute some stirring, warlike composition just about the time the Colonel and 
his officers were iu serious consultation. Beck's favorite tune, probably be- 
cause he saw it pleased the soldiery, was, "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old 
Town Tonight." The song, with its doggerel wording, went with the regiment 
eastward, and when the vessel that bore the Rough Ridei's was towed into the 
bay from its berth beside the wharf at Tampa, past two score of other army 
transports, every band on the vessels passed successively "played the regiment 
out" with the same tune. In Cuba, the Spaniards gained a very erroneous 
impression concerning the patriotic music of the invaders, for they distinguished 
"The Hot Time" as "El Himno Naeional de los Yanquis. " 

The Arizona squadron led the regiment out of San Antonio, entraining 
May 29. There had been rumors, with seemingly good foundation, that the war 
department proposed to land the Rough Riders on the southwestern coast of 
Cuba, there to join Cuban troops and to march eastward to form a junction 
with the main invading force. With all due consideration of the Cuban army, 
this rumor luckily proved untrue. Instead of Galveston, the destination was 
Tampa, Florida. Incidentally, this port was probably the worst that could 
have been chosen anywhere in the United States outside of Florida, and its 
selection is assumed to have been due to the influence of a skillful railroad 
lobby at Washington. The port was to be reached by a railway with but a 
single track and there was only one wharf from which to load. 

Tampa was reached June 4, after a leisurely trip over southern railroads, 
whereon the employees seemed willing, but rather out of the habit of rushing. 
One such experience was at Tallahassee, where the horses had to be watered, 
and where only one cattle chute was available for their unloading. There 
being no watering trough near the railroad, the horses were all driven up into 
the old town and given a drink around the historic capitol of Florida, in zinc 
and wooden tubs brought put by the negro servants of the interested and most 
cordial local residents. 

At Tampa, camp was made in the pines, and the regiment was assigned to 
the First Cavalry Brigade of the Fifth Army Corps. This brigade was com- 
manded by Brigadier General S. M. B. Young, later retired as lieutenant 
general from connnand of the United States army. The Rough Riders were 
accepted at the start as available and efficient, as was shown in their assign- 
ment to a brigade wherein the other fractions were the First and Tenth regi- 
ments of cavalry, organizations of the highest standing within the army. The 
stay in Tampa was of only ten days. The camp, with the men quartered in 
light shelter tents, was made quickly and in good order. Drilling was with 
especial attention to battle formations. 

On the evening of June 7 orders were received tobe at Port Tampa at day- 
break the following morning, with only eight dismounted troops of seventy 
men each. Four junior organizations were left at Tampa, together with about 
fifteen men from each of the departing troops, the latter to come along with the 
horses when the landing had been effected. The same was done in every 

A cowboy Kouah Rider 

jJMi'tfiigMTrri r^-- - 



cavalry regiment, save that some were only allowed to send four troops. It 
was understood that the force was simply au expeditionary one, to land and 
prepare the way for the main body. The organizations left behind at Tampa, 
under Maj. H. B. Hersey, were those of Captains Alexander, Curry, McGinnis 
and Day. Nothing save credit can attach to tlip officers and men of the con- 
tingent left behind, for they obeyed orders and did a work fully as important 
as that of the force which "went down to the battle." 

Under this distribution of the squadrons, Lieutenant-Colonel Roosevelt went 
out in command of four troops, ranking Brodie. The latter was fortunate 
enough to take three of his troops and gained a good fourth in Troop E, com- 
manded by Capt. Frederick Muller, who had had experience in the regular army. 

Despite the orders received, no transportation was provided, and after sev- 
eral shifts between the railroad tracks, long after midnight the commanding 
officers practically seized a train of coal cars, into which the men and their 
blanket rolls were loaded, together with a few tons of cartridges, and the 
journey of nine miles to the port was concluded well after daylight. At Tampa 
the situation was no better, for no transport ship had been provided, and the 
long wharf was crowded with thousands of men who didn't seem to know 
where they were going or what they were to do. Colonel Humphrey of the 
quartermaster's department finally was located. He allotted the regiment a 
transport, the Yucatan, No. 8. It was found that she had previously been 
alotted to two other regiments, the Second Infantry and the Seventy-first New 
York Volunteers, either one of which had more men than could possibly have 
been stored aboard. So Wood and his men double-timed down the wharf to 
board the boat just a few minutes before rival claimants to its accommodations 

Though promptly set out into the bay, it was only to anchor, for there had 
been rumors of the coming from Spain of what later was known as the "Spook 
Fleet." Finally the start was made on June 13. There was a very close 
approach to a conclusion of the trip at its very beginning. As the Yucatan 
was proceeding down the shallow channel to the sea, a large troop ship, just 
ahead, stuck her nose into the mud and swung with the tide across the channel. 
The Yucatan's captain barely managed to escape cutting the other ship in 
twain. Unknown to the soldiery of both ships, who regarded the collision as 
rather a pleasant break in the monotony, the Yucatan in her bow carried about 
a ton of gun-cotton ammunition for a dynamite gun, which had been given the 
regiment, in keeping with the idea that it was a freak organization. 

The expedition comprised the Fifth Army Corps, under command of Maj.- 
Gen. "Wm. R. Shaffer, for many years Colonel of the First Infantry in Arizona 
and perhaps better known throughout the army as "Pecos Bill." Just why 
he was placed in command has never been explained. Not only had he never 
shown any especial capacity for large command, but he was almost incapacitated 
for active service owing to excessive weight. 


The regimental flag of the Rough Riders, like the organization itself, was 
volunteer in origin. When the detachment of recruits left Phopnix the fact 
that it had borne no flag was noted by a number of ladies of the Relief Corps 


attached to the Phoenix post of the Grand Army of the Eepublic. They searched 
the city for silk of the proper color, but could not find any heavy enough for 
the purpose. But, doing the best they could, they met at the home of one of 
their number and spent almost a whole night in a labor of patriotic devotion, 
never stopping till the tiag was done and scissored stars had been well sewn on. 
As no cord could be found, the top of the stafit' was decorated with tri-colored 
satin ribbons. A few days later, at Prescott, the flag was formally presented 
by Governor McCord and a committee of ladies. From the' war department no 
flags had been received, so the Arizona flag was carried at parades and dis- 
played before the tent of the regimental commander. 

After the shore and blockhouse at Daiquiri had been shelled by the war 
vessels of the American fleet and the Spaniards driven back, in one of the first 
small boats to laud was the flag of the Rough Riders. On suggestion, it is 
understood, of Lieutenant-Colonel Roosevelt, it was taken to the top of a hill 
that frowned above the bay to the eastward, to be raised above a blockhouse 
which had been the target of the warships for hours, biit which, possibly owing 
to its elevation, had escaped almost unscathed. The party that climbed tlie liill 
comprised the surgeon-major of the regiment, Doctor LaMotte, Color-Sergeant 
Wright and Chief Trumpeter Piatt. At the blockhouse they were joined by 
Edward Marshall, a noted newspaper correspondent, later seriously wounded 
at Guasimas, and a sailor, who proved to be the only expert climber of the lot, 
and with whose assistance the flag was finally displayed, its stafl: lashed to the 
Spanish pole. 

As the flag blew out in the breeze, there came on one of the most dramatic 
episodes of the war. The Rough Riders were on the transport Yucatan, close 
to the shore. An Arizona captain had seen the small party winding up the 
path to the top and had noted their maneuvers. He first noted the raising of 
the flag. As the wind caught its folds he snatched up a field glass and saw the 
streaming ribbons, then threw his hat to the deck, jumped to the top of the 
bulwark and yelled: "Howl, ye Arizona men — it's our flag!" and the men 
howled as only Arizona cowboys could, delirious in their joy and in the pride 
of their patriotism. Someone on the hurricane deck tied down the whistle cord, 
the band of the Second Infantry whisked up instruments and played "A Hot 
Time" on the inspiration of the moment, and every man who had a revolver 
emptied it over the side. Almost in an instant every whistle of the fifty trans- 
ports and supply vessels in the harbor took up the note of rejoicing. Twenty 
thousand men were cheering. There was a rattle of musketry from the Cuban 
allies on shore. A dozen bands increased the din in only immaterial degree. 
Then the guns of warships on the fianks joined in in a mighty salute to the flag 
of the Nation, harbinger of victoiy, emblem of liberty. No flag on land or sea 
ever had grander salutation. And the flag was the flag of the Arizona squadron. 
The Arizona flag led the regiment on the awful day of Las Guasimas; it was 
at the front all through the heat of the battle of Kettle Hill ; it waved over the 
trenches before Santiago and later was borne through the captured city to the 

At IMontauk in waiting were a regimental flag and a standard, but they 
were smibbed. The colors had "run" in the squadron flag and it had lost its 
beauty. Its ribbons were torn and faded. But the rents that came from the 




flight of a half-dozen Spanish bullets only made it the more cherished and no 
other flag was carried till the day of muster-out. Somewhere in the show rooms 
of the war department at Washington are flags inscribed "First United States 
Volunteer Cavalry," but they never were in service. In Santa Pe is a hand- 
some flag, presented by New Mexicans to the second squadron of the regiment, 
but it remained at Tampa with the camp guard troops and was never in action. 
In the office of the Governor of Arizona, in a deep, oblong, glass-doored box, 
is a draped American flag. In its folds are rents and holes. It is not hand- 
some, yet it is held by the governor in trust as one of the most valuable of 
Arizona's treasures — the first flag raised on foreign soil by American soldiers 
in the war with Spain. 


The southern coast of Cuba was reached June 20 and on the morning of 
the 22d came the order for landing at the little port of Daiquiri, where the 
Spaniards had been shelled from a couple of block houses by the fire of the 
ships of Sampson's squadron. The landing was at a small half-ruined 
staging. Here two negro soldiers were crushed between the boat and the wharf, 
and, loaded down with their cartridge belts, and probably dead already, sank 
to the bottom of the deep inlet. Captain O'Neill here distinguished himself in 
a manner that undoubtedly would have won him a medal of honor had he lived 
to receive it. In full uniform he plunged over the side to rescue the men, but 
without success. 

Camp was made at Daiquiri beside a block house that had been wrecked by 
the fire of shells from the fleet. Each man lay down in the curve of his blanket 
roll, for there might be necessity to go on picket or to repulse a Spanish charge. 
All was quiet, as became the first night of landing on a foreign shore. Upon a 
hilltop, a Cuban bugle played "tattoo," the shrill notes mellowed into rare 
sweetness by the distance. Then some soldier seized the psychological moment. 
In a clear tenor, from somewhere near the center of the recumbent mass of 
men, he sang "Upon the Bank of the Wabash." He sang it alone. Be it to 
the credit of the good taste of his comrades, there was no interruption. When 
he finished, a little sigh appeared to run all through the regiment and each man 
settled back to slumber or to his thoughts. But one Arizona trooper hoarsely 
murmured, addressing no one in particular, "I guess that's about all I can 
stand. If he had sung 'Home, Sweet Home,' I would have gone over and 
murdered him." 

The following day largely was spent in the inspection of a passing army of 
about 4,000 Cubans, the Orientales of General Garcia. It can hardly be said 
that the Arizonans enthused over their allies, who, generally, were bare-legged 
and ragged, were undisciplined and variously armed. As Sergeant Davidson 
put it: "And that is what we came down to set free! If the walking wasn't 
so damn bad, I believe I'd start back home right now." 

At 3 o'clock that afternoon the regiment was ordered to Siboney, which 
was reached shortly after dark, after an exhausting twelve-mile march through 
the jungles, mainly in single file, with little attention paid to safety. The next 
morning, sunrise found the regiment toiling up a steep hillside, at last really 
going into action. 


The night before, the senior officers had been in consultation with General 
Young and General Wheeler. The last named, already famous as a leader in 
the Confederate army, had been placed in command of the cavali-y division. 
As General Shafter was still on board of the steamer Seguranca, General 
Wheeler was ranking officer on land. He had received from Cuban General 
Castillo a map of the country behind Siboney, in which the main Spanish posi- 
tion was shown at Guasimas, about four miles inland, on the inner trail to 
Santiago. Young's brigade was directed to march against this post. Colonel 
Wood's command, about 500 strong, was to take a ridge road, while the regu- 
lars, four troops each of the First and Tenth Cavalrj', were to advance along a 
parallel valley road, to join a half mile from the enemy's outposts. 

The assertion was made at the time that the Rough Riders were ambushed, 
as they were traveling over the trail. This was absolutely not so. Colonel 
Wood had been notified by Cuban scouts that he would find on the trail a dead 
guerilla, killed the previous afternoon. Captain Capron, an officer of experi- 
ence in the Seventh Cavalry, was in command of the vanguard, and all possible 
precautions had been taken against surprises. 

The civil governor of Santiago is authority for the statement that the Span- 
ish force amounted to -i.OOO. There was considerable l.ying over the engage- 
ment, for the Spaniards covdd hardly admit that with such an army they had 
been defeated and driven from an entrenched position by an American force 
that numbered only 940. The Spanish position was in command of General 
Rubin, but present during the fight was Lieutenant-General Linares, the senior 
Spanish officer of the Military Division of Santiago de Cuba, accompanied by 
Generals Taral and Vara del Ray. Linares was shot and so badly wounded 
that the command of the Santiago forces later devolved upon Taral. The 
engagement lasted a couple of hours. The American fire, which was individual 
among the volunteers and not by volleys, proved very effective. According to 
the Spaniards, the Americans didn't know that they were beaten, but per- 
sisted in advancing, fighting in a peculiar style to which the enemy was un- 

It is probable that the Spaniards had been leaving their entrenchments for 
some time before the final rush of the Rough Riders, for when the Americans 
reached the trenches within them only were found twenty-nine of the Spanish 
dead. Spies and Cuban refugees later stated that for six hours that day, dead 
and wounded were being brought into Santiago. General Taral admitted a loss 
of 250, while the Spanish press conceded that sevent.y-seven were killed. 

On the American side. Captain Capron and fifteen men were killed, and 
six officers and forty-six men were wounded. Corporal George H. Doherty and 
Private Edward Liggett of Troop A were killed. I\Iajor Brodie was shot in 
the arm. Captain McClintock received several machine-gun bullet wounds in 
the ankle. Thomas W. Wiggins and Norman L. Orme of Troop B were badly 

The first reports of this battle of Guasimas, or Sevilla, as the Spaniards 
called it, received by the American public, were misleading and false. This 
was largely due to the repoi-t brought back to the people by a staff officer, who 
claimed to have been "sent" to the rear for reinforcements. He made reraark- 
ablv good time, though on foot. At a block hoiise, on the hill above Siboney, 



he met Farrier Barney Harmsen of Troop B, who,, when attacked by acute 
rheumatism, had been left behind, with a broken ^n. Harmsen had repaired 
the rifle and had painfully made his way up the hill. In answer to his inquiries, 
the officer, who had dropped from fatigue, told him that Troop B was ' ' wiped 
out" and that he himself had seen the captain fall. Harmsen saw bis duty 
c-learly and, grasping the carbine, he started to hobble up the trail, remarking 
as he went: "If the good old troop is gone, by God it's my place to go with it." 


The Arizona troops participated with their regiment in the fighting at San 
Juan, July 1-3, and in the rest of the Santiago campaign. There was heavy 
loss in action. In Troop A, Captain O'Neill and Privates James Boyle, Fred 

E. Champlin and Lewis Reynolds were killed and Sergeant Jas. T. Greenlee, 
Corporal Harry G. White, Trumpeter Emilio Cassi, Wagoner John H. Waller 
and Privates Fred W. Bugbee, Chas. B. Jackson, Edward O'Brien, Chas. B. 
Perry and Wm. F. AVallace were wounded. In Troop B the killed included 
Corporal Joel Rex Hall and Privates David Logue, Oliver B. Norton, Race W. 
Smith and John W. Swetnam. The troop list of wounded included Quarter- 
master Sergeant Stephen* R. Pate, Sergeant David L. Hughes, Corporal Jerry 

F. Lee and Privates John M. Hall, John S. Hammer, Jas. E. Murphy and David 
E. Warford. 

There were casualties among the Arizonans other than in battle. In Troop. 
A, Privates Stanley HoUister, Alex H. Wallace and George Walsh died of 
disease. In Troop B, Leroy E. Tomlinson died of typhoid on the way to Cuba, 
and Wellman H. Sanders died in the trenches of fever. Since the war, largely 
from the effects of hardships and fever, it is believed that more than a third of 
the membership of the two troops has passed away. Almost nine-tenths of the 
Arizonans in Cuba were "on sick report" at one time or another before 

O'Neill's death was as dramatic as his life had been. He had proven an 
excellent officer, alert and painstaking, with a romantic view of the war which 
seemed to gloss over the hardships of the campaign. He was not the sort of 
soldier, however, who lay in a trench uncomplainingly. On the first of July 
his troop was in a sunken road behind a dense leafy screen, through which was 
coming a very hail of bullets, wasted by the Spaniards, as usually, only in the 
direction of the unseen foe. 'Neill, uneasy and anxious to see what was going 
on and to move forward, arose and walked along the line of the road in front 
of his men. A sergeant called to him to lie down, that he was in danger. With 
an airy wave of a freshly rolled cigarette, the Captain observed, "The Spanish 
bullet isn't molded that will hit me." Then it was that he was struck down 
by the messenger of death, shot through the head and instantly killed. 

At the San Juan figlit were six newspaper correspondents to every regiment 
actually in the field in Cuba. Yet there have been claims that the Rough Riders 
never were at San Juan. Possibly the best refutation is the list of killed and 
wounded. The Rough Riders charged an extension of the San Juan height, 
called Kettle Hill, for on its crest had been left a large sugar kettle. This hill 
was taken mainly by the Rough Riders, who drove from their front a large force 
of intrenched Spanish infantry and who later held the crest, digging trenches 


at night to better sustain tlieir position. The fighting was at least as severe on 
the Kettle Hill side as at San Juan and the casualties were as heavy. 

Here should be punctured also a report, that seems commonly accepted, to 
the effect that the negro troops saved the Rough Riders at San Juan. A squad- 
ron or more of the Ninth Cavalry, colored, was lying in comparative safety in a 
depression at the foot of the hill and was passed over by the Rough Riders. 
Colonel Roosevelt, seeing his duty before him, joyously led the way forward. 
"Whether he ordered the Ninth Cavalry to come on or not is entirely immaterial. 
Several of its captains, possibly disregarding orders to remain in reserve, called 
up their black troopers and in a moment there was a parti-colored line of 
carbine-bearing soldiery swarming up the grass-covered eminence. Assuredly 
this was not "saving" the Rough Riders. The two commands were only a 
part of a large army that was assaulting the Spanish position along a line that 
was miles in length. On the same subject, reverting to the Guasimas fight, 
four troops of the Tenth Cavalry, held in reserve for a brief period after the 
fight started, served magnificently in flanking and driving the Spaniards, toward 
the end of the engagement. But this, again, hardly could be called "saving" 
the Rough Riders, for the negro cavalry constituted only one-fourth of the at- 
tacking force. No better fighting was done on the Island of Cuba than by the 
negro troops, but the "saving" story is the veriest piffle. 

After Guasimas, Colonel Wood had become a brigadier and Colonel Roose- 
velt had succeeded to the command of the regiment. The manner in which he 
led it is American history. Even finer than his conduct upon the battlefield 
was his regard for his men, who sickened by scores in the miasmatic trenches, 
both before and after the surrender of Santiago on July 16. It was he who 
finally started the movement for the return of the troops to the United States. 

The regiment left Santiago August 8 and arrived at JMontauk Point, New 
York, August 14. Troops C, H, I and M, which had been left at Tampa, had 
been brought to the Montauk camp only two days before, their members hardly 
in better condition than were the troopers who had gone to Cuba. The com- 
mand became real cavalry again for only a short time, for it was mustered out 
of service September 15, 1898, with a strength of forty-seven officers and 1,090 
enlisted men, present or absent. 

There should be mention that Arizona also provided the regimental mascot. 
This was a half-grown mountain lion, presented by Robert Brow of Preseott. 
The beast, named Josephine, was as fierce as was the regiment in popular esti- 
mation. Josephine had been well cared for at Tampa and Montauk, but on the 
western journey was lost in Chicago. After the war nearl.y all the surviving 
Arizona troopers returned and quietly dropped into their old vocations. 

Since muster-out, the Rough Riders have had several reunions. The first 
was at Las Vegas, New Mexico, June 24, 1899, on the anniversary of the battle 
of Guasimas and likewise on the day of the Feast of San Juan. A regimental 
association had been formed at the Montauk Point camp, with Brodie, pro- 
moted to be lieutenant-colonel, as president. The second reunion, a year later, 
was at Oklahoma City and the third at Colorado Springs, all three attended by 
Colonel Roosevelt, who proved a strong drawing card for the attendance of 
thousands of civilian sightseers. Then in April, 1902, while Colonel Roosevelt 
was Vice President of the Nation, came the reunion at San Antonio, where the 


attending troopers were camped upon the same spot from which they started 
for Cuba. There has been no general reunion since that time. The regiment 
was nation-wide in its origin and most of the surviving troopers are men of 
moderate means. Attempts have been made to bring them to Prescott, particu- 
larly at the time of the dedication of the Rough Rider Monument, but distance 
and cost have prevented. At the inauguration of President Roosevelt, March 
4, 1905, the President's personal bodyguard comprised a platoon of thirty 
Rough Riders, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Brodie. Other members from 
Arizona were Captains J. H. McClintoek and J. L. B. Alexander of Phoenix, 
Lieut. G. B. Wilcox of Bisbee, B. P. Daniels of Yuma and C. E. Mills of Morenci. 

In Arlington is a shaft in honor of the dead of the regiment, erected by the 
Rough Riders' National JMonument Society, an organization headed by Mrs. 
Allan K. Capron, widow of the first Rough Rider commissioned officer killed 
in the Santiago campaign. The dedication of this monument, on April 12, 1907, 
was honored by the presence of the President of the United States. 

Energetic citizens of Prescott, in May, 1905, headed by R. B. Morrison, 
conceived the idea of a magnificent statue and kept at the work until, on July 
4, 1907, was dedicated the O'Neill Rough Rider Monument, on the very spot 
on the Prescott Plaza from which the Rough Riders had marched out for war. 
The statue, the woi'k of Solon Borglum, is a magnificent bit of bronze, illus- 
trating more the spirit of the regiment than serving to reproduce the form or 
features of O'Neill. The statue was accepted on behalf of the territory by 
Governor Kibbey and a notable feature of the exercises was a stirring poem, 
written and delivered in person by John S. McGroarty. 


Wm. 0. O'Neill was 38 years of age when he died in Cuba. He was born 
and reared in Washington and educated in Georgetown College. With a knowl- 
edge of typesetting and stenography as his capital, he came west to Arizona in 
1879, to be a typesetter on the Phoenix Herald. He was printer and court 
stenographer for years, workiug in Arizona and New Mexico, at all times noted 
for reckless liberality that made him a friend of every man "down on his luck." 
"Buckey" was a designation early received for the fondness he displayed in 
"bucking the tiger," — western parlance for gambling at faro. Most of the 
way on foot, he returned to Arizona from Santa Pe in 1881 and established him- 
self in Prescott, for a while connected with the Miner and later with his own 
paper, the Hoof and Horn. He was elected probate judge in 1886 and two 
years later became sheriff. During this latter term he became famous through 
the capture of four robbers, who had held up the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad 
train at Canon Diablo in April, 1889. A short time later, O'Neill, becoming 
dissatisfied with the way the Mormons were assailed, turned from the republican 
party to populism. It is worthy of note that in that convention the successful 
opposition was led by R. E. Morrison, who later was one of the men most instru- 
mental in rearing a monument to O'Neill's memorj'. As a populist, O'Neill 
twice ran for Congress, and in one contest was nearly elected. With his death 
the party died in Arizona. At the time he left for Cuba, he was filling the 
office of mayor of Prescott. In spite of the fact that he gave away his loose 


cash to any cowboy oi- prospector who asked, he had become wealthy through 
the sale of an onyx mine at Mayer and of a copper mine near the Grand Canon. 

Much has- been written concerning an alleged utterance of 'Neill 's, ' ' Who 
would not die for a star!" This has been interpreted variously as meaning 
either the annexation of Cuba or the placing of Arizona's star of statehood on 
the nation's flag. Its real basis was in connection with the presentation of 
commissions to the senior Arizona officers in Phoenix, when Adjutant-General 
R. Allyn Lewis, lifting high a glass of wine, dramatically exclaimed, "Here we 
drink the soldier's toast — death or a star." The adjutant-general made ex- 
planation at that time that he meant the star that marked on the shoulder strap 
the rank of a general. 

O'Neill was buried on the battlefield in a little valley near San Juan Hill. 
Search for the grave by Captain Alexander proving unsuccessful. Chaplain 
Brown, who had superintended the burial, was called on. He found the loca- 
tion and made positive identification, for, in the dead soldier's blouse, within 
O'Neill's match safe, he had placed a paper carrying the officer's name and 
rank. The body was returned to "Washington and, May 1, 1899, there buried 
in all honor, in the National Cemetery at Arlington, beneath a massive granite 
monument inscribed with the name and with a brief chronicle of the deeds of 
the soldier who rested beneath. 

The Twentieth Legislature passed a resolution introduced by Stevens of 
Pima County, expressing the sorrow of Arizona over the sad and untimely 
death of Captain Wm. 0. O'Neill and of the other Arizona troopers who gave 
up their lives in the Spanish war.- Expression was given "the high estimate 
entertained for Captain O'Neill's public and private ability and personal in- 
tegrity and especially his distinguished patriotism when his country called for 
heroes." So therefore it was resolved "that we offer our kindliest s.ympathy to 
his sorrowing family and offer in alleviation in the pangs of suffering, that his 
life was gentle and the elements so massed in him that nature might stand up 
and say to all the world : ' this was a man. ' ' ' 


When the Rough Riders were enlisted in Arizona there was even opposition 
from the National Guard of that date, which claimed, with apparent justice, that 
it should have been made a part of the first army. But the first quota went to 
the First Volunteer Cavalry, and it was not until the latter part of 1898 that 
the National Guardsmen were given their chance. Arizona then was allotted 
three companies in an organization that was given the "top-heavy" name of 
"First Regiment Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Indian Territory United 
States Volunteers." When it was found that the initial letters would run 
around the collars of the officers and would occupy all of a soldier's hatband, the 
designation was changed to "First Territorial Infantry." The commanding 
officer was none other than the governor of Arizona, Myron H. McCord. He 
had had no military experience, but was an old-time associate of President 
McKinley, with whom he had served in Congress. McCord was deeply patri- 
otic, but did little more than administrative work. Drill was handled by 
Lieut. -Col. D. G. Mitchell, a regular army officer of ability, who utilized the 
excellent material given him to whip into shape what undoubtedly was one of 


* .Ci^ 



the best volunteer organizations enlisted in the war with Spain. The personnel 
was of the best. The companies were recruited to regimental strength of about 
1,300. Four of the companies were from New Mexico and four from Oklahoma. 
The twelfth company was from Indian Territory, attached to the Arizona 

The rendezvous of the Arizona companies was at Fort Whipple. Organiza- 
tion of the regiment as a whole was made at Fort Hamilton, near Lexington, 
Kentucky, in October, 1898. At Lexington it remained for about six weeks, when 
it was transferred to Camp Churchman, near Albany, Georgia, where it was 
mustered out in February, 1899. It had seen no service and there had been 
little incident, save forcible resentment by several hundred soldiers of the 
mistreatment, by the city authorities at Lexington, of several of their num- 
ber. The regimental officers credited to Arizona, besides Colonel MeCord, 
were Major Frank Russell and Regimental Adjutant J. W. Crenshaw. Com- 
pany A was mustered in at Phoenix, July 4, with Russell as captain and Cren- 
shaw and F. "VV. Hill as lieutenants, its strength nearly all National Guardsmen. 
Company B was from Tucson and other Southern Arizona points. Its ofScers 
were Capt. Herbert S. Gray and Lieuts. Wiley E. Jones (later attorney-general 
of Arizona) and Emanuel Drachman. Company C was credited to Prescott, 
although much of its strength was from Flagstaff. C, E. Donaldson was captain 
and F. C. Hochderfer and W: G. Scott were lieutenants. W^hen Russell was 
made major, Christy followed him in command of Company A, Crenshaw 
became adjutant, Ilill first lieutenant, and First Sergeant E. M. Lamson was 
commissioned second lieutenant. The death roll of the Arizonans during 
enlistment or immediately after discharge was small and included J. J. Sullivan 
and J. A. Arnold of Company A, T. E. Cunningham of Company B and H. E. 
Small of Company C. 

February 15, 1900, in Phcenix, was held a reunion of the members of the 
First Territorial Infantry. In the chair was Colonel McCord, who stated that 
not for an instant had he ever regretted his action in resigning the governorship 
of Arizona for the command of such a superb body of men. 

Arizona furnished a company or more to the Thirty-fourth Regiment of 
United States Volunteer Infantry, organized at Fort Logan, Colorado. Leading 
fifty-one young men from Phcenix were J. E. Campbell and A. H. Stanton, 
former Rough Riders and regulars. The enlistment was under the charge of 
First Lieut. Max Luna, a former captain of Rough Riders from New Mexico. 
Luna was drowned in the Philippines a few months later, while fording a 
stream in company with General Lawton. 


During the early territorial period the war department furnished a large 
number of rifles on the receipt of the governor, to be issued to settlers for 
defense against the Indians. The rifles were distributed, but only a few ever 
came back. It would appear that they were not needed very keenly, for about 
every man had his own gun in those days. Still, a number of them doubtless 
armed the motley band of Mexicans and Indians that formed the greater part 
of the attacking force at Old Camp Grant, for, as early as October, 1866, the 
attorney-general was instructed by the Legislature to settle with Wm. S. Oury 


for 105 muskets and IS.OOO roimds of animrmition belonging to the territory and 
which remained unaceotinted for. 

Under the authority of legislative action. Governor Safford, late in 1S70. 
organized a company of volunteers to protect the settlements in the Sonoita and 
Mowrj- sections and which operated in conjunction with the regular troops in 
scouting against the Indians along the border. 

The Ninth Legislature early in 1ST7 gave authority to the governor to raise 
a c-ompany of voltmteers to protect the settlers against hostile lu'lians and appro- 
priated $10,000 toward the necessary expenses. The command was to embrace 
sixty men. within which might be included Indians. The captain was to 
receive $100 a month, each white soldier was to have #1 and each Indian 50 cents 
a day. with aUowanc-e of 50 cents per man for rations. 

The citizens of Tuc-son in 1SS2 had raised and eqtiipped a c-ompany of fifty 
men. under Capt. W. J. Ross, after having received assuranc-e from Governor 
Tritle that he would recommend to the Legislature repayment of the sums 
expended in support of the organisation. This amounted to $11,000. and Tritle 
turned the ac-c-ount over to the Twelfth Legislature, in 1SS3. as per agreement. 

^Vhile there had been many volunteer organizations within Arizona, ranking 
as ""militia."" gathered usually in a desire to help against the Indians, the first 
company to be reaUy mustered in appears to have been Company B. First 
Infantry, its captain, Frank S. Ingalls, commissioned by Governor Tritle on 
May 25. 1SS2. Captain Ingalls only a short time before had arrived in Pre&;-ott. 
to serve as secretary for the governor, after service in the nulitarr battalion 
of the University of California. Thtis for years he held place as the offic-er 
of oldest service within the guard, from which he took retirement with the rank 
of major. 

T'ae first company was to have been one in Graham County, with Peter J. 
Bolan. a very well-known politician of the day. as captain. But Bolan"s organ- 
ization never reached the really military stage. The letter, about a year after. 
was taken by the Prescott Grays, a c-ompany headed by ""Bnckey"" O'Neifl. 

In Dec-ember. 1SS4, Governor Tritle instructed Adjutant-General iL H. 
Sherman to inspect aU militarj- organizations within the territory- and take 
charge of all military property, much of it held by persons legally unauthorized. 
In 1SS7 Governor Zuliek stated that only the two companies in Prescott could 
be ac-cepted as regularly organized. 

Since the organization of the National Guard of Arizona, it has had only 
four commanding officers. After the passage of the military law in 1S91. 
Governor Irwin appointed as c-olonel of the First Infantry Alex. O. Brodie of 
Prescott. a graduate of West Point and a cavalry officer of distinguished service 
on the frontier. He ser\ed for only a year, resigning in May. 1S92. when 
N. O. Murphy succeeded to the offic-e of governor. Then, elected by the officers, 
the command of the regiment passed to John H. Martin of Tuc-son, who had had 
National Guard experience in an eastern state. Colonel Martin retired in 1902 
and was suc-ceeded by Jas. H. McClintock. who had had late service in the First 
United States Volrmteer Cavalry. On the retirement of Colonel McClintock in 
ir'l"2. Capt. A. M- Tut hill of Morenci was elected to the place vacated. 



In February, 1896, occurred the Fitzsiminons-Maher prizefight. It was 
assumed that Arizona was to be the favored locality, contemptuous of a con- 
gressional law making prizefighting within the territories a crime. The govern- 
ors of Arizona and New ilexico were privately instructed by the Secretary of 
the Interior to see that the fight did not occur within those territories. In 
obedience. Gov. L. C. Hughes of Arizona used the only means at his disposal 
and very properly called out several companies of the Arizona National Guard. 
The governor and Adjutant-General Ed. Schwartz placed the work in charge 
of I\Iaj. R. Allyn Lewis, First Infantry, later adjutant-general. Major Lewis 
learned that Promoter Dan Stuart intended to load his fighters and fight attend- 
ants on a Southern Pacific train in the El Paso yards, steal into the San Simon 
Valley about daybreak, two days before the fight was billed, and finish the fight 
in time to take the single east-bound train of the road the same afternoon. 

So Companies D and F of Tucson, under the command of Captain Traylor, 
were dropped by Major Lewis at Bowie. The troops there remained about a 
week, while Major Lewis kept watch at headquarters in El Paso. A suggestion 
to go across the border to Juarez was defeated by the refusal of the Mexican 
authorities, with whom the state department at Washington had been in com- 
munication. The fighters and their admirers finally were started eastward on 
the Southern Pacific, and the fight was "pulled off" just across the Rio Grande 
at a point near Langtry, Texas. 

The Legislature of 1899 cut off all appropriation for the National Guard, 
for some unknown reason only slightly connected with the opposition of labor 
organizations. The officers of the guard, for the succeeding two j'ears, led by 
Adj.-Gen. H. F. Robinson, themselves paid all incidental expenses of the organ- 
ization. The following Legislature, in March, 1901, passed a new militia code, 
giving authorization for the necessary expenses of the guard, established a 
salary for the adjutant-general and repaid him his expenditures. 

The Legislature of 1903 passed an act effective June 1 of that year fixing 
the period of employment of workingmen in all undei-ground mines at eight 
hours a day. Trouble started promptly on June 1, for a number of mining 
companies had made provision for an hourly rate of wages instead of the former 
payment by the day. The agitation covered practically every camp in the 
territory, but proved serious only in the Clifton District of Southeastern Ari- 
zona, where the mine owners had posted a wage schedule of nine hours' pay 
for eight hours' work. Inasmuch as the average compensation of the Mexican 
miners was only $2 a day, the new scale was considered below a living wage 
and so there was a sti'ike of 3,000 men and the enforced closing of the works 
of the Arizona, Detroit and Shannon copper companies. 

For the first few days, lacking union organization, the strikers lacked 
cohesiveness. Bands of them marched down upon mines and mills and enforced 
their demand for the stoppage of all industr}'. At Coronado thus was forced 
out of work a Roumanian, W. H. Laustenneau, better known as "Three-fingered 
Jack," who in another day had seized command of the strikers' forces. He was 
a wonderful liar. He told his followers that he had telegrams from President 
Roosevelt and from President Diaz, assuring him of support. On the strength 
of some military training in his native land, he organized 1,600 of the strikers 


into eight companies and evolved a clever plan of campaign by which he 
expected to capture the Town of Morenci. The plan failed, owing to two unfore- 
seen circumstances. The first was a heavy rainstorm, on June 9, that oppor- 
tunely swept down on the locality just as Laustenneau was marshaling his 
forces on the hills above the town. The other was the arrival of two battalions 
of National Guard Infantry on the afternoon of June 10. 

When trouble appeared imminent, the mine managers so informed Acting 
Governor I. T. Stoddard, who forthwith ordered out the greater part of the 
First Arizona Infantry, under Col. Jas. H. McClintock, acting adjutant-general, 
and also telegraphed the war department requesting that regular troops be sent 
to support. The National Guard reached Morenci with all expedition and 
totally unexpected by the rioters. The mining works and stores were being 
held by a splendid force of American employees of the several mining companies, 
reinforced by a score of Arizona Rangers led by Capt. T. H. Rynning. Also 
to be considered was a considerable force of deputy sherifEs headed by Sheriff 

The camp at once was surrounded with a cordon of soldiers who upheld the 
authority of the sheriff as he picked up a score of the leaders of the rioters. The 
bayonet had to be used in a number of cases, but no one was severely wounded 
on either side. The next day public meetings were dispersed and arrangements 
were being made by the mine officials for the reopening of their works, when 
the camp was reached by Colonel Lebo of the Fourteenth Cavalry, with five 
troops of dismounted cavalry from Forts Grant and Huachuca. The regulars 
remained in camp below the camp that evening and the next day the territory 
to be guarded was divided between them and the territorial troops. Within a 
week civic conditions had returned to about the usual state and all soldiery 
had departed save a garrison of one troop of the Third Cavalry, sent in from 
Fort Apache. 

In the latter part of 1915 more trouble materialized in the Clifton-Morenci 
District, where the miners struck for higher wages and for union recognition. 
The National Guard again was called in, under Adjutant-General Harris and 
Majors Donkersley and Grinstead, though with declared official sympathy with 
the strikers at the state capital. 

After the passage by Congress of the Dick militia act, the administration of 
the Arizona National Guard was given much better support, nationally and 
locally, and today the citizen soldiery of the state, in a full regiment of twelve 
companies, constitutes a remarkably effective force, well armed and equipped 
and weU trained. 



Possible Benefit of Harsh Natural Conditions — Few Grants Made in Arizona — The No- 
torious Peralta-Reavis Fraud and Horv It Was Uncovered — Work of the Court of 
Private Land Claims — Railway Subsid}) Grants — Modern Surveys. 

According to one of Arizona's latest and ablest territorial governors, the 
harsh natural conditions under which pioneering had to be done in Arizona, the 
very hostile fringe of Apaches, were not unmixed evils. Where Nature had 
more friendly aspect, as in the lands on either side, the valuable sections speedily 
were parcelled out to politicians of the day, and thereafter were kept in large 
blocks, wherein the later American settler had small show of entrance. Many 
of the fairest valleys of California and New Mexico still remain in single private 
holdings, where hundreds of homes should be. 

Few were the land grants of Arizona, and luckily they were placed upon 
few localities in which, in the end, they had blighting influence. It has seemed 
as though some beneficent power had saved the richer lands of Arizona for later 
and more beneficial uses. Today the valleys of the Salt and Gila and lower 
Colorado, saved from the Spanish land grant by desert passages and hostile 
Indians, know thousands of homes instead of a few great haciendas. 

Under the ancient laws of Spain, Nueva Espaiia was claimed by the monarch 
as a conquered kingdom. For facility in handling a settlement of the lands in 
1756, New Spain, exclusive of Upper and Lower California, was divided into 
twelve provinces, intendencias. One of these was the Intendencia of Sonora 
and Sinaloa, with headquarters at Arizpe, whereat most of the Arizona grants 

A bit of complication was afforded by the establishment of missions, each 
of which was granted ground for buildings and settlement farms and gar- 
dens. The missions particularly having lands in question in Arizona were 
Guebabi, on the present Arizona's southern edge, and Tumacacori and San 
Xavier in the Santa Cruz Valley. 

Grants had been made for various purposes from the time of the independ- 
ence of Mexico, around 1821, when the disposition of lands continued under 
about the same methods as before. 

The former intendencia covering upper Sonora became known as the Estado 
del Occidente. In 1825 the Sonora Legislature, which had the resounding title 
of the "Constituent Congress of the Free, Independent and Sovereign State of 
the West," passed a law under which much of the northern lands passed under 
private control. It would appear that most of the transfers eventually were 
abandoned for various reasons, particularly drouth and Apache raids. 



Under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in 1848, and the Gads- 
den Purchase, in 1853, the United States was bound to recognize all land titles. 
One of the principal duties of the surveyor-general of New Mexico, whose office 
was created in 1854, was to trace the validity and outline the boundaries of the 
various land grants. The same duty was put upon Surveyor-Genei'al John Was- 
son when he was appointed to the office of surveyor-general of Arizona in 1870. 
He and his successors colild do no more than to gather up the loose ends of 
the land grant claims. This in itself was a serious task till the whole sub.ject 
was referred finally to the Court of Private Land Claims, especially created to 
pass upon southwestern titles originating under the authority of Spain or 

Following is a tabulation of grants that were brought before the court, the 
acreage claimed and the acreage conferred: 

Acres Claimed Confirmed Eejected 

Peralta grant 10,467,456 10,467,4.56 

San Eafael de la Zanja 152,889 17,35.3 135,535 

San Ignacio del Baljaeomori 123,068 34,707 88,361 

El Sopori 141,721 141,721 

Tumacaoori, Calabazas y Guebabi 73,246 73,246 

Agua Prieta 68,530 68,530 

Tres Alamos 43,384 43,384 

San Ignacio de la Canoa 47,000 17,208 29,791 

San Pedro 37,000 37,000 

Los Nogales de Elias 32,763 32,763 

San Juan de las Boquillas y Nogales 30.728 17,355 13,372 

Aribac 26,508 26,508 

El Paso de las Algodones 21,692 21,692 

San Rafael del Valle 20,034 17,474 2,559 

Buena A'ista 18,648 7,128 11,520 

San Bernardino 8,688 2,366 6,321 

San Jose de Sonoita 12,147 7,592 4,555 

Reyes Pacheeo 600 600 

Total 11,326,108 121,187 11,204,920 

The San Rafael de la Zanja (of the ditch) grant dated from May, 1825, when 
a grant was made to Manuel Bustillo of four square leagues of land in the 
vicinity of the Presidio of Santa Cruz. It cost all of .$1,200, for there were other 
bidders. There was some confusion concerning this, for the Jlexican surveyor 
absentmindedly laid off four leagues square for good measure. This grant 
embraces a large amount of valuable grazing and farming land in the present 
County of Santa Cruz, including the mining camps of Harshaw and Washington 
in the Patagonia Mountains. The grant passed into the hands of the Cameron 
interests of Pennsylvania, and today is included within an enormous and very 
valuable cattle ranch. 

The San Ignacio del Babacomori grant lies in Cochise and Santa Cruz 
counties, in the neighborhood of the Presidio of Santa Cruz. The grant orig- 
inally was made to Ignacio and Eulalia Elias, brother and sister, to whom it was 
sold Decemlier 25. 1832, for the .sum of $380 for gi-azing purposes. The grantee 
under the court decision was Dr. E. B. Perrin. 


El Sopori graut, of 141,721 acres, was rejected ou the ground that "the 
original title papers were forged, antedated and otherwise were invalid." 

The grant of Tumacacori de las Calabazas y Guebabi, approved for the entire 
claim, dated back to 1806, when a grant of land was given Juan Laguna, gov- 
ernor of the ancient Indian Pueblo of Tumacacori, to replace title papers that 
had been lost and destroyed. There were two sections granting lauds for ' ' f undo 
legal" for pueblo territory, and for an "estancia" or stock farm. The district 
was abandoned, at least temporarily, and, in 1844, under an act of the i\Iexican 
Congress, was sold at auction, realizing the large sum of $500, paid by Francisco 
A. Aguilar, from whom title descended. 

The San Ignacio de la Canoa grant in the Presidio of Tubac was granted in 
1821 to Tomas and Ygnacio Ortiz at an approved valuation of $30 a square 
league. This grant was confirmed by the Mexican Government in 1849 and 
again by the United States on favorable report of the surveyor-general in 1880, 
placing the title in Frederick Maish and Thomas Driscoll of Tucson. 

The Boquillas graut lies along the San Pedro River. Title was given in 
1853 to Ignacio Elias Gonzales and Nepomuceno Felix for the sale price of $240. 
The ranch, which extended as far as the old settlement of Tres Alamos, was 
confirmed to the possession of George Hearst and Janet G. Howard. 

The San Rafael del Valle grant dated back to 1832, when it was sold for 
$240 to Rafael Elias Gonzales as a stock farm. About 1874 the tract was claimed 
under a mortgage by Camou Brothers of Sonora, in whom title finally was 

Buena Vista grant, more properly known as the Maria Santisima del Car- 
men, was located in the jurisdiction of the Presidio of Santa Ci'uz, Santa Cruz 
County. The original grant, October 24, 1831, was to Doiia Josefa Morales, 
from whom it had descended to Maish and Driscoll of Tucson. 

San Bernardino grant, situated in southern Cochise County, was sold by the 
Mexican Government ilarch 23, 1822, for $90, to Ignacio de Perez, from whom 
title had come to John H. Slaughter. 

The San Jose de Sonoita grant lay in the rich Sonoita Valley, about twenty- 
five miles southeast of Tubac and six miles northeast of Calabazas, and was 
granted May 15, 1825, to Leon Henores, on payment of $105. The title was 
finally vested in Matias Alsus. 


Especially interesting was the application for title to the Baca Float Grant 
No. 3, a matter settled in the ordinary courts. Its basis was the purchase by 
the United States of a valuable grant in Northern New Mexico near the Town 
of Las Vegas from Luis Maria Baca, he receiving as consideration permission 
to take rights for the selection of five tracts of approximately 100,000 acres 
each. Two of these rights were placed in New Mexico, one in Colorado and two 
in Arizona. One of the Arizona "Floats" is in Western Yavapai County near 
Walnut Creek, and is owned by Dr. R. E. Perrin. The other right, on June 
20, 1863, was dropped upon land in the upper Santa Cruz Valley, including the 
settlements of Tubac and Tumacacori and Calabazas. The claim was made 
within three days of the expiration of the three years' limit and was governed 
by stipulation that the land taken was to be non-mineral in character and 


vacant, both of which conditions, it is claimed, were disregarded. The claim 
was located by John S. Watt, who in 1861-62 was delegate to Congress from 
the Territory of New Mexico. At that session he took occasion to praise highly 
the riches of Arizona. Possibly a speech of his is worth interpolation : 

An Italian sunset never threw its gentle rays over more lovely valleys or heaven-kissing 
hills; valleys harmonious with the music of a thousand sparkling rills; mountains shining with 
untold millions of mineral wealth, wooing the hand of capital and labor to jiossess and use it. 
The virgin rays of the morning sun first kiss the brow of its lofty mountains, and the parting 
beams of the setting sun linger fondly around their sublime summits, unwiUing to leave to 
darkness and to night such beauty and such grandeur. If there be a single thought which 
lights up the ofttimes gloomy pathway of the faithful legislator, it is the sweet reflection that 
he has been inttrumeutal in protecting the rights of a distant, feeble and oppressed peoples 
against the merciless barbarities of a powerful and treacherous savage foe. Let it not be said 
of us that while we were ready to spend untold millions of money and thousands of lives to 
protect our own lives and property, the appeal of this distant people falls upon our bosoms, 
' ' Cold as moonbeams on the barren heath. ' ' 

And all this language was merely incident to grabbing some land. 

The Baca ease was decided adversely to the Baca heirs through the various 
grades of the land office, and by the Secretary of the Interior. It then went 
into the courts and though its area was materially shrunk, decision was finally 
given for the plaintiffs in the Supreme Court of the United States in 1914. The 
situation on the grant was a serious one. Seventy families were resident, one 
of them for forty-five years, and many for twenty-five years. George W. Atkin- 
son, whose residence on the land had been for thirty-seven years, spent $40,000 
in fighting the ease and offered the heirs $250,000 for their interest, but failed. 
Patents had been issued by the United States for some of the land as far back 
as twenty-two years ago. The Arizona Legislature has memorialized Congress 
asking that relief be given to these victims of land litigation, and that they be 
permitted at least lieu rights on other Government lands. 


The first of the land grant claims noted, the Peralta, was one of the monu- 
mental frauds of the Western Hemisphere, a spurious claim to a tract of land 
236 miles long and seventy-eight miles wide, the center of its western end at 
the junction of the Gila and Salt rivers and its eastern line beyond Silver City, 
New ]\Iexico. It was pushed by a master crook, James Addison Reavis, who 
appeared first in Arizona in 1880, then a subscription solicitor for the San 
Francisco Examiner. He was successful in extending the circulation of his 
journal, in which he published a number of articles describing the country in 
florid language, particularly commending some Cave Creek mining properties 
of very dubious value. It is probable that his trip was merely to spy out the 
land, for his documents later showed that his claim had been in incubation for 

Reavis' first attack upon Arizona's domain was on' the basis of the Willing 
grant, which may have had some shadow of right on a small tract on the lower 
Gila. January 3, 1885, Reavis filed with the surveyor-general of Arizona an 
application for the survey and confirmation of the grant, in which it M'as 
alleged: "That the grant had been made December 20, 1748, by Fernando VI. 


King of Spain, who in accordance with a memorial of the Inquisition and the 
recommendation of the Council of Commerce and of the Judge of Appeals, and 
in conformity with an order of the Military Tribunal, in consideration of and 
as compensation for great and valuable services, as well also for the energetic 
conduct of important battles in the service of the Crown, had conferred upon 
the Sefior Don Miguel de Peralta de Cordoba the honorable title of Baron of the 
Colorados, and commanding the Viceroy of New Spain, now Mexico, in the 
name of the Crown, to grant and concede to Senor Don Miguel de Peralta de 
Cordoba, according to the common measurement, 300 square leagues, or 19,200,- 
000,000 sqi;are varas of land, to be situated in the northern portion of the 
Vieroyalty of New Spain." 

In 1757, according to Reavis' documents, the grant was made north of San 
Xavier del Bac, to measure ten leagues by thirty, this with the approbation 
of Father Pauver (Paner) and Father Garcia (Garces) as not conflicting with 
the claims for mission lands. Reavis had a formidable lot of documents of 
quaint phraseology and ancient appearance, and wherever his chain of title 
was lacking, he had well-attested copies. All of these brought the title down 
to Miguel Peralta, who had deeded it to Willing in 1864. 

Willing is said to have interested Reavis in the matter in St. Joseph, Missouri. 
The first documents presented by Reavis showing his entry into the claim was 
a deed dated in 1867 from Willing 's attorney-in-fact. 

The claim started a veritable panic in the thickly settled Gila and Salt River 
valleys, where Reavis, in person and by paid agents, spread the story of his 
alleged rights upon the land, water and mines. The matter was made the prin- 
cipal issue of the congressional campaign of 1887, and Marcus A. Smith was 
re-elected delegate to Congress largely on the basis of his opposition to a plan 
that had been broached for the creation of a board of private land claims to 
adjudicate the rights of Reavis as well as the title to other land grant claims 
within the Southwest. There was a general impression that Reavis had a legal 
claim. At that time such matters could only be settled in Congress, and 
Representative Smith, declaring against the land-court plan, assured the people 
of his ability to block any action adverse to their interests. Thomas Wilson, 
the republican nominee, admitting his belief in the beginning of the campaign 
that he saw no better place to adjust such matters than in the courts, was 
condemned at once and he was snowed under at the polls. But the bill estab- 
lishing the Court of Private Land Claims passed Congress soon thereafter. 

After all of this, Reavis took another tack. In Northern California he found 
him a wife, whom he claimed to be the only blood descendant of Don Miguel de 
Peralta de Cordova. He said that he had accidentally discovered her in a 
Mexican hamlet where he was investigating the Willing title and where she 
contributed some documents showing her birth, christening and parentage, and 
that she was the survivor of twin children, the last of the Peralta line. After 
that he prosecuted the claim entirely on the basis of his wife's interest. 

Here it might be told that the bride was a halfbreed Indian woman, who 
had lived for much of her life on an Indian reservation in Northern California, 
and who had no connection whatever with any Mexican history. She was taken 
to Mexico to establish "local color" and was drilled daily for years in the 
story she was to teU. All of this she later confessed after evidence was pre- 


sented of her true origin and her life in the upper Sacramento Valley. Even 
the date of Reavis' marriage to her seems to have been falsified. 


In an advertisement in the San Francisco Examiner of date March 15, 1894, 
Reavis himself described the tract in these words: 

One of the largest and best portions of the territory is the immense tract known as the 
Barony of Arizona, the property of J. A. Peraltareavis, which is now to be colonized on a 
large scale. The tract contains 12, .500, 000 acres and is known as the Peralta Grant, and is an 
old feudal property dating back to the time of Philip V of Spain, who granted it to Don 
Miguel Nemecio Silva de Peralta de la Cordoba in 1742. The grantee was a lineal ancestor 
of Mrs. Peraltareavis, a resident of California, into whose possession it has fallen by the 
Spanish law of primogeniture succession. The property has teen in litigation for some 
years, but in November last the United States Court of Private Land Claims finally determined 
the exact boumlaries of the estate, and thereby practically sealed Mrs. Peraltareavis' claims. 
A clear title to any or all of the property is thereby assured. There are few individual 
propel ties in New Mexico and Arizona so vast in extent and so admirably located for 
colonization purposes as, the Peralta Grant. Beginning at the west end of the "monumental 
stone" situated at the most eastern base of the Maricopa Mountain, at the eastern extremity of 
the Sierra Estrellas, on the south bank of the Gila Eiver, opposite the mouth of the Salt River, 
the line goes north 39.41535 miles, crossing the Gila and Salt rivers to a point; thence east 
236.4921 miles to a point; thence southerly at right angles a distance of 7S.S307 miles to a 
point; thence west a distance of 236.4921 miles to a point; thence north a distance of 39.41535 
miles to the point of beginning, having been granted by metes and bounds. The grant 
embraces the Gila, Salt, San Pedro and San Carlos rivers as water-courses. It is impossible 
to estimate the value of this immense property, blessed as it is in mineral and agricultural 
resources. It contains the most famous mineral belt in Arizona, that of the Pinal Range, 
with the adjacent mountains in close proximity to these abundant streams; also the renowned 
Deer Creek coal fields, the largest coal measure yet discovered in America, and an anthracite 
deposit near the Gila Buttes which promises to surpass anything yet developed. Within the 
boundaries of the grant many important mining camps have sprung up, notably Silver King, 
Cliiton, Silver City and Old Dominion. The Town of Phoenix lies within the border, as do 
also Florence, Globe, Solomonville and Silver City. The Southern Pacific Railroad cuts across 
the southwest corner. Numerous branch lines which are to traverse the very heart of this great 
property have already been surveyed and their projection is the question of only a short time. 

Reavis described the wonderful fertility of the valleys of the Salt and Gila, 
which he proposed to irrigate by storing waters of the two rivers. One storage 
dam was to be "at the Little Tonto Basin," with a reservoir capacity of 989,- 
600,000,000 cubic feet. Another reservoir was to be located at The Buttes, about 
ten miles above Florence on the Gila, with an area of thirty-two square miles 
and with capacity of 67,540,432,425 cubic feet. From the latter was to be built 
a canal 200 feet wide and 25 feet deep, to extend to a point on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad near Red Rock, and thence westward to cover the Maricopa 
plains, designed to supply 6,000,000 acres with abundant water at all times of 
the year. The surplus water unused by these 6,000,000 aci-es was to be returned 
to the Gila River by means of spillway ditches. At another point in the same 
argument is reference to the irrigation of 1,000,000 acres of land below Flor- 
ence by means of a tunnel from the dam at The Buttes. All of this is very 
refreshing, inasmuch as the damsite at The Buttes long ago was rejected as an 
impossible one and inasmuch as the flow of the Gila River above Florence has 
finally been adjudged by army engineers to be sufficient for the irrigation of 


not over 90,000 acres. These figures should be considered in connection with 
Eeavis' careful provision of means for the returning to the Gila River of any 
surplus of v^ater after irrigating 6,000,000 acres on the plains. 

At Tonto Basin he told of almost vertical walls 2,000 feet high, within 
which a dam 450 feet high was to be built, with sixty-three discharge pipes 
carrying water into the box eaiion, "an impregnable chasm as dark as night," 
from which it is to be taken eight miles from the dam by means of tunnels lead- 
ing out upon the plains to the north and south. The tunnel to the southward, 
through the Superstition Mountains, was to be 44,615 feet in length, with a 
fifty-mile waterway at its end, to connect with the Gila Buttes reservoir. 

The total cost of all these projects was estimated at $12,535,637.00. It is 
possible that this southern tunnel referred to would have been nearer forty-four 
miles long than the length given, through one of the broadest mountain ranges 
in all Arizona. But it is evident that Reavis had to have some scheme such as 
this to contribute to his main plan, which was the irrigation of what now is 
known as the Casa Grande-Maricopa plain. 


Eeavis established headquarters of his Barony at Arizola, on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, a short distance east of Casa Grande Station. There he main- 
tained his family in state, with his two children clad in royal pm-ple velvet, with 
monogram coronets upon their Russian caps. To different people he had differ- 
ent tales. He generally stated that the mines were his by right and also all of 
the land, but that he proposed, particularly, to appropriate to himself the 
water and thus control everything agricultural. Around Phoenix and Florence, 
after his agents had laid the groundwork, Reavis sold clearances of title, and 
some of them were placed upon record in Maricopa County. Everywhere re- 
ports were spread that the title had been pronounced absolutely flawless by 
Robert G. Ingei'soll and other great lawyers, that the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road had purchased, for $50,000, its right-of-way from Reavis across the Peralta 
estate and that the Silver King mine had contributed largely to his funds to 
secure against possible loss. It was told that in Phoenix, when several of the 
principal property owners refused to "come through," Reavis executed deeds 
to their property to covetous third parties. Thus, in divers ways, he secured 
funds for the carrying on of his fight. It is probable that most of his money 
came from weak-kneed, fearful land owners and not from eastern capitalists, 
as was reported at the time. 

Reavis traveled very little in Arizona after his campaign was well under 
way, for he might have been treated harshly, but at first he was very open in 
his methods, even taking some of his documents around to establish credence of 
his tale. Editor Tom Weedin in Florence, looking over the Reavis papers, dis- 
covered that one very ancient document was printed in type that had been 
invented only a few years before. Surveyor General Johnson on another an- 
cient document, a deed, found the water mark of a "Wisconsin paper mill. 

There was testimony to the effect that from 1887 until 1893 the Reavis family 
spent $60,000 a year, living at expensive hotels in New York and at points in 
Europe, especially at Madrid, where a retinue of servants was maintained, 
together with carriages of almost royal character. The American Legation at 


ISIadrid would faiu forget a banquet given by Reavis in its honor, although the 
spread was a wonderful one. 

In further researches in jMexico, Reavis took his family and servants Ln a 
private car. At Guadalajara, he gave $1,000 for new altar cloths for the 
cathedral. At filonterey on the plaza he set up a $1,500 drinking fountain to 
honor the memorj' of his wife's suppositious ancestor. He established homes 
in Washington, St. Louis and Chihuahua, as well as Arizona. When the claim 
was transferred into the Land Court with it came a great accumulation of 
alleged original records, mainly in Spanish, ancient parchments, many of them 
with illuminated headings, and even there were copies of oil paintings of the 
Peraltas, from whom had descended the Barony of the Colorados. Testimony 
had been provided concerning the genealogj' of the Northern California bride. 

The chief attorney for the court was Matthew G. Reynolds of Missouri. 
He secured the assistance of Severo Mallet Prevost, a Spanish scholar, who 
went on the trail of the Reavis evidence which had been accumulated during a 
period of over eighteen years of labor and scheming. Bribery, corruption and 
fraud were found everywhere touched in Mexico and Spain. Reavis with all his 
care had been a bit careless. It was found where he had bought his photo- 
graphs, where he had bribed officials and sought to bribe priests, where he had 
interpolated very cleverly written pages into old record books, and the most 
important document of all, the eedula appointing Don Miguel Peralta as 
Baron of the Colorados, on microscopic examination was discovered once to 
have been a royal document of very different sort. 

The claim was unanimously rejected by the Justices of the Land Court, and 
the same day Reavis was arrested on five indictments for conspiracy. He was 
convicted in January, 1895, and sentenced to six years in the Santa Fe 


Reavis served his light sentence, and got time credits for good behavior. 
When released he was far from being the same debonair character he had 
been. He was a thin old man, with whitened hair and a stoop, but with much 
of the same mental vigor as of yore. He is still drifting around in the West. 
For a while he went back to his old business as canvasser, and in 1910 he 
worked hard to float a scheme for water storage on the Gila River, to irrigate 
500.000 acres of the Casa Grande and ]\Iesa plains. 

Reavis does not deny his guilt, for some time after serving his sentence he 
wrote a confession, complete though brief, as follows: 

I am of Scoteh-'Welsh antecedents, with a traditional Spanish extraction in the remote 
generations. Three of my great grandparents fought in the Bevolution. I was reared in 
Henry County, Mo. In May, 1861, at the age of 3 8, I enlisted in the Confederate army, 
and during my life as a soldier committed my first crime. I forged an order, and being 
successful in this, I raised a furlough, and lefore this expired I surrendered to the Union 
forces. After the war I worked as a street car conductor, but subsequently opened a real 
estate oiEce in St. Louis. I was successful in forging a title to sustain a tax title to some 
valuable land I had bought, not knowing the title was imperfect. But these are incidents in 
which there is little interest. However, success in these early evils sowed the seed that later 
sprang forth into the most gigantic fraud of this century. 



The plan to secure the Peralta Grant and defraud the Government out of land valued 
at $100,000,000 was not conceived in a day. It was the result of a series of crimes extending 
over nearly a score of years. At first the stake was small, but it grew and grew in magnitude 
until even I sometimes was appaUed at the thought of the possibilities. I was playing a game 
which to win meant greater wealth than that of a Gould or a Vanderbilt. My hand constantly 
gained strength, noted men pleaded my cause, and unlimited capital was at my command. 
My opponent was the Government, and I baffled its agents at every turn. Gradually I became 
absolutely confident of success. As I neared the verge of the triumph I was exultant and sure. 
Until the very moment of my downfall I gave no thought to failure. But my sins found me 
out and as in the twinkle of an eye I saw the millions which had seemed already in my grasp 
fade away and heard the courts doom me to a prison cell. 

ISfow I am growing old and the thing hangs upon me like a nightmare until I am driven 
to make a clean breast of it all, that I may end my days in peace. 

In Denver, Sophia L. M. Peraltareavis, who described herself as wife of 
James Addison Peraltareavis (a name later adopted by Reavis), sued for 
divorce on the ground of non-support for over two years, and she was allowed 
to pi-osecute her case as a person without means. The plaintiif at the time 
lived in a narrow little room at the far end of a dark, smelly hall, in a cheap 
Larimer Street lodging house in Denver, under very different conditions than 
those she had enjoyed during the palmy days of the great fraud. She stated 
that the marriage was in San P'rancisco, December 31, 1882, and she asked the 
custody of the twin boys of the union, Carlos and Jliguel. 

A variation of the ordinary land grant case is one which cropped up only 
about a year ago on the basis of an agreement said to have been made in 1880 
by Jose Maria Ochoa, head chief of seventeen Papago villages, and a number of 
other chiefs and captains, giving an undivided half interest in 3,284 square 
miles of laud to Robert F. Hunter of Washington, D. C, for his services in 
verifying Papago claims to land on which they lived, their rights having had 
acknowledgment by the Mexican government. This claim has been taken into 
the courts and is now in the process of adjudication. It includes lands almost 
vrholly within Pima County and generally desert in character. 

With the grant of a right-of-way for the Atlantic and Pacific Railway across 
Arizona came also a governmental subsidy of every alternate section of land 
for thirty miles north and south. While much of this land is desert in char- 
acter, the gift was a rich one in the mountains of Arizona, where from east of 
Flagstaff to a point west of Williams, most of the way was through heavy 
timber. Immense sums were secured by the railroad company by the sale of 
stumpage to sawmills at different points and the company itself at the begin- 
aing materially decreased the cost of construction by the ready availability of 
lumber for ties and other construction material. 

Much of the railroad land north of Williams and at other points was not 
timbered, save possibly with juniper and pinon, yet much of this sort of terrain 
was embraced within an order for the consolidation of the San Francisco Moun. 
tain forest reserve secured from the Government early in 1901, when lieu 
land scrip was issued for an enormous acreage. For several years a diligent 
lobby had been working in Washington toward this end. A number of plausible 
reasons had been advanced in support of consolidation. It was urged that the 
Government or the state-to-be could hardly receive any revenue from land that 


lay in parcels of ouly oue square mile, that it was necessary to have govern- 
mental supervision by the Forestry Bureau over the entire tract, that future 
crops of pine might be saved and that the vpatersheds would be protected, 
though this last item had little force from the fact that the forests around 
Flagstaff and Williams almost wholly drain toward the north, into the Colorado. 

The odd-numbered sections, held by the Santa Fe-Pacifie Railroad Com- 
pany, the Perrin Brothers and Wm. F. Baker, were turned over to the Govern- 
ment in exchange for 225,000 acres of non-timbered lands south of the twenty- 
seventh parallel and land scrip was given for the remainder. By executive 
order of August 17, 1898, all of the even numbered sections, embracing 975,000 
acres, had been set apail within the San Francisco Mountain forest reserve. 
Baker represented the Saginaw & Manistee Lumber Company. The Santa Fe 
had holdings of 341,543 acres and the others of 369,955, in all valued for 
taxation at about $177,000. This listing, according to a protest filed in January, 
1901, by Coconino County, did not embrace 300,000 uusurveyed acres or nearly 
$500,000 worth of cattle, horses and sheep. It was shown in the protest that 
nearly half of the assessed valuation of Coconino County would be removed by 
reason of the consolidation. The same protest was made in House Memorial 
No. 1, passed by the next Legislature. 

The scrip secured was widely scattered. Some of it was placed in northern 
California in the center of great piue and redwood forests and only lately has 
the last been sold, generally placed in southern Arizona on lands considered 
susceptible to irrigation. One block of 70,000 acres thus was placed northwest 
of Phoenix. 

The Santa Fe under its subsidy grant successfully had fought any attempt 
of the territorial or county authorities to tax its right of way, equipment or 
franchises. So, about the time of the lieu land troubles, there was a com- 
promise, the railroad company offering to pay $175 per mile annually on its 
trackage through Arizona. This arrangement continued till statehood, when 
the Santa Fe went under the same taxation regulations as other transportation 

The Southern Pacific claimed all grants that had been made the Texas 
Pacific and alternate sections along its route, as far northward as the Salt 
River Valley were known as railroad land and were considered as locally held 
under rather poor tenure. This grant was vacated in 1884. 

In January, 1908, President Roosevelt issued a proclamation making a 
national monument of the Grand Canon and another creating an addition to 
the Tonto National Forest, as protection for the water supply of the Salt River 
Valley. Most of the forested area of the state now is under reserve regulation. 

The Roosevelt Lake has been made a bird presei-ve by national proclamation. 
The Casa Grande ruins and certain cliff dwellings have been protected as 
national monuments. Between Phcenix and Tempe a tract of 2,000 rocky acres 
was set aside by the interior department in March, 1915, as the Saguara National 


When Arizona was made a territory in 1863, it was included within the 
official district of Sur\'eyor General John A. Clark of New Mexico, who visited 




tlie uew country iu 1863 and would appear to have made a rather extensive 
trip about two years later for iu a report of :May 24, 1865, he told of visiting, 
on a conical hill at the junction of the Gila and Salado, the monument estab- 
lished in 1851 by A. B. Gray, United States surveyor, in the course of the 
international boundary survey. The monument and the hill upon which it was 
erected having such commanding position, Mr. Clark announced that he had 
selected the monument as the initial point from which surveys of the new 
territory would be made. On this same trip Clark recommended that the 
Apaches be placed on a reservation below Pueblo Viejo on the Gila, which 
would have included the present Saiford district. 

The first surveys on the established Gila and Salt River base line and 
meridian were made in 1867 and the first township surveys a year later. Some 
of these old surveys, especially in the mesquite forests of the southern valleys, 
appear to have been made by the "mark-on-a -wheel" method and have been 
found most inaccurate. 

With the new ofificers of the Territory of Arizona came a surveyor general, 
Levi Bashford of Wisconsin, but nothing can be found to indicate that he did 
anything in an ofScial capacity. It may have been that Congress gave him no 
support in the office, for in July, 1864, Arizona was made a part of the district 
of the surveyor general of New Mexico and $10,000 was appropriated for the 
survey of public lauds in Arizona. In 1867 Arizona was attached to the survey 
district of California. At the same time the land district of Arizona was 
created. July 11, 1870, Arizona was made a separate surveying district, and 
on the following day John Wasson was named as suiweyor general. He entered 
on the duties of his office November 5, 1870, and served three terms until 
August, 1882. Wasson was succeeded by J. W. Robbius, who died in 1883, when 
the office was filled by Royal A. Johnson, who held the place till December 11, 
1885. To succeed Johnson, President Cleveland appointed John Hise of Globe, 
whose place was filled in July, 1889, by the reappointment of Johnson. The 
democrats coming in again in 1892, the office went to Levi H. Manning, who 
resigned in April, 1896. Then a special consideration of competency was shown 
in the selection of George Roskruge, who had been chief draughtsman under 
A¥asson, and who was one of the best known surveyors of the territory. With 
the incoming of the republican administration in 1897, the place was taken by 
George Christ, who had been the first collector at the Port of Nogales. In 1901, 
Hugh H. Price was made surveyor general and in March, 1902, the office was 
removed from Tucson to Phoenix, where the records were housed in the terri- 
torial capitol. On the removal of Mr. Price, 1903, Major Frank S. Ingalls of 
Yuma, was appointed and now is in his third official term. Mr. Ingalls is a 
civil engineer by profession, his experience dating back to 1878. He has been 
superintendent of the territorial penitentiaiy and also a member of the Legis- 

In 1870 a land office for Arizona was established at Prescott and notation has 
been found of the official existence, during the following year, of W. J. Berry 
as register and George Loimt as receiver. The former iu 1873 was succeeded 
by W. N. Kelly, and Kelly and Lount were still in office as late as 1881. The 
Gila land office at Florence was opened June 2, 1873, with Levi Ruggles as regis- 
ter and Martin L. Styles as receiver. For a Avhile Charles D. Poston was 


register, but the office in his time was very far from being lucrative. In 1881 
the Florence office was removed to Tucson, where it remained until 1906, when 
both Arizona offices were consolidated at Phoenix. 

One of the last general surveys made by the United States in the Southwest 
was that of Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler of the corps of engineers, who, in 1871, 
headed a large party that platted much of the country between Reno, Nevada, 
and Tucson, running lines that aggregated 6,327 miles, covering 83,000 square 
miles of territory. The report of the expedition is extremely well written and 
is very interesting from both scientific and literary standpoints. Whether in- 
tentionally or not, the expedition followed the general line of the great rim of 
the MogoUon Mountains, the great uplift that divides Arizona into two 
climatic zones. Toward the northwest it was traced ks forming one of the walls 
of Diamond Canon, there crossing the Colorado and extending indefinitely 
toward the northwest into Utah and Nevada. 




Visits to Arizona Made b^ Hayes, McKinley, Roosevelt and Taft — Expositions, Fairs 
and Fiestas — HoJV Shark Island SwalloTved Arizonans — Santa Teresa's Power — 
Clifton Foundlings — Arizona's Subdivisions — Utah's Aspirations — Census and As- 
sessment Figures. 

Arizona has been honored by visits from four Presidents of the United States. 
The first was in October, 1880, by Rutherford B. Hayes, who started the since 
common fashion among Presidents of swinging around the great circle. Gen- 
eral Hayes came from the West. He had to leave the railroad for the passage 
of a stretch within New Mexico, for the Southern Pacific had been completed 
eastward only to a point near Deming. This wagon journey was made in army 
ambulances. At Maricopa, on the 23d, was made a stop of several hours, in 
order that the President might confer with a number of Indian chiefs who had 
been gathered there. A more than sufficient guard was provided by a troop of 
the Sixth Cavalry from Fort McDowell, led by Capt. Adna R. Chaffee, in later 
years the hero of campaigns in Cuba, the Philippines and China. The Presi- 
dent was accompanied by a large part of his official family, including the then 
commanding officer of the regular amiy. Gen. Wm. T. Sherman. 

It is said that at this Maricopa stop Sherman evolved what later was 
credited to many sources. Standing on the platform of a railway coach, he 
snorted as he looked over the plain and ejaculated: "What a hell of a coun- 
try!" The remark was heard by Capt. W. A. Hancock of Phcenix, who mildly 
retorted: "Why, General, it is not such a bad country; we have to the north 
a rich agricultural valley and mines. Possibly Arizona is a little bit warm, 
but all she needs is more water and better immigration." Again Sherman 
snorted: "Huh! Less heat! More water! Better society! That's all hell 
needs." It is to be deplored that General Sherman died before he could see 
the agricultural valleys of Arizona, well watered and with a much better class 
of people settled within them, utilizing the heat for the growth of almost every 
imaginable product of the soil. The conference with the Indians led to nothing 
at all. Several thousand Indians had gathered, mainly Pimas, Maricopas, 
Papagos and Yumas, all peaceful tribes, and the principal query of their chiefs 
was, why the bad Apaches should be giveu rations while they had nothing. 
At Tucson the President was dined and at other points along the road enter- 
tainment was offered, though the route of the railroad was not departed from 
by the party. It is therefore doubtful whether President Hayes gained a much 
better idea of the country than that expressed by his military aid. 


PRESIDENT Mckinley sees a mine 

There was a long intei"val before a chief executive of the nation again 
entered Arizona. May 7, 1900, President William jMcKinley entered Arizona 
on the Southern Pacific from the East, making the journey at night through 
to the Congress mine, seventy miles northwest of Phoenix, where Gov. N. 0. 
Mui-phy had provided unique entertainment in a view of the operation of the 
deepest gold mine of the Southwest. The President did not go to the bottom of 
the 3,000-foot shaft, though the greater number of the members of his party 
were dropped into the bowels of the earth in decorated ore cars. But the 
President walked through the upper .workings and through the mill, and in 
the cyanide works witnessed the pouring of a bar of gold bullion weighing 1,221 
ounces. Mrs. McKinley was presented with a small gold bar as a souvenir of 
the visit and each lady in the party received a small gold nugget. 

The return to Phoenix, May 8, M'as delayed until nearly 2 p. m. owing to 
an accident to the motive power. At the capital city had been gathered thou- 
sands of people from all over the territory, who. were given only about a three- 
hour view of the chief executive. In that time, however. Major McKinley, with 
his characteristic kindness of heart, submitted to being rushed through a pro- 
gramme that involved a formal luncheon, a parade, a visit to the capitol and a 
trip out to the Phoenix Indian School^ where a thousand tired little redskins 
unintentionally thumbed their noses as they extended to the President the 
lionor of a military salute. The presidential train left at 5 o'clock and Yuma 
got only an evening glimpse of his passage. 

During the greater part of his stay in Ai'izoua, while his special train was 
speeding along the Southern Pacific lines, the safety of the President lay in 
the hands of a woman, Mrs. Nona Pease, a dispatcher in the general superin- 
tendent's office at Tucson, who handled the train all the way from Tucson to 


Colonel Roosevelt has made four trips into Arizona. On the first he was on 
a westward leg of a journey to the coast and found time only for a visit to the 
Grand Caiion, May 6, 1903. Thei'e he was met by about 800 Arizonans, includ- 
ing a number of Rough Riders, led by Gov. A. O. Brodie, who had been the 
regiment's lieutenant-colonel. Colon'el Roosevelt, in an address on the steps 
of the old Grand Caiion Hotel, asked for the preservation of the Caiion with 
its wild beauty unmarred by any of the coarser works of man. He said, "I 
hope you will not have a building of any kind, not a summer cottage or hotel 
or anything else to mar the wonder of its grandeur and its sublimity, the great 
loveliness and beauty of the Caiion. Leave it as it is; you cannot improve on 
it ; not a bit. The ages have been at work on it and man can only mar it. 
What you can do is to keep it for your children and for all who come after you 
as one of the great sights which every American, if he can travel at all, should 
see." The President was given a beautiful Bayete Navajo blanket by the 
people of Flagstaff. He presented diplomas to the graduating class of the 
Flagstaff High School and in return received from the class a buckskin Navajo 
boot, handsomelv marked and adorned with a silver buckle. With the boot 


was a bit of verse written by Harrison Conrard, county superintendent of 
schools, wbich read in part : 

Drawn from the deer that track our wild, 
Tanned by tlie skill of a brown-hued chilil ; 
Shaped by the magif of his best hand — 
Accept this tribute from us, who bring 
Our loyal love with its offering. 

A number of Civil War veterans at Bisbee, knowing Roosevelt's inclination 
toward the wild, had thoughtfully presented the President with a large and 
rather smelly black bear, but this was sidetracked at Phoenix and shipped to 
the zoological gardens at Washington. 

The second visit made by Colonel Roosevelt was a far more important one, 
for he came, March 18, 1911, to dedicate to the cause of agricultural advance- 
ment the great dam and water storage reservoir, to which had been given his 
name. Colonel Roosevelt on this trip again visited the Grand Caiion. He and 
Mrs. Roosevelt spent a day with their son, Archie, who was a pupil in a private 
school at Mesa, but the rest of the time the Colonel had activity assuredly of a 
strenuous sort. The trip from Phoenix to Roosevelt was made by automobile 
and absolutely without accident to any of the twenty-four cars that constituted 
what was termed the official party. Several hundred automobiles made the 
trip, but the traffic was handled by the Reclamation Service officials in a 
marvelously efficient way and there were few accidents. 

The return to Mesa was made the next day, which happened to be Sunday, 
and Monday was almost wholly devoted to Phoenix, including a speech on the 
plaza, an address to children and another in connection with the dedication of 
Bishop Atwood's St. Luke's Home for consumptives. At the plaza meeting he 
had assured the people of their right to try out any method of govei'nment they 
saw fit to choose and even to insist upon the recall of judges, something to 
which Taft had expressed bitter opposition. He was the guest at an elaborate 
luncheon tendered him by about twoscore of the Arizona members of his regi- 
ment. Departure was over the Santa Fe for Los Angeles at 4 :20 p. ra. Colonel 
Roosevelt made a rapid trip through Arizona in September, 1912, while cam- 
paigning as the progressive candidate for the Presidency, speaking at Phoenix. 
The fourth trip was for pleasure, in August, 1913, into the wilds north of the 
Grand Canon. The Colorado was crossed by cable at the foot of Bright Angel 
Trail. After a season of bear and lion hunting, return was by way of Lee's 
Ferry, in time to see the Hopi snake dance. 


In 1909, by the use of considerable influence and no small amount of diplo- 
macy. President Taft was induced to alter his itinerarj' and to include Arizona's 
capital within his hurried trip across the territory. The presidential train, 
coming from the West, reached Phoenix on the morning of October 13. It was 
met at Yuma by Governor Sloan and an official party and was escorted by the 
governor and a somewhat changed committee northward to the Grand Caiion. 
The presidential train was stopped back of the capitol building and its occupants 
were driven to the capitol, where there was a brief i-eception. Then the Presi- 


dent was taken to the plaza, where he addressed a tremendous crowd. The 
address particularly covered the subject of approaching statehood and a blunt 
warning was given that any constitution containing freak measures such as had 
been adopted in Oklahoma could hardly expect approval at his hands. There 
was to have been an address to the school children, but Major Archie Butt 
thought he saw danger somewhere in the crowd and the party went on to the 
Indian School and thence to Alhambra, where the train was regained. The 
two-score of Arizona politicians and business men who had come along to do 
the President honor saw little of him, however, on this northern trip, wherein 
the President showed a preference for bridge rather than for political conversa- 
tion. There was a brief stop at Prescott, that the President might address a 
gathering at the courthouse, and then the Grand Caiion was reached. 

The President had his first view of the caiion about 9 in the morning. Solidly 
braced upon his puttee-incased legs, the President looked for a few moments 
until he found the proper word. It was, "Stupendous!" Roosevelt had said, 
"Awful." There was another pause till someone in the rear remarked some- 
thing about the contact of the two greatest of their kind and the ice was 
broken. There was a picnic luncheon at Grand View to the eastward and a 
sunset trip to the westward, in all giving thirty-five miles of riding to bring 
appetite for an elaborate banquet, tendered the President and his party that 
evening by Governor Sloan. At the supper, following some pleasant remarks 
by the specially honored guest, Postmaster-General Hitchcock made a keynote 
speech that rather bound upon the President fullest support of statehood. The 
wishes of Arizona were presented at the banquet board by Chief Justice Kent, 
Frank M. Murphy and former Congressman Marcus A. Smith, the last named 
expressing a hope that the constitution of the state that was about to be should 
follow close upon the plans of the Constitution of the United Sates, which he 
declared "a God-given document." The President went eastward that evening, 
Governor Sloan continuing with him to Albuquerque. Much pleasant publicity 
had been expected in Arizona by reason of the presidential visit. In reality, 
about all that was printed in the eastern papers served to continue the impres- 
sion that the territory was a land of Indians, dust and desolation. 


Probably the first exposition in which Arizona had representation was that 
of Vienna in 1873. A resident of Prescott, Chas. A. Luke, wanted to go back 
to Europe with something of an official stamp of credit, so an act was passed 
by the Seventh Legislature giving the governor authority to appoint a com- 
missioner to the Vienna Exposition, such commissioner to act without compensa- 
tion for his services and to have no authority to impose any liability on the 
territory by virtue of his appointment. Despite the restrictions of the act, later 
legislatures had before them a bill for the commissioner's expenses and, finally, 
in Zulick's administration, there was an appropriation of $2,400 to satisfy the 
insistent claim. The exhibit mainly comprised ore specimens contributed from 
Northern Arizona mines. 

Gov. Safford recommended participation in the Centennial Exposition at 
Philadelphia in 1876, but little was done beyond private showing of special 
products. At $2,200 expense to the volunteer commissioner, Supt. John A. 


Church of the Tombstone Mining & Milling Co., an exhibit of mineral products 
was made in August, 1882. 

In 1883, at Denver, was a large exhibit of Arizona minerals, under chai'ge 
of Frank M. Murphy and Douglas Gray, who later took the exliibit to Chicago. 
All the incidental expense was borne by the commissioners or by mining com- 
panies. Under the same commissioners, the exhibit was again moved, in Decem- 
ber, 1884, to the World's Fair at New Orleans, where it was said to have been 
approached only by the showing made by the Republic of Mexico. 

Bonds to the amount of $30,000 were issued for an exhibit at the World's 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, where Wm. 0. O'Neill headed a com- 
mission that took the first general display of Arizona products. At St. Louis 
in 1904 also was an exhibit, largely agricultural in character. 

At the first San Pranciseo Exposition, the Midwinter, Arizona secured first 
premium on an exhibit of oranges from the Salt River Valley. 

The state authorized no official participation in 1915 in either the San 
Francisco or San Diego exhibitions. A bill appropriating $100,000' for exhibits 
at both fairs was killed in the State Legislature, largely because of labor union 
opposition to San Diego. 

Exhibits have gone from Arizona to irrigation congresses and to the Irriga- 
tion Exposition at Chicago, but probably no prizes won in such surroundings 
ever gave such solid satisfaction as when, in 1914, at the Dry Farm Congress at 
Wichita, Arizona's exhibit received first prize among the states, an immense gold 
loving cup, donated by the Chicago Chamber of Commerce. 


Early in the '80s a fair ground was established south of Phoenix, near the 
river, and in addition to horse racing, generally of the quarter-dash variety, 
there was a display of agricultural and home products. 

May 14, 1884, in Phoenix was organized the Arizona Industrial Exposition 
Association, which held its first fair on the grounds south of the city, opening 
November 10. The gross receipts of the week were $1,706. 

The present Arizona State Fair has a history reaching back only to 1905, 
when the Arizona Legislature, at the suggestion of a number of residents of 
Phoenix, passed an act establishing a fair, providing for three commissioners and 
appropriating $7,500 for premiums and maintenance and $15,000 for permanent 
improvements, to be effective on provision by some Arizona locality of suitable 
grounds. These grounds promptly were provided by an association of Phoenix 
business men, who contributed $25,000 for the purpose at a banquet provided 
by J. C. Adams, who, thereafter, served for a number of years as president of 
the association. The first fair opened December 25 of the same year. In 1910 
the state purchased of the association, for $30,000, the fair grounds and improve- 
ments northwest of the city, the price being about one-half the real worth of 
the property. The present value of the grounds and improvements have been 
appraised by a late fair commission at $175,000, though their total cost to the 
state has been less than $100,000. The site proved to have been happily chosen, 
inasmuch as there may be indefinite extension of the grounds westward upon a 
tract of 640 acres now owned by the state. The racing track is one of the fastest 
in the United States, now holding the winter records for trotting and pacing. In 


connection with the fair, annually for seven j'ears was held a Los Angeles-to- 
Phcenix automobile road race, started by the offer of a silver cup by the Arizona 
R<?publican. The races have been run under the supervision of George P. 
Bullard, a Phoenix attorney. The annual struggle became widely celebrated as a 
"Desert Classic," embracing, as it did, almost every condition of good and bad 
road, from the boulevards of the coast to the shifting sands of the desert. Also 
there have been automobile races from San Diego, El Paso and from a number 
of Arizona cities. 

The Northern Arizona Fair was established in Preseott as a permanent insti- 
tution in the fall of 1913. About the same time was organized the Southern 
Arizona Fair Association, which has provided an extensive racing and exhibit 
plant near Tucson. Of late, county and district fairs have been popular in many 
localities. Especial mention .should be made of the annual agricultural fair held 
by the Pima Indians at Sacaton. 


In Southern Arizona a relic of the Mexican occupation was found in the 
annual fiestas, which continued for yeai-s, especially in Tucson and Phoenix. The 
greatest fiesta of the Southwest was held in Magdalena, Sonora. Another was 
in Nogales, Sonora. In Pho?nix, starting on June 24, the saint's day, and termi- 
nating on the Fourth of July, was the Fiesta de San Juan. But the greatest in 
Arizona was at Tucson, the Fiesta de San Agustin. The basis of a fiesta was a 
religious feast, but in effect it was nothing more than a time of merrymaking, of 
joyous dissipation after frontier standards. At Tucson or Phoenix about two 
acres would be needed for fiesta grounds. Within would be from two to four 
temporary barrooms, a couple of places to eat, with Mexican dishes prominent 
on the bill of fare, and then about a score of gambing games of eveiy sort. While 
faro, as usual, held the place of honor, at fiestas always especial stress was upon 
roulette, chusas and monte, while the manager of "tin horn" devices called loudly 
for patronage from the passerby. A most inspiring sight would be that of some 
Arizonan, possiblj' high in official circles, intoxicated to the point of preternatural 
solemnity, escorted from gambling game to gambling game and from bar to bar 
by a ilexiean "raw-hide" band, usuallj' composed of a fiddle, a guitar, a cornet 
and two drums, large and small, made out of sections of barrels. Ordinarily the 
stationary gambling games of the towns were considered "square," for they had 
reputations to sustain and their managers were men among men in their own 
communities, content to take the ordinary favorable percentage that belonged to 
their side of the table. It might be noted, incidentally, that the discoveiy of 
crooked dealing might have been disastrous to the dealer. But at fiestas all the 
restrictions were do^vn. Strange gamblers were in attendance, going from one 
fair to another, and there rather was expectation that crooked dice were used 
more often than not. 

Acting Governor N. 0. Murphy in 1889 recommended abolition of fiestas, call- 
ing them "aggravated nuisances, outrageous and disgraceful" and at the same 
time made strong expression against legalized gambling. Fiestas were forbidden 
by legislative deci-ee in the session of 1891 and the strongest supporter of their 
suppression was Fred G. Hughes, president of the Council, and himself a profes- 
sional faro dealer. The gamblers claimed that the fiestas brought too many com- 

Photo by Gciitilly who had Carlos Montezuma as servant 


petitor& in their profession and the measure was passed in the w&y of protection 
to home industry. Then for a few years Phoenix and several other towns had 
annual carnivals, whereat for several evenings of the week women as well as men 
were freely admitted to the gambling. The traveling carnival of freaks and side 
shows later attached to these local holidays, which in turn went out of fashion. 


While Tiburon (Shark) Island, in the Gulf of California, off the Souora 
coast, has no direct connection with Arizona, nevertheless it has had to do with 
the fate of several Ai'izonaus. The island, a most unattractive one, desert and 
poor and peopled only by hungry Seris Indians, ever has had a mysterious quality 
that has served to attract adventurers. The Indians reach the mainland across 
a narrow strait at extreme low water, though even then the passage is dangerous, 
owing to swift tidal currents. In the fall of 1894 a Phoenix newspaper man, 
R. E. L. Robinson, fell under the lure of the island 's enchantment, though he had 
never seen it. He was a romantic writer, but cared very little for any basis of 
fact. When he left, he told the Associated Press man in Phoenix that he intended 
to disappear for about six months and to come forth thereafter with some won- 
derful stories of the Indians, with whom he proposed to make his residence. In 
the meantime, as he had no relatives for whom he eared, he wanted to be known 
as dead for that space of time and stated that word soon would come that he 
had been killed by Indians. Robinson had found a man at Yuma, who pro- 
vided a sloop and his companionship, and the two sailed away. In the course 
of a few weeks, as predicted, news came from Guaymas that Robinson was dead. 
The Phoenix newspaper men wisely nodded their heads and laughed, but, as later 
advices showed, Robinson really was dead. He had landed on Tiburon Island 
and had started into the interior, his companion staying behind on the beach 
to guard the boat. Very soon a shot was heard and Robinson came in sight, 
running, only to be overtaken and stnick down by Indian pursuers. The boat- 
man promptly put out to sea and made the best possible speed down to Guaymas. 

In the fall of 1905 was the next Arizona attempt upon the mysteries and 
supposed riches of Tiburon. It was led by Thos. P. Grindell, who had been 
principal of schools at Nogales, teacher in the Normal School at Tempe, sergeant 
in the Rough Riders and clerk of the Supreme Court of Arizona. He left Doug- 
las in company with J. E. Hoffman and two others, Rawlins and Ingraham. Prom 
Hermosillo was followed a Papago guide, who turned back a day's journey from 
the coast. The men were delayed in reaching the coast through the fact that 
the only water taken was in five-gallon oil cans, carried by slow-moving burros. 
They were already in straits for water when they arrived on the coast opposite 
the island and found themselves unable to cross the narrows. Trying to find a 
ranch of which Indians had told them, Rawlins pushed on ahead and was fol- 
lowed by Grindell. Ingi-aham wandered away, delirious from thirst. Hoffman, 
who later found, dead of thirst, one of the burros that Rawlins had taken, was 
The only survivor. With the aid of a teapot, he improvised a little still, in which 
lie boiled sea water. Thus, keeping near the coast, he managed to provide enough 
water, finding sustenance mainly in shell fish, till picked up by Mexican fishing 
boats some distance north of Guaymas. 


With very much less of melodrama, and with more of the features of comic 
opera, was a Tiburon Island expedition organized a few years ago by "Arizona 
Cliarlie" Meadows of Yuma, who proposed to conquer the golden island by the 
aid of both a fleet and a military force. This expedition died while still in the 
prospective stage, for the Mexican Government had doubts about permitting an 
alien force to make war upon Mexican Indians. 


About fifteen years ago, the upper Gila Valley for several seasons was the 
abode of the only female saint ever popularly credited to the Southwest. She 
wa§ Maria Teresa Urea, generally rated as the presiding priestess and practical 
ruler of the great Yaqui tribe and as such exiled from Mexico by order of the 
government. In fact she was a gentle, shrinking, modest maid about 24 years 
of age, of ordinary Mexican parentage, whose longest journey was that on 
horseback from Mexico. She avoided towns and in no wise sought to attract 
attention. Yet to her parents' adobe home flocked a multitude of Mexicans who 
called her Santa Teresa. A touch of her hand was believed a cure for every 
mortal evil and a prayer of intercession by her equivalent to a passport into 
paradise. She had serene confidence in her own divinely-given powers and 
never refused audience to the afflicted of whatever race. Under her hands, it 
is claimed, the blind saw and the lame threw away their crutches. She said she 
held her power through the favor of the Mother of Jesus and told of visions 
of seraphic forms. The girl uniformly refused compensation for the exercise 
of her seemingly supernatural powers, but it is told that her father inci- 
dentally acquired a considerable degree of wealth. 

Santa Teresa left Clifton with her parents in August, 1900, for Los Angeles, 
Cal. She had been married a few days before to Jose Rodriguez, from whom 
she had been separated immediately after the wedding by an indignant Mexican 
mob, which considered the wedding of a saint little short of sacrilege. The hus- 
band was detained by the authorities on a charge of insanity, while the bride 
went on to a lone honeymoon with her parents. 


Humanity served as the strongest argument sustaining a decision of the 
Supreme Court of Arizona on January 21, 1905, denying a petition for restitu- 
tion of seventeen children to the New York Foundling Asylum. The ease was 
one of deep pathos. In the previous October, forty children were sent by the 
asylum to Clifton and Morenci, there to enter, on the representation of a tempo- 
rary parish priest, good Spanish families that were willing to adopt them. The sis- 
ters of the Catholic order who accompanied the children found that nearly all the 
claimants were Mexicans of the lowest order and almost immediately appre- 
ciated the error of the proceeding. In the meantime an organization of Ameri- 
can residents had formed and, though told that the assignment of the children 
was only temporary, seized about half of them and parcelled them out among 
themselves, the sisters regaining custody of the balance. The case was taken 
directly to the Supreme Court, before which evidence was presented. Represen- 
tatives of the asylum claimed they had never surrendered custody of the children. 
The defendants, embracing a number of the best people of Clifton, introduced 


evidence showing that a number of the women who received children were of 
the lowest order, that others had drunken husbands and that all were bitterly 
poor. Some of the children, it was alleged, were put into houses where as many 
as seven people occupied a single room. Many of the clean and pi'etty children 
after a day's retention were filthy and destitute of proper clothing. In rebuttal 
it was shown that the children were seized while the sisters were absent in 
Morenci investigating the homes to which the children had been taken and that 
wherever the conditions were found improper the children had been taken away. 
The judgment of the court that the best interests of the children affected de- 
manded that they be left where they were, in the homes of well-to-do Americans, 
well qualified to assume their care and to rear them. In December, 1906, the 
Supreme Court of the United States sustained the Supreme Court of Arizona 
and the Legislature of Arizona at a succeeding session specifically sanctioned 
the adoption of the children affected. 


The first census ever made of Arizona was in 1860, really only of the settle- 
ments within the Gadsden purchase, with possibly an estimate of the- population 
of the white people along the Colorado River. It is not unlikely that within the 
estimate were included New Mexican settlements along the same southern line 
eastward as far as the Rio Grande, for the total secured was 2,421. It is prob- 
able that most of these were Mexicans. Until the advent of the California 
Column, Arizona, within its present boundaries, had even less than 600 inhabi- 
tants of Caucasian stock. Governor Goodwin, after assumption of ofiSce, had a 
census made that found 5,526 inhabitants, exclusive of Indians. This grew to 
7,200 in 1867. 

The population of Arizona in 1870, as given as found by the first official 
census, was 9,688, hardly equal to that of a sizable eastern town. The entire 
report is so short that it can be copied here in extenso: 

Mohave County: Hardyville, population, 20; Mohave City, 159. 

Pima County: Adamsville, 400; Apache Pass, 400; Calabasas, 62; Casa Blanea, 52; 
Cerro Colorado, 58; Crittenden Camp, 215; Florence, 218; Goodvrin Camp, 200; Grant Camp, 
340; Maricopa Wells, 68; Eillito, 32; Saguara, 71; San Pedro, 80; San Xavier, 118; Tubac, 
178; Tucson, 3,224, of which 1,026 were rated as native and 2,198 as foreign. 

Yavapai County : Big Bug and Lynx Creek, 96 ; Tollgate and Walnut Grove, 107 ; Chino 
and Lower Granite creeks, 80; Date, .Kirkland and Skull creeks, 90; People's Valley, etc., 
45; Prescott, 668; Eio Verde, 174; Salt Eiver A'alley (including Phoenix), 240; Vulture 
works, 155; Vulture mine, 133; Walnut Grove, 40; Wiekenburg, 174; Williamson Valley, 160. 

Yimia County: Yuma, 1,144; Ehrenberg, 233; La Paz, 254. 

In 1872 the county assessors reported the population of the territory as 
follows: Pima Count}', 3,652; Yavapai, 3,539; Yuma, 1,643; Maricopa, 1,156; 
Mohave, 753 ; making a total of 10,743. In 1875 there was another enumeration 
which seems to have shown either a tremendous influx or else carelessness in the 
previous count, for it totalled 30,114, divided in this wise: Yavapai, 13,661; 
Pima, 8,117 ; Maricopa, 3,702 ; Yuma, 2,212 ; Pinal, 1,602 ; Mohave 822. 

The 1880 census showed: Apache, .5,283; Maricopa, 5.689: IMohave. 1,190; 
Pima, 17,006; Pinal, 3,004; Yavapai, 5,013; Yuma, 3,215; total, 40,440. 

In 1890 the figures were: Apache, 4,281; Maricopa, 10,986; Mohave. 1,144; 


Pima, 12,673 ; Pinal, 4,251 ; Yavapai, 8,685 ; Yuma, 2,671 ; Cochise. 6,838 ; Gila, 
2,021 ; Graham, 5,670 ; total, 59,620. 

In 1900 the total was 122,931, of which 26,480 were Indians. The county 
population in order f oUows : Apache, 8,297 ; Cochise, 9,251 ; Coconino, 5,514 ; 
Gila, 4,973 ; Graham, 14,162 ; Maricopa, 20,457 ; Mohave, 3,426 ; Navajo, 8,829 ; 
Pima, 14,689 ; Pinal, 7,779 ; Santa Cruz, 4,545 ; Yavapai, 13,799 ; Yuma, 4,145. 

In 1910 there was keen gratification in a rise of the gross population to 204,- 
354, in which the Indians numbered 29,201. The population by counties follows : 
Apache, 9,196 ; Cochise, 34,591 ; Coconino, 8,130 ; Gila, 16,348 ; Graham, 23,999 ; 
Maricopa, 34,488; Mohave, 3,773; Navajo, 11,471; Pima, 22,818; Pinal, 9,045; 
Santa Cruz, 6,766 ; Yavapai, 15,996 ; Yuma, 7,733. 

Within the population of Arizona, the native-born at the last census num- 
bered 78,949. Those born in other states, 76,640. Foreign-born, 89,000. Among 
the states represented, Texas leads with 10,139, followed by California with 6,101 
and Missouri with 5,206. Considering the foreign population, native Mexicans 
number 51,102, this embracing also the children of Mexican pai'entage; English, 
7,274, and Germans, 5,656; Ireland, 4,901, and Italy, 2,189. Negroes within the 
state number 2,009 ; Chinese, 1,305, and Japanese, 371. The total number of 
illiterates is 32,953, or 20.9 per cent. There should be hurried explanation, how- 
ever of this excessive percentage figure, for of the number 14,939 are Indians, 
among whom 72.9 per cent are classed as illiterate and 13,758 are foreign-born 
whites, mainly ^Mexican in origin. School children from six to twenty years, 
inclusive, number 58,897, of whom, despite the compulsory attendance law, only 
30,355, or 53.4 per cent, actually attended school. These figures again are modi- 
fied by the fact that of the 7,658 foreign-bom white children only 35.3 per cent 
attend school and of the 10,821 Indian children only 31.9 per cent. 

The populations of the larger settlements of Arizona at the times of the last 
three census takings are set forth below: 




Douglas 6,437 


















Yuma ■ 2,914 



















































The four original counties of Arizona are Yavapai, Mohave, Yuma and Pima. 
Of these only Yuma remains with its original boundaries. Mohave was changed 
on the formation of Pah Ute County, but had the area taken returned when 
Nevada was given that part of Arizona lying west of the Colorado River and 
later gained some territory eastward to Kanab Wash. Subjoined is a statement of 
material facts connected with the organization of the counties named : 

Apache— Organized from part of Yavapai in 1879; part taken to form part of Graham 
in 1881; part taken to form Navajo in 1895. 

Cochise — Organized from part of Pima in 1881. 

Coconino — Organized from part of Yavapai in 1891. 

Gila — Organized from parts of Maricopa and Pinal in 1881. 

Graham — Organized from parts of Apache and Pima in 1881. 

Greenlee — Organized from part of Graham County in 1909. 

Maricopa — Organized from part of Yavapai in 1871 ; part of Pima annexed in 1873 ; 
parts taken to lorni part of Pinal in 1875, and part of Gila in 1881. 

Navajo — Organized from part of Apache in 1895. 

Pima — Part taken to form part of Pinal in 1875; parts annexed to Maricopa in 1873, and 
Pinal in 1877; parts taken to form Cochise and part of Graham in 1881 and Santa Cruz 
in 1899. 

Pinal — Organized from parts of Maricopa, Pima and Yavapai in 1875; part of Pima 
annexed in 1877 ; part taken to form part of Gila in 1881. 

Santa Cruz — Organized from part of Pima in 1899. 

Y'avapai — Parts taken to form Maricopa in 1871, Apache in 1879, Coconino in 1891; part 
of Pinal in 1875; parts of Gila in 1881 and later. 

For a dozen years before statehood there was ever grave fear that Congress 
would accede to demands made by Utah for the cession to that state of all of 
Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. Utah sent at least one delegation 
down to argue the Arizona Legislature into an agreement with its views, but met 
with no degree of compliance, even when there was offered in return a strip of 
country in Southeastern Utah, lying south of the San Juan River. There have 
been various suggestions, legislative and otherwise, that Arizona should have a 
deep water port and that Congress be called upon to straighten out the southern 
line from Nogales westward, giving the territory frontage on the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. It is to be noted also that a few years ago Southern California news- 
papers worked up some excitement in favoring a consolidation into one state of 
Arizona and Southern California. 


Owing to the variation of methods for the assessment of property, especially 
of mines and railroads, the true property wealth of Arizona hardly is shown with 
any degree of accuracy by the annual assesment returns. It is to be noted, how- 
ever, that ever since 1885 there has been an almost unbroken succession of addi- 
tions to the property valuations. In even dollars, this record is given below : 

1885 $28,682,612 1890 28,050,234 

1886 23,207,918 1S91 28,279,466 

1887 26,253,506 1892 27,923,162 

1888 25,913,015 1893 27,686,183 

1889 27,057,460 1894 27,059,974 


1895 27,518,322 1906 62,227,633 

1896 28,047,176 1907 77,372,156 

1897 30,613,702 1908 80,637,741 

1898 31,473,540 1909 82,684,062 

1899 32,509,520 1910 86,126,226 

1900 33,782,485 1911 98,032,708 

1901 38,853,831 1912 140,338,191 

1902 39,083,177 1913 375,862,414 

1903 43,088,040 1914 407,267,393 

1904 44,967.434 1915 420,532,411 

1905 57,920,372 


Arizona has eleven legal holidays during the year: New Year's Day, Admis- 
sion Day (February 14), Washington's birthday (February 22), Decoration Day 
(May 30), Independence Day (July 4), Columbus Day (October 12), Thanks- 
giving Day (when appointed), Christmas Day (December 25), general election 
day, primary election day and Labor Day. Two Arbor Days are proclaimed 
annually, respectively for Northern and Southern Arizona. 


Norlhiveslem Arizona — Development Along the Little Colorado — E^ect of Railroad Con- 
struction — Flagstaff's Observatory — Yuma and the River Totvps — Yavapnis 
CroJvth — Conflagrations at Prescott and Jerome — The Dam Brealf at V/alnut 

The history of Northwestern Arizona almost entirely is the history of ttie 
mines of the locality and this record will be found in another chapter. There 
also has been made separate mention of Wm. H. Hardy, the pioneer of the north- 
ern Colorado Valley. Hardy was a great man in his day and is said to have 
come with a cash capital of $85,000. He had an idea that his Village of Hardy- 
ville not only was destined to be the center of a great mining field, but that, 
being at the head of navigation, from it would be transshipped the freight of 
Northern Arizona and of Southern Utah and Nevada. He fought the Indians 
steadfastly and there has remained a story that once he got out of a narrow hole 
at Wallapai Springs by feeding the redskins strychnined sugar. He built the 
road across Union Pass on a Government contract and thereafter got only half 
of his claim of $185,000. The county seat of government came to Kingman in 
1887, after stays at Cerbat and Mineral Park. Kingman, named after Lewis 
Kingman, one of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad engineers, was established 
in 1881, well before the arrival of the rails. From mineral developments of 
the past few years it has become one of the most prosperous of Arizona towns, 
its industries helped by the building of a branch railroad to Chloride and by 
the establishment of a great power plant that furnishes electricity to the county's 
principal mining camps, as well as to the county seat itself. 


The upper Little Colorado had some settlement from Mexico early in the 
seventies, and in 1872 John Walker, a mail carrier, had built a cabin on the 
river five miles below St. Johns. Soon thereafter came on the scene Sol Barth, 
who for some years before had been packing salt from the Zuni salt lake and 
who knew the country well. He tells the story himself that he sat down to a 
little game of cards with some Mexican sheep men at El Badito (Vadito — little 
crossing), a very small settlement on the Little Colorado, and by superior 
knowledge of the game or by luck, managed to win several thousand head 
of sheep and a few thousand dollars. Then it was that Barth gave up the life 
of the road and settled down. A little later he established St. Johns. The name 
he gave himself, always being careful to explain, however, that it was simply 

Vol. U— 1 6 



in compliment to the first female resident, Senora Maria San Juan de Padilfa. 
November 16, 1879, he sold his farm of 1,200 acres to Ammon M. Tenny, for 
770 cows furnished by the Mormon Church and considered worth $17,000. The 
following year a number of Mormons, under Jesse N. Smith and D. K. Udall, 
began the task of making St. Johns a real town. 

The Mormons, who had failed on the same river further northward, saw 
possibilities in the mountain valleys of Eastern Arizona. The Stinson ranch on 
Silver Creek was purchased in July, 1878, by W. J. Flake for $11,000, mainly 
in cattle. Very logically, owing to the presence of another IMormon leader 
named Snow, the settlement was named Snowflake. 

The first settler at the present Springerville was William Milligan, who 
established himself among the Mexicans at Valle Redoudo (round valley) a 
little before Earth's settlement in the district. Springerville was named for 
an Albuquerque merchant, who never had residence in Arizona. 

The Mormons with their usual industry have made both the Little Colorado 
and Silver Creek sections most productive, and now have within the two dis- 
tricts in Apache and Navajo counties not less than a score of settlements. They 
have prospei'ed despite a number of most discouraging circumstances. Much 
of their land had to be bought twice, the second time when the railroad claimed 
its land grant. There were days when their homes had to be defended against 
outlaws, though Indian troubles rarely reached them. In the spring of 1915 
floods washed out the Lyman dam a few miles south of St. Johns, built to sup- 
ply that section with irrigation water on a higher line than the old ditches. 
Several lives were lost and there was property damage approximating $200,000. 
The dam was of earth and had poor foundation. 

Charlie Banta tells that he was the postmaster at El Badito, appointed in 
February, 1876, happening to have come over about that time from Camp Good- 
win when Postmaster William McWilliams suddenly died. Banta opened a mail 
line from Tucson to Fort Goodwin and thence to Fort Apache and St. Johns, 
and claims also that it was he who named Springerville, though the settlement 
at that time was on the opposite side of the river from its present location. 


Whatever settlement there was in Northeastern Arizona along the thirty- 
fifth parallel before the coming of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad was con-' 
fined to a few stations on the Beale Road, over which ran an intermittent sort 
of mail service, sometimes by mounted couriers and sometimes by buckboard 
stages that went through without stop other than for change of horses at such 
points as Chaves Pass, Horsehead Crossing and Sunset Pass. Carriers occasion- 
ally were killed by the Navajos or Apaches and the early-day snow storms caused 
long lapses in the mail deliveries. Weather conditions stopped through mail 
service for months before the building of the railroad west of Wingate. Jas. D.' 
Houck in October, 1874, took up the mail contract between Fort Wingate and 
Prescott, when service seemed impossible on account of the Indians, and suc- 
ceeded where others had failed. 

The Navajos were nasty along the railroad during the construction period. ' 
They killed one of the workmen, Gutierrez, on the grade near Navajo Springs. 
Before they had killed two drivers on the stage line near Horsehead Crossing. 



Cutting ties for tlie Santa Fe Railroad 


(Holbrook), and another at Sunset Crossing. There seems to have been no 
record made of fatalities along the Santa Fe during the construction period. 
At least twenty must have been killed in the broils that were common around 
the tent doggeries that kept pace with the advance of the grade or rails. One 
desperado killed a man "just to see him kick;" the names of the interested 
parties seem to have been an immaterial item at the time. Robbery was common. 
In several camps the citizens rebelled against conditions and drove out the 

The Santa Fe Railroad's records show that Holbrook was named in 
October, 1882, after Richard Holbrook, one of the locating engineei-s of 
the Atlantic and Pacific line. There is also record that it was a place 
surpassed in wickedness only by Dodge City. One of its first residents, 
before its naming, was Harry H. Seorse, who had walked down from Utah and 
who there was stopped by fear of the Apaches or he would have kept on south- 
ward. He came in 1878 and the next year started a store that he still owns. In 
1882 he had a branch store at the Rogers ranch, on the site of Williams. Hol- 
brook today is a quiet village, with prosperity in its position as a forwarding 
and shipping point for a large district. 

Winslow, also named after a railroad official, had early prosperity in the 
establishment of railroad shops, though agriculture later was added as a source 
of local income. The town was incorporated January 4, 1900, with E. A. Sawyer 
as mayor. 


The settlement of the lower valley of the Little Colorado, between Holbrook 
and Winslow, has been noted in the chapter covering the Mormon immigration. 
But in the same locality there was an earlier attempt, which seems to have 
been abandoned almost at once. The best record of this is found in Conklin's 
Picturesque America, published in 1878, in which is copied the following excerpt 
from some unspecified eastern publication : 

A band of 150 men arrived here yesterday and took the first train by the Pennsylvania 
Central road on their way to Arizona. At the base of the San Francisco Mountains they intend 
to establish a colony. Each man takes provisions for ninety days, and his personal ontfit of 
tools and clothing to a total prescribed weight of 300 pounds, transportation for which and 
for himself to the end of the long journey is furnished by the Arizona Colonization Company — 
a Boston concern — at a cost of $140 per man. At the end of the railroad the colonists are to 
be joined by the company's engineer, Mr. G. B. Maynadier, who went ahead abont a week ago 
to provide transportation from that point. Mr. Maynadier was the chief engineer of Henry 
Meiggs' Andes raUroad in Peru and is said to be thoroughly acquainted with Arizona. The 
part of the country in which the proposed settlement is to be made is said to be very rich in 
the precious metals and at the same time very advantageous for agriculturists. A company 
is forming in San Francisco with a capital of .$10,000,000 to work located mining claims on the 
west side of the mountain to which the colonists are going. Within about thirty days at least 
eighty more men, with the families of some of those who have already gone, will go from 
Boston to join the New England colony, whose organization was begun in August last by a 
company of which Judge O. W. Cozzens is president; J. M. Piper, secretary, and S. C. Hunt, 

The Cozzens mentioned may have been S. W. Cozzens, who was in Southern 
Arizona in the early sixties and who wrote "The Marvellous Country." Depar- 


ture from the East was in the late spring of 1876. Just where any large body 
of rich agricultural lands could be found near the San Francisco Mountains is 
something not known today. The mountains, too, are of recent volcanic forma- 
tion and are thought to be barren of valuable minerals. This was discovered by 
the colonists, who soon moved on to Prescott, where the expedition disbanded. 

One permanent record of the trip has been left, however, in the naming of 
Flagstaff. How it happened is told in the following article, taken from the files 
of the Coconino Sim : 

A few days before the Fourth of July, 1876, a party of settlers on their way from Boston, 
Mass., to Prescott, Ariz., were eamjied at T. F. McMillan 's corral, near where the spring on 
what is now known as John Clark's ranch, just north of town, is located. The party decided 
to rest for a few days and concluded to celebrate the 100th birthday of our republic amid 
the pines of Arizona. A suitable pine tree was chosen and cut down, trimmed and smoothed by 
the carpenters of the party, among them J. A. Wilson, now of this place. The top of the staff 
was ornamented with a gilt ball. The flagstaff was raised on the morning of the Fourth of 
July, 1876, with the proper ceremony. A piece of money, a nickel, we believe, was deposited 
at the bottom of the hole, and the flagstaff was raised and the Stars and Stripes floated from 
the top during the stay of the party, which was some two weeks longer. Frank Hart and 
T. F. Millan, who were both in this section at the time, say that the flagstaff stood for several 
years and finally decayed off at the ground and fell down. But the location was known by all 
old settlers as ' ' The Flagstaff, ' ' and with the advent of the railroad and the locating of a 
station here it was called Flagstaff. 


While the springs at the base of the San Francisco Mountains for years had 
been stopping places for survey parties, trappers and couriers, the first perma- 
nent settlement appears to have been made by T. F. IMcilillen, in the forest, very 
near the site of Flagstaff, early in 1876. By July, he had two neighbors, less 
than fifteen miles away, Frank Hart and James O'Neill. About a year later 
came John Clark, who settled in Clark's Valley and who shot a great bear right 
where Flagstaff now is. Clark tells how it took twelve bullets, from a new Henry 
rifle, to kill that bear, and how its heart was "shot to pieces." Bear, antelope 
and deer meat was the principal food. Flour was almost impossible to get. 

In Fort Valley, seven miles north of Flagstaff, during the building of the 
railroad was established Fort Moroni, a log house sixty feet in length, head- 
quarters for the Moroni Cattle Company. This company was controlled by 
John W. Young (son of Brigham Young), a contractor on railroad construc- 
tion, who needed in his work both beef and hewn ties. The ranch later was 
sold to the A-1 Cattle Company. 

Flagstaff really started with the coming of the railroad, then being inaugu- 
rated the great lumbering business that since has been her main business stay. 

The Arizona Lumber and Timber Company's great sawmill at Flagstaff had 
its origin in a much smaller plant established on the same ground in the winter 
of 1882. The owner of the mill was Edward E. Ayer, whose first trip into the 
pines of Northern Arizona was by ambulance, when the Atlantic and Pacific 
Railroad had reached Winslow, further extension delayed by the slow and 
expensive construction on the Cailon Diablo bridge. Mr. Aj^er, an expert timber 
man, made a contract with the railroad especially for the sawing of ties and 
bridge timber and soon had his mill, in operation, the machinery freighted by 

Ruins of first tent-houses in foreground 


team from the end of the track. Every tie on the mountain section was turned 
out at this plant. In a letter from Mr. Ayer, he states : 

I ownec] tliose mills for several years and finally sold out on his own estimate of its value, 
taking his paper for the entire amount due in one, two and three years and without security, 
to one of the most honest men who ever drew breath in the State of Arizona or anywhere else — 
Mr. n. M. Eiordan, an elder brother of the two men who now own the mills at Flagstaff. 

Mr. Ayer also writes of a trip that he made in February, 1884, when the Hull 
boys had blazed a trail to the Grand Caiion and of another trip soon thei-eafter, 
during which he, his brother and his wife managed to reach the bottom of the 
canon, taking three days and two nights to the trip, guided by Bill Hull and a 
companion who had found a way down from near the point where John Hance's 
cabin afterwards was built. 

Ayer, now remembered in Arizona only by a few of the old-timers, was a 
soldier in the California Column in Company E, First California Infantry, and 
was in Tucson as early as April, 1862, thereafter serving in the guard at the 
Heintzelman mine, as a member of the escort of Colonel Ferguson into Sonora, as 
escort from the Rio Grande for the paymaster who brought "the first green- 
backs any of us had seen," and as a member of General Carleton's escort at 
Santa Fe, where Corporal Ayer was promoted to be first lieutenant in the First 
New Mexico Infantry, February, 1863. 

Other great mills have been added since, at Flagstaff and Williams, and the 
timbering industry, under strict governmental supervision no longer is wreck- 
ing the forests, but has settled into methods of properly using timber that is 
mature. Another material asset of Flagstaff is her situation amidst wonderful 
scenery, bringing thousands of visitors annuallj', many of them guided by Al 
Doyle, a pioneer who early devoted himself to public service. Flagstaff was 
much benefited by the construction, in the fall of 1914, of an immense concrete 
reservoir, built for the city by the Santa Fe Railroad Company, on the southern 
slope of the San Francisco IMountains, two miles north of the city, at a cost of 
$165,000. The water comes from an altitude of 11,000 feet and is brought 
fifteen miles by flume and pipe to the reservoir, from which heavy pressure is 
afforded for the service of the town and the railroad. An ample reserve is pro- 
vided of 53,000,000 gallons. 


Near the end of a mountain spur, just west of Flagstaff, is the Lowell Observa- 
tory, which for more than twenty years has had a high place in scientific estima- 
tion, particularly through specialization in tlie study of Mars. Early in 1894, 
Percival Lowell, a Boston capitalist with scientific leanings, became interested 
in the study of Mars as a planet whereon might be demonstrated the existence of 
life similar to that known upon the earth. He secured the assistance of Prof. 
W. H. Pickering, who suggested that Arizona had ideal atmospheric conditions. 
So to Arizona in March was dispatched A. E. Douglass, a young Cambridge 
astronomer, who had been with Professor Pickering on astronomical expeditions 
to Pern and Mexico. Mr. Douglass now is Doctor Douglass, dean of the faculty 
of the State University of Tucson. He came to Arizona equipped with a small 


glass and after viewing a number of sites in the territory, selected Flagstaff, 
where observations were begun May 22, 1894. 

An eighteen-inch telescope at first was used and with it important discoveries 
early were made, and the existence of the canals of Schiaperelli, discovered in 
1877, not only were demonstrated, but their duplication was established. July 
23, 1896, the value of the observatory was enlarged by the mounting of a 
twenty-four-inch refracting telescope, made by Alvin Clark & Sons of Cam- 
bridgeport, and since found to be one of the most effective glasses in use. The 
power of this telescope includes stars up to the fifteenth magnitude. The Lick 
thirty-six inch glass is only rated up to stars of the sixteenth magnitude and 
this slight advantage is more than balanced by the superior seeing qualities of 
the air at Flagstaff. Mr. Lowell is now in personal charge, and after years of 
investigation of Mars still keenly is searching that planet, confident of the pres- 
ence upon it of intelligent life and strong in hopes that this theory may become an 
accepted fact in the scientific world. 


Williams gets its name very naturally from its location at the base of Bill 
Williams Mountain. According to Fish, the first settlers of the locality were 
Sam Ball and John Denton, who came in the summer of 1876 and who sold 
their claim to C. P. Rogers. Other pioneers of the locality were John Vinton 
Rogers, Judge J. M. Sanford, John Clark and William Ashurst. C. E. Boyee 
and n. H. Scorse were pioneer business men about the time of the railroad's 
arrival, September 3, 1882. Williams not only is an important lumbering and 
stock raising center, but is the gateway to the Grand Canon. 

On Bright Angel Trail, in September, 1913, the Grand Cafion was the scene 
of a novel ilasonic gathering, called to administer the three degrees of the Blue 
Lodge under primitive conditions. The first degree was given in a tent by the 
river, the second in a mine tunnel about half way up and the third in an 
enclosure on the end of a point overlooking the gorge. The greater part of the 
attendants were from Phoenix, headed by Worshipful Master A. A. Betts. 


The early history of Southwestern Arizona has been given attention else- 
where in this work, mainly in connection with the pioneer mines and pioneer 
transportation. The history of the Town of Yuma itself is one of large romance, 
possibly in this respect even equaling Tucson, as she was set in the middle of a 
hostile Indian tribe and on the route of the main highway, over which came too 
large a proportion of the worst of mankind. The early history, which has par- 
tially been told, was one wherein bloodshed was common. In March, 1866, the 
little settlement felt called upon to form an organization, and on the record of 
its membership are found such names as F. Hinton, George Martin, A. H. Wil- 
cox, H. N. Alexander, H. T. Stevens, A. D. Johnson, I. W. Jones, Gabriel AHen, 
O. I. Travis, and J. M. Barney, the last named president of the association, 
which was given the name of the Arizona Vigilance Committee. The records 
of the committee are all too meager, with notations of the pursuit and capture to 
various criminals, but nothing said concerning their disposition, except in the 

^^*, ^^-?^.._ . 

selected because of the clear atmosphere, and here Professor 
has carried on his remarkable studies of the planet Mars 


case of Joe Bowers, who was turned over to the sheriif of Los Angeles County, 

In the writings of Herbert Brown is found a story concerning the killing, 
about 1868, of Jasl T. Danna, said to have been sheriff, by a desperate Yuma 
Indian known as Big Charlie. There was a remarkable duel in which Danna, 
known as a dead shot, killed the Indian, but himself was mortally wounded by 
a glass-tipped arrow from the bow of a cousin of Big Charlie. 0. F. Town- 
send, a distinguished pioneer citizen, was acting as constable and participated in 
what appeared to have been a general melee between Danna 's posse and the 
Indians, Big Charlie 's father and mother both having been shot. But the former 
suddenly came to life as the posse was returning from its work and attacked one 
of its members with a knife. Townsend was quick to the rescue, however, and 
killed the Indian just as he was about to drive a long knife into the body of one 
of the white men. The Indian who killed Danna was arrested, but managed to 
escape into Mexico, where he led a renegade band. The record tells, "It was 
found necessary to kill him. The head men of the tribe were sent for, the case 
stated and his death demanded. All this was agreed to, and to prevent tribal 
animosities a brother of the condemned man was delegated to kill him. For 
this purpose a feast was given and as soon as the renegade became drunk his 
brains were beaten out with a club. The chief of the tribe was named Sebastian. 
He was a friend of Townsend and followed instructions to the end." 

In 1870 the county seat of Yuma County was moved to Arizona City, now 
Yuma. 0. F. Townsend was in charge of the transfer, which was done under 
the authority of an act of the Legislature. The steamer Nina Tilden, com- 
manded by Captain Polhamus, took on board all county officials and records and 
transferred them down river. March 11, 1871, Arizona City was incorporated 
by an act of the Legislature and February 3, 1873, its name was changed to 
Yuma. The same year the town corporation was authorized to levy an annual 
special tax of 50 cents on each $100 of taxable property for the purpose of con- 
structing a levee against the encroachments of the Gila and Colorado rivers. 

Among the pioneer residents of Yuma, still active and an acknowledged 
historical authority of the county, is Miss Post, one of the town's first school 
teachers, with residence dating back to 1872. The only communication with the 
outside world was by ocean steamer that got to the mouth of the Colorado once 
a month. Mail was brought in from San Diego every two days by mud wagon, a 
light form of stage, that made about 100 miles a day. The American population, 
in which was included all who were not Mexican, in 1872 embraced just five per- 
sons who in 1914 still were living in the locality. In 1875 Miss Post partici- 
pated, possibly was the leading spirit, in the first Christmas tree of Yuma. Not 
only did each of the children receive an appreciated gift at the tree, but the 
teacher, equipped with dress patterns, went from house to house showing moth- 
ers how to cut proper dresses for their girls, and even providing the material 
where found necessary. Thus it happened that at the Christmas entertainment 
every Mexican child came forth happy and proud in new attire. 

In the log book of the old steamer Cocopah, under date of December 25, 
1879, is made record of what was probably the coldest day ever known in the 
Southwest. Despite the record of Yuma for torridity, it was recorded ' ' it blew 
a northwest gale and was very cold. It froze all day in the shade. The night 


of December 24 was the coldest ever seen on the Colorado River. The morning 
of the 25th the river was full of ice, which ran until 12 o'clock." 

Floods were a serious menace to the settlement. There was a flood in Sep- 
tember, 1868. In 1872 the levee on the Gila side was broken. In 1884 the Colo- 
rado bridge was damaged and a part of the town was under water. The worst 
flood of all was in February, 1891. There were two distinct freshets from the 
Gila, four days apart, the first arriving on the 22d. At hand is a local account 
of the catastrophe, clipped from the Yuma Times, which had issued a half sheet 
from the Sentinel office: 

The sun of Friday morning disclcsed a scene of destruction such as is seldom accorded 
to human eyes. A fringe of houses along the railroad track was all there was of Yuma. But 
fifty buildings remained out of 350. A single street only was left — along the raUroad from 
the bridge to the round house. Many people have been compelled to move a second time. 
The large buildings of the quartermaster 's department west of town were threatened by the 
rise in the Colorado and the refugees in them from the first flood moved to the hills. Household 
goods were scattered in the cemeteries and the living took refuge among the inhabitants of the 
dead. On the high ground everywhere was piled all sorts of household goods, furniture and 
merchandise. Many people slept on the ground, while others had improvised tents, surrounded 
by what they had been able to save. In one place a carpenter was making a coffin for a young 
girl who died near the convent half an hour before the flood. On the farther side of the sea 
which rolled over the town stood a solitary house — the one on the mound near Horner 's shop. 
Its occupants were two invalid young men and supplies were sent to them in a boat. Dorring- 
ton 's cottages on First Street were the only buildings in that direction left standing entire. 

In the political history of the territory reference has been made to the con- 
troversy with California over the possession of the land on which much of the 
business section of Yuma has location, included within an extension of the 
southern line of California drawn to the junction of the Gila and Colorado. In 
1871, Assessor Mark Schaeffer of San Diego County was arrested for trying to 
assess property on the southern side of the Colorado River, but was turned loose 
on the California authorities subscribing to an agreement that they would never 
more attempt to collect any taxes in Arizona. According to John Dorrington, 
"a suit was immediately instituted against San Diego County to collect $40,000 
back taxes, which claim was gladly and willingly compromised by that county." 
It would appear that internal revenue taxes theretofore had been paid by Ari- 
zona City business men to the California collector. The whole controversy was 
settled July 28, 1873, in favor of Arizona by a decision of the commissioner of 
public lands. 

The Gandolfo building and store of E. F. Sanguinetti burned about Sep- 
tember 1, 1899, with loss of $110,000. During the course of the fire the front 
of the upper story fell. Beneath it were a half dozen young men, whose bodies 
were crushed and burned. Their names were: Harry F. Neahr, Richard Wil- 
son, Julian Presciado, Refugio Rivera, Rudolf o AVilson and James Tapia. 

The village council was reorganized early in 1901 with a novel plan for the 
payment of debts and of salary claims. About one thousand town lots remained 
at the disposal of the council and these lots for the time were used instead of 
money for the administration of village affairs. As an example, the village 
recorder was given two city lots a year and each councilman was to ha^•e one city 
lot for each two-year term 




Yuma, late in 1904, experienced a bank failure, the Bank of Y^uma being 
closed with only $400 cash on hand and with a deficit of $41,000. The failure 
appeared to be due wholly to bad management. 

Wagon and automobile transportation across the Colorado at Y'uma, until 
recently, has been by ferry, as the railroad in building its bridge in 1878 did not 
provide for the passage of wagons. This traffic necessity was not filled until the 
summer of 1915, when the United States Government and the States of Califor- 
nia and Arizona jointly erected a wagon bridge over the narrow channel be- 
tween the Fort Yuma and Penitentiary hills. 

One of the earliest settlers around Y'uma was Jose N. Redondo, whose 
descendants still are included within the list of local prominent citizens. He 
established himself in 1862 in a ranch on the Colorado and about that time dug 
a canal from the river to irrigate a large tract lying at the junction of the Colo- 
rado and Gila rivers. In 1871 he started a canal that cost $25,000 before any 
return was secured from its use. 


Northward from Yuma, along the Colorado, a stream on which steamboats 
have not plied since the building of the Laguna dam, can be found a wealth of 
interest in the ruins of old mining settlements. There was placer mining along 
the Colorado only a few miles above the Gila's mouth and copper and gold were 
dug at many points A few of the old mines, such as the Planet, are still worked, 
and one of the old placer beds back of La Paz now is having a new lease of life 
and is to be made profitable by the use of modern machinery. 

Ehrenberg still has existence as a crossing point and ferry for automobile 
travel and is a supply point for mines, but its older neighbor, La Paz, is only 
a heap of ruins strewn down what was once the business street, where possibly 
5,000 people once lived and where was handled, within only a few years, several 
millions of dollars washed from the nearby gulches. La Paz once was the county 
seat of Yuma County, but its steamboat landing was poor and so in 1869-70 much 
of the business went to the new Town of Ehrenberg, three miles up stream, which 
was favored by deep-water frontage. About fifteen years ago Ehrenberg came 
into the public eye in an odd manner, when Postoffice Inspector George R. Water- 
bury visited the village to see why no quarterly reports had been turned in for 
several years. He found Postmaster Daniel too busily mining to attend to the 
postoffice, wherein was found mail as old even as four years, some of it having 
originated in the office, but most of it received from other points. The post- 
master had even failed to open letters from the Postoffice Department and in 
the undelivered mail was the commission of his successor. In view of the circum- 
stances, most interesting was an unopened letter, personally signed, writlen by 
John Wanamaker on his departure from the office of postmaster-general, in ap- 
preciation of "the high class of service that had been rendered by the postmaster 
at Ehrenberg and thanking him for the support he had given the administration 
and the Postoffice Department." 

The first stake of the new Town of Parker, in northern Y'uma County, was 
driven June 6, 1906, by James Haddock of Los Angeles, Otis E. Y^oung of Wick- 
enburg and C. W. McKee of Pha?nix. Parker had and has large hopes for the 
future, all contingent upon the irrigation of a tract of several hundred thousand 


acres of rich land wherein she has a central position. It is hoped that the Recla- 
mation Service will throw across the Colorado a dam similar to that constructed 
at Laguua. The building of the Arizona and California Railroad brought into 
existence a number of Arizona towns, including Bouse (from which the Swansea 
Railroad was completed in February, 1910), Vicksburg, Salome and Wenden. 

Early in 1915 a new town, Gadsden, was established in the lower Colorado 
Valley, twenty miles south of Yuma, at the end of a railroad spur. 


The story of Yavapai, "Mother of Counties," mainly has been told in other 
subdivisions of this work, especially in those that deal with mining, the Indian 
wars, politics and personal mention. There remains veiy little of large value to 
add. A volume would be required to give the whole of a local history that is of 
rare interest. 

Prescott, twice capital of the territory and one of the most sightly of Arizona 
cities, has risen over all disaster and now has new prosperity in her mineral 
fields and in agriculture. 

Masonry had an early establishment in Prescott, where Aztlan Lodge No. 1 
was inaugurated early in 1865. The fiftieth anniversary of this event was cele- 
brated by a Grand Lodge session, held in Prescott in February, 1915. 

The old courthouse at Yavapai County was built on the authorization of the 
Legislature of 1877 by the issuance of county bonds in the sum of $60,000, to 
bear 10 per cent interest and to be redeemed within a period of fifteen years. 
Provision has been made for a new one, to cost $250,000. 

The first financial institution was the Bank of Arizona, started in Septem- 
ber, 1877, with Sol Lewis at its head. Others prominently connected with this 
institution in early days were Ed. W. Wells, latterly its president, Hugo Rich- 
ards, M. B. Hazeltine and Martin W. Kales. In 1879 the last-named was sent 
to Phoenix to establish a branch, that later became the National Bank of Arizona. 

The Yavapai Club, one of the most attractive features of Prescott, was organ- 
ized in the fall of 1901, largely through the influence of Frank M. Murphy, who 
for the uses of the organization erected a handsome building. 


Prescott, like San Francisco, has pride in the manner in wliich she can 
withstand hard knocks. 

July 14, 1900, her business section, around the courthouse plaza, was almost 
totally swept by fire. The flames demolished historic "Whiskey Row" and left 
only two of the town's thirty-five saloons. The water supply, in those days, 
was most meager and little could be done to check the spread of the flames, 
save to dynamite buildings that were in their path. One energetic individual was 
discovered just after he had touched oif the fuse leading to several dynamite 
cartridges, which he had placed under the floor of a mercantile establishment 
wherein were several thousand pounds of mining powder. The fuse was hur- 
riedly pulled out, and the powder on the floor above was removed before being 
reached by the flames. 

The disaster was taken in almost a joyous spirit. The band stand on the 
plaza became a barber shop and around it, in the night, arose what the occupants 

\ ll-:\V OF PKI-;f>L(»TT iKd.M TUK SOUTIIWI 


called "Dawson City," with a dozen big gambling halls and drinking places, 
wherein pianos were hammered noisily and where the women singers warbled as 
cheerily as of yore. Faro lay-outs and roulette tables had been saved, and had 
no lack of players, and the sheriff served as treasurer for all the saloons and 
business houses on the plaza. The printers of the town even issued a daily paper, 
"The Howler," sold at "two-bits" a copy, proclaiming "All the world was a 
josh, but to us it is anything but a joke, at present." In the heading also was 
announced that the publication was "Sacred to the memory of Little Willie, 
gone but not forgotten. ' ' Willie was a printing office ' ' growler. ' ' 

The cause of the fire was the turning over of a lamp by a drunken miner in 
his room in a lodging house. Practically no water could be secured for fire 
fighting and the engineer at the pumping station had gone to bed. All offers of 
outside assistance were refused by the citizens, who handled their own few cases 
of destitution. 

One of the sei'ious losses of the fire was the destruction of the log walls of 
the first territorial capitol on Gurley Sti'eet. Of like historic interest and value 
were the papers of A. F. Banta, destroyed in the office of the Prescott Prospect. 
The total loss was $1,066,000. The total insurance carried was $385,000. The 
insurance rates had been high, running from 3 per cent per annum in the out- 
skirts to 10 per cent for frame structures in the business section. Before the 
flames were extinguished most of the property owners had begun preparation 
for rebuilding. The new structures erected were of much better character than 
those destroyed, and today the business section of Prescott is as substantially 
built as that of any other town of the Southwest. i 

The new Prescott water system was completed in June, 1901, bringing 
500,000 gallons a day, pumped under heavy pressure, from Del Rio Springs 
nineteen miles away, to the city reservoir. The system cost $145,000, but better- 
ments have more than doubled that expenditure. 


Second in importance in Yavapai County is Jerome, seat of the mining opera- 
tions of the United Verde Mining Company, concerning which much has been 
told in the mining section of this volume. The town, one of the most prosperous 
in Arizona, has had a civic existence since 1899, when Wm. L. Munds, a pioneer 
of the county, was elected the first mayor. In 1894 was welcomed railroad con- 
nection with the outside world, the narrow-gauge line from Jerome Junction. 
In April of that year the business section of the camp was almost destroyed by 
fire. In September, 1898, the camp again was flame-swept. In the succeeding 
May an incendiary fire once more swept away the business section and a number 
of homes, despite the efforts of several thousand men, for water was almost 
lacking. A veracious tale of the last fire gives details of the destruction of twenty- 
four drinking saloons and fifteen Chinese restaurants. 


One of the worst disasters ever known in Arizona was the breaking of the 
Walnut Grove dam, on the night of February 22, 1890. The structure had been 
built a couple of yeai's befoi-e, primarily to furnish water for hydraulic placer 
mining operations on the banks of the river channel below, though with an idea 


of agricultural development as well. The dam was about 110 feet in height and 
400 feet long on the top, tapering downward between two solid granite cliffs to 
a base that was on bedrock and was 130 feet wide. The dam itself would hardly 
pass modern inspection. It was built of loose rock and earth, with only the out- 
side walls laid in mortar. The reservoir above comprised a lake nearly two 
miles long. The winter of 1890-91 was unusually snowy and wet. "When the 
snows began to melt after a warm rain the liassayampa reservoir very soon was 
filled and it began to be apparent that the spillway provided, fifteen feet wide 
and eight feet deep, was entirely inadequate to carry away the flood waters. 
This spillway was soon blocked with trees and rubbish and the water began pour- 
ing over the top of the dam. Its collapse occurred soon thereafter. A wall of 
water, at first probably forty feet in depth, went roaring down the narrow caiion, 
carrying death and devastation. 

It was told at the time that from the dam a messenger was sent down the 
cailcn to warn every one to get to higher ground, especially at a camp a few 
miles below, where a diversion dam was being built. The messenger found the 
ride cold and comfortless and sought warmth and companionship in a little 
drinking place, where his news seems to have been received with derision, and 
where he soon drank himself into the same careless condition as his companions. 
A Preseott writer of the period estimated that not less than seventy lives were 
lost and that sixty-three bodies were recovered and buried at different places 
adjacent to the river. Only within the last few months a skeleton has been re- 
covered, believed to have been the remains of John Silsbee, a noted pioneer 
musician. Somewhere in the river, too, is a big iron safe, containing $5,000 in 
coin that was swept from the establishment of Bob Brow, which was in the caiion 
a short distance below the dam. It is probable that the Walnut Grove dam will 
be reconstructed very soon under plans that have been made for a concrete arch 
structure of the same safe type as that built by the Government at Eoosevelt. 



Seltlement of the Salt River Valley — Foundation and Civic Advancement of Phamix — 
First Mails and Schools — HoJV Tempe and Mesa Came into Being — Florence and 
Its Neighborhood — ToTvns of the Upper Gila Fa//c\; and Early Indian Tribu- 

The first American occupation of the Salt River Valley, though most tempo- 
rary, was a hay camp, established by John Smith (who had his name changed 
by the Legislature to John Y. T. Smith), four miles up the river from the later 
location of Phoenix. Smith, who had been an officer of the California Column, 
then was trader at McDowell and had a contract to furnish forage at the post. 

Jack Swilling several times had passed through the valley, but at the hay 
camp gained proper appreciation of the agi'icuUural possibilities of the region, 
seeing also the ease with which water could be taken from the Salt River, follow- 
ing the lines of the ancient canals. So in Wiekenburg, in 1867, he organized the 
Swilling Canal Company, with a theoretical capital of $10,000 and soon the 
"company" was on the ground, its members' goods brought by an eight-mule 
team. A start was made on the line of the later Grand Canal, within an ancient 
ditch, but, for economy of labor a lower site was soon decided upon. The canal 
thus started, thereafter known as the Salt River Valley Canal, today is the sup- 
ply ditch for Phoenix and its neighborhood. 

The name of Pha?nix originated several years before any town was established. 
Swilling, a soldier of the Lost Cause, wanted to name the settlement "Stonewall." 
Jacob Starer suggested Salina, but John Larsen demurred on the ground that 
the word meant "salt marsh." Then Darrell Duppa, pointing to the evidences 
of ancient occupation, suggested the name that was agreed upon. 

There has been found an interesting letter written by Thos. T. Hunter, who 
entered the Salt River Valley about January 1, 1868, and who, on account of 
high water, had to camp at the Hayden Butte on the south side of Salt River 
until February 16, after ^is party had lost W. H. Cooper by drowning. On the 
north side he found a number of settlers digging the Swilling Ditch and remem- 
bered the names of McWhorter (who was killed by Indians), "Pump Handle 
John," "Lord" Diippa, Vandermark, McVey, Jim Lee, Fitzgerald, Tom Con- 
ley, Jake and Andy Starer, John Adams, "One-eyed Davis," Bill Bloom and 
Frenchy, who built the first house in the valley, though the structure consisted 
only of four Cottonwood forks set in the ground, with a brush and mud-covered 
roof. But the succeeding August a large number of new people arrived, includ- 
ing the C. H. Gray, Greenhaw, Rowe and Patterson families and "Red" Wilson, 


who was considered foolish for prophesying that from within the valley was to 
arise a wonderful city. Hunter told that the first child bom in the valley, of 
white parents, was the daughter of John Adams, in the spring of 1868. The same 
household in April of that year furnished the first bride, the eldest daughter of 
the family marrying a cowboy, William Johnson. The ceremony was performed 
by the chaplain at Fort McDowell. 

Swilling erected a large adobe house on an ancient ruin, near the head of 
the canal. There were good crops and the following year there was a material 
accession to the colony. Starer, Columbus H. Gray, J. Ammerman, and some 
others dug a branch canal, to this day known as the Dutch Ditch, lands still 
lower lying served by the Griffith Ditch, abandoned within ten years. Mrs. 
Gray, who still is living on the old ranch home in the southern suburbs of Phoenix, 
probably was the first white American woman who came into the valley, though 
Mrs. James M. Gardiner was first in the Town of Phoenix. 

In 1870 a small flour mill, owned by W. B. Hellings, was in operation at 
Mill City, later East Phoenix. The ruins of its adobe building are to be seen a 
short distance east of the State Insane Asylum. A roadside station had been 
stai-ted by Major McKinney and, near Swilling 's, Capt. W. A. Hancock, another 
California volunteer, had a small store. This store later was moved to the 
eastern edge of the present townsite of Phoenix, where the postoffice was started, 
with Geo. E. Mowry as clerk and postmaster. 


When the ideas of the settlers had coalesced to a degree, a meeting was held 
at the Moore place, October 20, 1870, and Darrell Duppa, Moore and M. P. GrifiSn 
were selected a committee to select a townsite on land yet unappropriated. Han- 
cock, who knew something of surveying, already had started on the platting 
of the north half of section 8, township 1 north, range 3 east, and his plans were 
reported back to the next settlers' meeting. 

Thereupon was organized the Salt River Valley Town Association, with John 
T. Alsap, Jim Murphy and J. P. Perry as commissioners. This plan probably 
was that of Alsap, who was shrewd and well versed in the law. The articles 
of agi-eement were signed by W. B. Hellings & Co., Darrell Duppa, Bamett & 
Block, Thomas Barnum, James Murphy, John T. Dennis, W. A. Holmes, Jas. W. 
Buck, Jacob Starer, John T. Alsap, C. H. Gray, J\I. P. Griffin, James McElliott, 
J. P. Perry, William Rowe, McConnell, Daniel, Twomey, C. C. McDermott, Ed- 
ward Irvine, J. P. Osborn, Andrew Starer, Paul Becker and Jas. D. Monihon. 

Haucock's survey, comprising ninety-eight 300-foot blocks, filling a half-sec- 
tion of land, was completed early in 1871, though a lot sale was held in Decem- 
ber, 1870. The patent was received April 10, 1874, at a gross cost of $550. The 
average price received for town lots was $11 for corners and $7 for inside loca- 
tion. For choice business locations now assessed at $1,500 a foot, as much as 
$104 a lot was paid. The first house was an adobe on Washington Street, be- 
tween Center and Montezuma (First Street), where the first county offices were 
housed. These later were moved to a building on the present South First 
Avenue, later to be changed to a larger structure on Washington, east of Center, 
property bought from IM. Goldwater, where they remained till the present 
courthouse building was completed. 





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The first lot was bought by Judge Berry of Prescott, on the southwest corner 
of Washington and Montezuma. The first deed issued by Probate Judge Alsap 
was on May 18, 1875, to Jacob Starer, for lot 12, block 10, on the corner of Adams 
and North Second streets, where the Arizona Republican now has its home. 

In 1868-9 a horseback mail route ran from Wickenburg connecting with the 
main route at Maricopa Wells or Florence. There was a relief of horses near 
Swilling 's ranch, where a box had been installed in which was put the mail of 
the community. In June, 1869, Postmaster Geo. W. Bernard, of Prescott, asked 
for the establishment of postoffiees at Skull Valley, Walnut Grove and Phoenix. 
The office at tlie Phoenix settlement was established in 1870, with John M. Olvany 
as postmaster. Olvany was removed early in 1871 and in his place was appointed 
Wm. A. Hancock. At that time the settlement had about 300 inhabitants, ex- 
clusively engaged in agriculture. 

William Smith started the first little store on the townsite and Dennis & 
Murphy, E. Irvine and Barnett & Block soon followed. The postoffice was moved 
to the Dennis & Murphy store, where George Mowry opened the first mail sack, 
as Hancock had been appointed sheriff of the new county in February, 1870, 
and had a deal of surveying work besides. Pete Holcomb was the first butcher. 

The first election was in May, 1871, and the campaign was marked by the 
first bloodshed on the townsite. J. Favorite, candidate for sheriff, was killed 
by a rival, Chenoweth. The latter was released on examination, but, naturally, 
dropped out of the political race. To the office then was chosen Tom Barnum. 

The first school in Plicenix had its first session September 5, 1872, established 
under authority of a late common school act, passed by the State Legislature. 
J. D. Daroche was the teacher, the session held in the courtroom of the court- 
house, on First Avenue, just south of Washington Street. The first trustees were 
J. D. Rumberg, J. P. Osborn and Wm. A. Hancock. There was a raj^id succession 
of teachers during the first term, Daroche being succeeded by J. Parker and he 
by W. A. Glover, employed at a salary of $100 a month. 

The district in 1875 awarded a contract for the erection of an adobe school- 
house, 20x30 feet in the clear, costing nearly $1,000, including the lumber from 
which the desks and the seats were made. The miller, John Y. T. Smith, gave 
enough lumber for the floor and, a short time afterward married the school 
mistress. Miss Nellie Shaver. The building, which was occupied November 8, 
1873, stood on North Center Street, about the middle of the east side of the 
present Central School Block. Mrs. Alabama Fitzpatrick, who followed Miss 
Shaver, taught only a single term before marrying John B. Montgomery. Soon 
thereafter the little adobe house became too crowded and another teacher was 
employed and the South Methodist Church nearby was leased for the use of the 
primary department. 

In the Legislature of 1879 was passed a bill permitting the bonding of school 
districts, so, on the site of the present Central School and facing on Monroe 
Street, at a cost of $13,000 was erected a four-room brick building. The last 
teacher in the adobe was R. L. Long, afterward territorial superintendent of 
public instruction, his assistant being Mrs. Beverly Cox. The newer building 
first was occupied in the fall of 1880, with 0. S. Prambes and wife serving as 
the senior instructors. Since that time about $1,000,000 has been expended on 


school buildings within the City of Phoenix, now providing accommodations for 
about 4,000 pupils. 


Phoenix was incorporated February 25, 1881. The first city council had its 
initial session at the courthouse May 5. John T. Alsap, who had been townside 
commissioner, had been elected mayor and the couneilmen were : T. W. Brown, 
W. T. Smith, J. M. Cotton and J. H. Burtis. Geo. H. Rothrock, a pioneer pho- 
tographer, was recorder. The following year Francis W. Shaw was chosen mayor 
and Jos. H. Campbell became recorder. Other early mayors were Geo. F. Coats 
and DeForest Porter. 

One of the first additions to Phoenix, to the west, was platted by David Neahr, 
of Yuma, who was particularly notable in his day for the names he gave his 
children. These names were : ' ' Freedom, Freeson, Freeman, Freeborn, Freeliug, 
Fannie, Freecome, Fida Mary, Freeland and Freechild." In the center of the 
plat, where the public library now stands, he laid out two blocks, designated as 
a park. In years later his heirs deeded this tract to Dr. J. M. Evans, but the 
courts decided that the map filed in evidence gave the city sufficient title to the 
land Neahr evidently had proposed to dedicate to public uses. 

Phoenix passed under a commission form of government April 7, 1914. As 
the first city manager was chosen W. A. Farish, an engineer of the Reclamation 
Service and an honored Ai-izonan. Within a year, however, di.ssensions broke 
out between the commission and the manager, who, after a formal trial by the 
commission itself, was removed from office March 16, 1915, this indicating a de- 
gree of failure in the first commission government experiment tried in the 

The first city water supply given Phoenix was a distribution system built by 
J. M. Gardiner and sold by him for $55,000 to Jerry Millay and Thomas Hine, 
who bonded it for $250,000 and extended the service over about three times the 
area originally covered. The propertj' then passed into the hands of M. H. Sher- 
man. The bonded indebtedness of the Phoenix Water Company, held at first by 
the ill-fated People's Home Savings Bank of San Francisco, passed to a New 
York trust company. Additional bonds were granted in lieu of interest, until 
finally the gross indebtedness was in the neighborhood of $600,000. The citizens, 
seeking adequate water service, determined to install their own water system 
and issued bonds to that end. Fierce litigation immediately started and a $300,- 
000 issue was attacked even while the bonds were in Cincinnati, ready to be 
turned over to purchasers. 

It took three elections to secure municipal ownership of the local water sys- 
tem. The final election was held December 12, 1906. The Phoenix Water Company 
would not surrender, however. Backed by a contract for fire plugs that still 
had eleven years to run, it fought the bond issue at the courts and before the 
public until, in 1907, finally bought off by a payment of $155,000 for its prop- 
erty and franchises. Since then about $500,000 has been spent upon the sys- 
tem, which has proved a financial and practical success. 

Phoenix had her first street railway in 1887, about the time of the comple- 
tion of the railroad from Maricopa. The original line was a narrow-gauge, with 
light open cars drawn by mules and with about four miles of trackage. The 

Woman's Club Building 
Y. il. C. A. BuiUiiny 

Young date palms in fruit, near the citj 
Business section as seen from a balloon 



operating company, the Valley Street Railway Company, floated bonds for 
$60,000. In September, 1893, the old road was eliminated and in its stead was 
installed an electrical system, double tracked on Washington Street through the 
business part of the city. To pay for this improvement and to take up the bonds 
of the former company, a new bond issue of $250,000 was made, floated by Gen. 
M. H. Sherman of Los Angeles, the original promoter, who still is owner of the 
much enlarged Phcenix and suburban electrical railroad system. 

In the summer of 1913 was an extremely nasty street car strike, that tied up 
the local transportation system for a couple of months, with all the usual dis- 
turbances of such affairs, including stoning and egging of cars. But the very 
violence of the strike wore it out and service gi-adually was reestablished. This 
strike had one important result, for from it, it is claimed, proceeded the first 
"jitney bus" service ever known within the United States. The strikers bought 
a few small automobiles and established a service that even yet is maintained 
within the city. One of. the strikers went to Los Angeles and there was the 
pioneer in a "jitney bus" incursion that at one time included about 1,000 

In Phoenix in September, 1910, was inaugurated service by the Overland 
Automatic Telephone Company, which started with an even 1,000 subscribers 
and which for a year or more did the greater part of the telephone business of 
the city. The company's resources proved too small for its business. As a 
result failure came within a few years. The Bell system supplanted its locally 
larger rival and a few hundred Arizonans cheeked off large losses, with only 
experience as a balancing factor. The year 1910 was locally important as that 
in which Arizona was given through telephone connection with the Pacific Coast. 

Phoenix led in street improvement and in the summer of 1911 made its first 
paving contracts for the expenditure of $200,000. 

Late in 1911 Phcenix started work upon a new sewer system, to cost $400,000 
and supplementing a private sewer system which served the business part of the 
city and which had been acquired by the municipality. 

All of Southern Arizona has widespread celebrity as a region where con- 
sumption can be cured. As a result its towns have been burdened heavily 
in past years by an influx of healthseekers. Somewhat relieving the situation 
in Phoenix is an institution of the Episcopal Church, St. Luke's Home, estab- 
lished in 1908. 

As early as 1893 an organization of the Young Men's Christian Association 
was effected in Phcenix, with a resident secretary and an educational course. 
The building of quarters was assured by an eleven-day campaign in April, 1907, 
in which 1,075 subscribers ^contributed $102,053. The campaign had been 
started with the expectation of raising only $60,000. The new structure, which 
had its formal opening March 1, 1910, is of notable architectural beauty. In the 
same year construction was started on a group of high school buildings to cost 
$150,000 and on a handsome building for the Woman's Club. 


The winters of 1890 and 1891 both were marked by exceptional spring floods 
in the rivers of Arizona. In February, 1891, a warm rain descended upon deep 
snows on both the Salt and Verde River watersheds. There was a maximum 
Toi. n— 17 


flow of twenty-three feet over the crest of the Arizona dam. Canal headings 
melted away and the water overflowed into lower ground, surrounding the insane 
asylum and covering the southern part of Phcenix several feet deep. Within the 
city the main damage done was the melting down of scores of adobe houses, 
making homeless hundreds of Mexicans, who then were sheltered in tents on 
Military Plaza. The Maricopa & Phcenix Railway bridge across Salt River at 
Tempe was lifted from its piers and much damage was done generally to the 
railroads of the territory. 

The Adams, the largest hotel in Arizona, was destroyed by fire early on the 
morning of May 17, 1910, with a loss appoximating $200,000. No lives were 
lost within the building, though it was a veritable fire trap. The guests, who 
included Governor and ]\Irs. Sloan, generally reached safety by means of the 
balconies and adjoining roofs. On the ruins of the old hotel soon thereafter 
rose a much larger fireproof structure, built of concrete. 

Something very close to an insurrection was known in Phcenix, September 
16, 1912, while the Mexican population was celebrating its independence day. 
The time was chosen by a number of agitators for starting a race riot. As well 
there was disorder between a couple of Mexican factions, cidminating at dusk 
in the stabbing of Chief of Police jMoore and Policemen Valenzuela and Wil- 
liams and in the accidental death of a lad, Scott Price, hit by a wild bullet from 
the wounded chief's pistol. 

A Mexican insurrection was threatened in Phoenix in August, 1914, when 
ten dusky conspirators were arrested, charged with plotting to raise the Indian 
population against the Americans, to raid the banks, the state capitol and the 
militia armory and to arm and equip a large force of Mexican insurrectos, who 
were to march forthwith into Mexico and to fight for an unspecified cause. 
When the matter was investigated in the courts it was found that the conspiracy 
was genuine enough, but that the results possible of achievement would have 
been immaterial. 

December 18, 1906, in Phcenix, of consumption, died Nicola Constantinovich 
de Raylan, manager of the Russian-American Bureau of Chicago, former 
secretary of the Russian consul at Chicago and a member of the Chicago Hus- 
sars. Not till placed upon the embalmer's table was it found that the body 
was that of a woman. The masquerade had been maintained for about twenty 
years, since de Raylan 's arrival fi-om Russia. She had even married twice, to 
the first marriage being credited the birth of a son before the couple separated. 
The second wife survived in Chicago. Each insisted that her "husband" was a 
man. De Raylan 's business in Chicago was one of large profit, returning an 
income of $100 a day. The Probate Court in Chicago threw out the claims of 
the alleged wife, though backed by a marriage certificate, and decided that the 
estate, valued at $7,000, should go to Russia to the mother of the dead woman, 
Seraphina Teiletsky. The mother claimed to have had no knowledge of the 
reason why her daughter assumed male garments. 

One of the notable crimes of Arizona history was the murder, north of 
Phoenix, in March, 1907, of John Leicht, whose body was found where it had been 
dumped from a buggy, after a search participated in by hundreds of towns- 
people. Death had been by means of chloroform. A reward of $1,000 found 
the murderer, Louis V. Eytinge, in San Rafael, Cal., and thereafter he was 


sentenced to life imprisonment in the penitentiary. Since that time Eytinge 
has managed to keep very much in the limelight. Though with a criminal 
record that included forgeries and various other felonies, beside the murder for 
which he was committed, he has managed to enlist the support of a large num- 
ber of trade organizations, in various parts of the country, tJnat have made 
efforts to secure his release. Following out the policy of Governor Hunt, to 
keep the prisoners profitably and congenially employed, Eytinge has been per- 
mitted to operate from the prison a mail order school and has also been allowed 
to serve as sales agent for the personal manufactures of the inmates. 

The hard times of the fall of 1914 were given as the cause of the failure of 
the Valley Bank of Phoenix, the largest financial institution in the Southwest, 
which was taken in charge by State Auditor Callaghan, November 10. Interested 
were nearly 9,000 depositors, with approximately $1,800,000 deposits. On 
investigation, the affairs of the bank were found in bad shape, with holdings of 
about $500,000 of poor paper. The settlement of its affairs was taken in hands 
by a committee of depositors, with results considered unique in the history of 
American banking. A holding company was organized with a capital of $350,- 
000, subscribed by the depositors and bank directors. This company took up 
$800,000 worth of the evidences of indebtedness. The bank then was taken over 
by a strong syndicate of mining capitalists. The holding company without 
delay proceeded to realize on the paper held by it with the expectation that its 
losses would not exceed the capital stock and surplus of the old bank, thus 
assuring all depositors of practically a full return of their money. 


In 1883 Felix G. Hardwick received a reward of $500 offered by the Legis- 
lature for the first bale of commercial cotton raised in Arizona, the solons taking 
heed that the ancients had found it possible to raise the staple in the Southwest. 
Hardwick grew 3,390 pounds of lint on five acres of his farm near Tempe and 
the product was exhibited at the New Orleans Fair and pronounced good. The 
first oranges were planted in 1888 by W. J. Murphy, Wm. Christy and other 
Arizona Canal farmers. In 1888 also was the establishment of the Ph(Pnix 
Chamber of Commerce, with Henry E. Kemp as its first president. 

Near Phcenix in 1900 was abandoned an industry on which great hopes had 
been based. An English company for several years had cultivated 2,000 acres 
of land in canaigre, an Arizona plant with tuberous roots, especially rich in 
tannic acid and used with success by Mexican tanners for many generations. 
The product was shipped to England but apparently without profit. 

The idea of a beet sugar factory started late in 1901 when a committee of 
Phoenix business men began the gathering of a bonus of land and of money for 
a factory, which was established at Glendale, about nine miles northwest of 
Phoenix. The plant has had several seasons of operation and latterly has been 
remodeled so as to permit the treatment of sugar cane as well as beets, a change 
doubling the length of its season of operation and making profit possible of 
attainment. The plant in all has cost about $1,500,000. As it stands it is now 
capable of handling the product of about ten thousand acres of land. 

In the early days of Southern Arizona the summers were endured absolutely 
without ice. "When the Southern Pacific Railroad came, ice could be had along 


the main line, brought down from the Sierra Nevadas. In Globe, properly to 
celebrate the Fourth of July, a special shipment of ice was brought in by stage 
to be served in the thirst emporiums in very small cubes, for it had cost 25 cents 
a pound. The first ice factory of Arizona was in Phoenix, its machinery started 
in the summer of 1879 by Samuel D. Lount, brother of a member of the pioneer 
"Walker party. He had a process of his own, probably peculiar to the single 
factory in which it is still used. Lount 's first machine had capacity for making 
about one thousand pounds per day and this, delivered in a wheelbarrow, sold 
for 7 cents a pound. 

Phoenix was honored in December, 1914, by the annual meeting of the 
American Mining Congress. Among the resolutions passed was one recommend- 
ing the establishment of a national department of mines and mining, with a 
member of the President's cabinet at its head. 


Tempe, about eight miles from Phoenix, now especially well known as the 
site of the State Normal School, was founded about the same time as Phoenix, 
in 1871, when Jack Swilling turned from his canal construction on the north 
side of the river to join with other pioneers in the building of the Tempe Canal. 
One of the first of the settlers, and the first business man, was Chas. Trumbull 
Hayden, a Tucson merchant, who in 1871 established a store in a house of willow 
wattles near the river, across which he placed a ferry. So the first settlement 
was known as Hayden 's Perry. A short distance beyond was a community of 
Mexicans that had been named San Pablo. Between the two towns, the Johnsons 
and other ilorraons settled and with their coming, about 1879, the name of 
Tempe was generally used. 

Tempe is assumed to have been named by that erratic genius Darrell Duppa, 
after the romantic vale of Tempe, in Greece, where poets rusticated and evolved 
songs of pastoral content. There also is a theory that it came from Jack Swill- 
ing's discovery of a "tame pea" viue on the river bank, but this is not so plau- 
sible. At any event, the word is not Spanish and should be so pronounced. 

Among the "old timers" who helped in the digging of the first canal, and 
who farmed lands beneath it. were Winchester Miller, one of the most lovable 
of men ; J. T. Priest, who did much toward securing the Tonto Basin reservoir ; 
Nathaniel Sharp ; Robert Carley, who had the uppermost ranch ; Niels Petersen, 
who later became the community's wealthiest citizen, and AVm. H. Kirkland, the 
famous pioneer. 

Tempe secured her water system at a of $28,000 in 1902, the water elec- 
trically pumped from deep wells within the townsite to a reservoir excavated on 
the overshadowing Tempe Butte. 

Tempe became of large importance on the construction of the Southern 
Pacific branch road in 1887, and since has maintained the distinction of being 
the most important cattle feeding and shipping center within the valley. 

The settlement of ]\Iesa, February, 1878, was purely an enterprise of the 
Church of the Latter Day Saints, and therefore has been considered in a chapter 
devoted to that pioneering organization. It was named and laid out by C. I. 
Robson, Geo. W. Sirrine and F. ]\I. Ponieroy, to whom the land was deeded l\v 
its locator, D. C. Sirrine. 


The town is remarkable for the width of its streets, 125 feet. Each block of 
ten acres was cut into eight lots and each settler holding one share of stock in 
the Mesa Canal was entitled to four lots. A school house was built out of adobe 
and was used also for religious services. The settlement had early incorpora- 
tion, July 15, 1883, and A. F. IMcDonald was the first mayor elected. The Mor- 
mon band of seventy-nine people, enumerated early in 1878, has grown until 
Mesa now is the second city of the county, surrounded by an immense acreage 
of fertile land, exceptionally well irrigated by three canal systems, which have 
a single head at the south end of the Granite Keef dam. 

Chandler, in the southeastern part of the Salt River Valley, dates back only 
to the summer of 1911, the locality then favored by the building of a Southern 
Pacific branch. At once was started the erection of one of the handsomest hotels 
in the Southwest, around which has grown a town of many attractions, within 
a rich farming district. 


Pinal County embraces mining and agricultural sections, both of them 
rich and productive. Its county seat is Florence, a town established in 1867. 
One of its first settlers was a man named Chase, who in 1867 built an adobe 
house, which still is standing, and who dug an irrigating ditch. In 1868 Levi 
Ruggles bought the Chase house and ranch and soon thereafter laid off a part 
of the land in town lots. Ruggles had come to Arizona in 1866 as an Indian 
agent and around 1873 was register of the Gila District Land Office at Florence. 

As early as 1868 was constructed a building used by Joseph Collingwood & 
Co. as a store. A patent to the townsite was granted in 1882, directly to the 
occupants of the land. Florence in 1875 was credited by Hodge with a popula- 
tion of 500, and its industries included a smelting furnace, and three fiouring 
mills, in or near the town., 

Florence in 1879 was officially designated by the Territorial Legislature as 
lying in the very center of mineralized Arizona. This was in connection with a 
memorial to Congress wherein was suggested the establishment at Florence of 
a branch mint, the document reciting the names of practically all the mining 
districts of Arizona considered as so lying that Florence was easy of access 
from all. Especial stress was placed by the memorial upon the silver industry, 
which then was led by the Silver King. 

In the chapters devoted to mining will be found especial reference to the 
Silver King, Ray and other important mines of Pinal County. Some of the 
towns of the olden time are dead. Especially there was Pinal, which had 2,000 
population in 1881, and which expected to become the county seat. About all 
there was of Pinal, which better was known as Picket Post, was the mill of 
the Silver King, and when that shut down it died. 

The Superior District, now active once more, in the early days had a town- 
site, that of Hastings, named for a San Francisco clothier. He had a gold 
mine managed by D. T. Elmore, a spiritualist, who dreamed that there was gold 
in the rock that he was getting out. A twenty-stamp mill was built at a cost 
of .$60,000 and ran just three days. 

Near Florence are the ruins of Adamsville, which the inhabitants had renamed 
after Capt. Geo. B. Sanford (bvt. Lieut.-Col.), who commanded at McDowell 


about 1870 and who showed much interest in the Pima Indians. Known to few 
is the fact that a resident of Adamsville in 1869, a clerk for Nick Bichard, was 
John P. Young, the veteran San Francisco journalist, editor of the Chronicle 
and writer of an extensive and charming history of the great coast metropolis. 
Adamsville had a flouring mill, owned by Bichard, said by Hinton to have been 
the first built in Arizona. 


The first white settlement in Graham County, following the Spanish 
explorers, the passage of several military, prospecting and trapping expedi- 
tions, was at old Camp Goodwin, where for several years was stationed a detach- 
ment of the California Column, which used it as a base for operations against 
the Indians. Several Mexican families already were residents of Pueblo Viejo 
(Old To\^Ti), the present site of Solomon ville, and of San Jose, a couple "of miles 
up the river, prior to 1873, when the first American settlers arrived in the 
valley. These were people who for a number of years had been trying to farm 
near Gila Bend, but had been unsuccessful, owing to the washing away of their 
dams and headgates, which had been built in the sand of the Gila River banks. 
They camped not far from the present Town of Safford and the following year, 
under United States towusite laws, laid off the present metropolis of the county, 
named after Gov. A. P. K. Safford, who was a visitor to the valley about that 

Near Pueblo Viejo was a road house, where a man named Munson had a 
small store. Some energy was introduced in 1876 on the arrival of I. E. Solo- 
mon from Las Cruces, N. M. He stopped for a while at San Jose, where the 
Mexican residents included the IMejias, Montes and Montoyas. Later he moved 
three miles further down the valley and located where now is Solomonvilie, after 
he had bought out and displaced Munson and his roadside inn. 

Mr. Solomon went into the valley for the purpose of burning mesquite char- 
coal for use in the smelter at Clifton, where the mines then were being operated 
by relatives, the Leszynksys. 

Solomon started a store, which soon became the trading post for a large 
extent of country, though there were only a few white families between that 
point and Fort Thomas, a military post garrisoned by three or four companies. 
Solomonvilie today is not a very large town, yet it rejoices in three names, for 
the postofflce is known as Solomonsville and the railroad station as Solomon. 
The court house was moved in 1883 to Solomonvilie from Safford, which was 
given the honor at the time of the foundation of the county and which, by a 
late referendum vote, is to have it again. 

The name of Solomonvilie is said to have been suggested by Bill Kirkland in 
1878, on the establishment of a postoffice at Pueblo Viejo. About that time 
Kirkland is said to have been riding mail between Fort Thomas and Clifton, 
over a route on which he was in constant danger of meeting Apache war parties. 
The name of Pueblo Viejo had especial reference to the presence of ancient 
ruins in the locality. 

The early days in the upper Gila Valley were full of danger. The settle- 
ments were placed in the very center of what had been the Apache hunting 


grounds and on routes which, from time immemorial had been used for raids 
into Mexico. The presence of troops at Fort Thomas and Fort Grant and a 
degree of military supervision on the near-by San Carlos Reservation undoubt- 
edly saved the settlers on more than one occasion. 

When JMr. Solomon came to the valley, Victorio was making things interest- 
ing in the locality and at one time thirteen of the Solomon sheepherders were 
killed by his band, together with destruction of much valuable property. With 
the herders at that time were a woman and two children. One of the children 
escaped alive. At another time, over toward Deming, two teamsters in the 
Solomon employ were killed by Apaches. With them had gone Adolph Solomon, 
brother of I. E. Solomon, but he became ill on the journey and turned back, 
while the drivers went on to their death. A similar experience was known by 
Charlie Solomon, then about 7 years of age, and now a banker in Tucson. He 
was being sent to Las Cruces, there to join his uncle for a trip to Germany. The 
driveT in whose care he was placed was pressing onward but was compelled to 
camp by a heavy rain storm, which even prevented the lighting of a fire. The 
next morning they came upon the scene of a massacre of a score of people, some 
of them not yet dead, suffering horribly from Indian cruelties. They had thus 
been left by one of Victorio 's bands, which had hurried away into the hills with 
the stolen horses and cattle. It is probable that a bank president was saved to 
Arizona by the fact that a fire could not have been lighted at the desert camp 
the night before. 

At another time the family had started for Las Cruces to meet Mrs. Solomon's 
mother, but sickness again, on the part of one of the children, caused delay on 
the road. The stage on which they would have gone to Las Cruces on that day 
was captured by the Indians and all the occupants killed, among them the son 
of Captain Madden, on his way home from college. 

About 1885 Geronimo and his band stole a number of horses at Thatcher. 
They were pursued by the Wright brothers, through Solomonville to a point 
about six miles above San Jose, where they were ambushed. One of the Solomon 
employees, Nash by name, with several teams was in the vicinity on his way to 
Solomonville. In the morning he found the bodies of the Wrights and brought 
them back. Later on the spot a monument was built by the settlers. 

Only a few miles west of the settled Gila Valley a frontier tragedy occurred 
as late as 1890. In the Deer Creek coal fields was found the camp of five pros- 
pectors whose skeletons and scattered camp equipment told a clear story. The 
camp had been surprised by Apaches. Four of the men had been killed as they 
fought, but the fifth had been taken alive and had been tortured and burned at 
the stake, for under the blackened trunk of a tree was a mere pile of half calcined 

Much of the history of Graham County attaches to the work of Mormon 
colonists. Within the county, however, Safford is recognized as rather a "Gen- 
tile" city. Its first business man appears to have been J. E. Bailey. D. W. 
Wickershara was a pioneer school teacher and in 1878 a market for the valley's 
wheat was afforded by the building of a mill by E. M. Jacobs of Tucson. Pioneer 
residents especially remembered are E. D. Tuttle, E. T. Ijams, Geo. A. Olney, 
Peter Anderson and J. T. Owens. 


The Gila Valley now ranks only second to the Salt River Valley in agricul- 
tural prominence within Arizona. It has prospered to a remarkable degree, 
especially since the coming of the Gila Valley, Globe and Northern Railroad. 
It is favored by a large and near-by mining market for its products and also by 
possession of a hard-working and intelligent class of settlers. 




Tucson, from Mexican Davs to Modern Times — Arrival of the Railroad — Telegraphing 
the Pope — Current History of Tombstone and Bisbee — Nogales, Successor to the 
Hopes of Calahasas — War on the Border — Globe and Miami. 

The history of Tucson since 1864 is much the same as that of many other 
thriving communities advancing in civilization and material prosperity. Now 
she has paved streets, electric cars, three lines of railroads and a university and all 
the evidence of bustling prosperity. Yet her people take especial pride in the 
memories of the past and in the distinction of their city as the oldest within the 
state. The old walled village has gone back to dust and few there are to desig- 
nate the land marks, other than Samuel Hughes, who came in 1858, "when the 
town was on the other side of the river and the garrison on this side." Mr. 
Hughes shows where the wall of the old presidio commenced, at the corner of 
Main and Washington streets, where the home of J. Knox Corbett now stands, 
running thence to Church and from Church to Pennington, and from there back 
to Main. It was twelve feet high and had only one entrance, on the south side. 
There was always a sentry at the gate and when night came everybody went 
inside. Outside of the walls there was a village of Pimas and one of friendly 
Apaches. Across the river, near the village, was a church. 

Early day prices in Tucson, on the evidence of G. P. Angelo, indicated living 
expense not exactly fitting with the low wages of the period. A drink of whiskey 
cost 50 cents, com sold at $12.50 per 100 pounds and ordinary muslin cost $1 a 

Tucson afforded much entertainment to Capt. John G. Bourke, who visited it 
in the course of his duty when Camp Lowell was on the eastern edge of the town. 
He came in 1869. He called it as foreign a town as if it were in Hayti. There 
was no hotel, but there was at least one boarding house that was honored with 
the patronage of the governor and other territorial officials. There were no 
streets, pavements or street lamps; no drainage, and the water was brought in 
barrels. The garbage piles were monumental and Bourke affirmed in the lower 
strata one could find arrowheads and stone axes and just above, spurs and other 
relics of the "Conquistadores," while high above them were stray cards, empty 
tomato cans, beer bottles and other similar evidences of a higher and nobler 
civilization. Though there was nothing saintly about the burg, time was de- 
termined by the bells of the' cathedral. 

The cosmopolitan character of the place best was shown around the gambling 
saloons, where there were Americans of all degrees, Mexicans, Chinese and 


"civilized" Indians. Little disorder was to be noted, even though occasionally 
Slap-Jack Billy would parade himself before the bar of Congress Hall and pro- 
claim to the world that he could whip his weight in b'ar meat. The flavor of 
the old town, however, was distinctively Mexican and there were many pretty 
Spanish-Mexican customs that had been adopted in the daily life of the town. 
Many of the more prominent Americans had married into the good Mexican fam- 
ilies and the home life of the settlement thereby was affected. Almost nightly 
there were serenades, and the fair ladies behind the barred windows were treated 
with the same round of music, wherein "La Paloma" and "La Golondrina" 
always had place. Captain Bourke has set down even the words of some of these 
serenatas, in alternate lines indicating accompaniment on the guitar. Here is 

No me mires con esos tus ojos, 

(Fluke-fluky-fluke; plink, planky-plink.) 

Mas hermosos que el sol en el cielo, 

(Plinky -plink; plinky-plink.) 

Que me mires de dicha y eonsuelo. 

( Fluky-fluky- fluke ; plink-plink. ) 

Que me mata ! que me mata ! tu mirar. 

(Plinky-plink, fluky-fluke; plinky-plink; fluke-fluke.) 


The first move toward civic incorporation was on April 20, 1871, when the 
county supervisors were prayed to organize the municipality of Tucson. The 
petition was signed by W. S. Oury, I. Goldberg, S. H. Draehman, S. R. DeLong, 
P. R. TuUy, Estevan Ochoa, Samuel Hughes, Solomon Warner, L. Zeckendorf, 
H. S. Stephens, E. N. Fish, J. W. Hopkins, Charles Leszynsky, P. W. Cooper, 
and A. T. Jones. In the document was alleged that the settlement had 3,200 
residents, a claim based upon the census of 1870. At the following election, after 
approval of the petition, the following-named were elected: Mayor, Sidney R. 
DeLong; aldermen, W. S. Oury, W. W. Williams, Samuel Hughes and Chas. 0. 
Brown ; marshal, William Morgan ; assessor, W. J. Osborne ; treasurer, H. S. 
Stephens; poundmaster, Juan Elias. Later there was a new charter and the 
Legislature extended the corporate limits of the Village of Tucson to include 
four and one-half sections of land, to be designated as the Western Addition. 

The naming of the streets of Tucson, according to A. F. Banta, mainly was 
done in 1873 at the time of the enlargement of the original townsite and the 
names were suggested, he tells, principally by Surveyor-General Wasson and 
Governor Safford. Congress Street, then, as now, the main thoroughfare, was 
so designated because at the intersection of the street with Meyer Street stood 
Congress Hall, the biggest gambling saloon in the Southwest. Meyer Street was 
named after Charles Meyer, who had a drug store at the same intersection. Con- 
vent Street followed naturally as it led to the convent of the Sisters of St. 
Joseph. Pennington, Cushing and Simpson streets and Stone Avenue were 
named after pioneers, all of whom had been killed by Apaches. Franklin Street 
was named after Banta himself, for Charlie Franklin was the "war" name 
under which he was known. 



Peace to a relative degi-ee came to Tucson when Charles ]\Ieyer assumed the 
office of Alcalde or justice of the peace. He established a chain gang and stood 
l>y his own court procedure even when it happened to clash with the laws of the 

The City of Tucson was incorporated by legislative enactment approved 
February 7, 1877, with provision for the election annually of a mayor, two eoun- 
cilmen, recorder, treasurer, assessor, marshal and poundmaster. 


It was a happy day when the iron horse came to Tucson, March 17, 1880. 
The enthusiasm was pent up till the 20th, when a formal reception was given a 
special trainload of high railroad officials and their friends. When the train 
drew in there was wild enthusiasm on the part of the populace and there 
was music by the Sixth Cavalry Band from Fort Lowell. Heading the party of 
Californians was Charles Crocker, president of the railroad. Also there were 
Superintendent James Gamble of the Western Union Telegraph Company, Chief 
Engineer George E. Gray, Division Superintendent E. E. Hewitt, Frank M. 
Pixley, editor of the San Francisco Argonaut, and Major Ben Truman, a noted 
coast journalist. The citizens had an elaborate reception organization, with no 
less than nine committees. There was an address of welcome from our old 
friend. Col. W. S. Oury. Then Oury's old associate in Indian warfare, Don 
Estevan Ochoa, presented to President Crocker a silver spike, a timely gift, made 
by Superintendent Dick Gird of the Tombstone Mill and Mining Company of 
bullion from the Tough Nut mine. 

The main function, however, was a banquet held at Levin's park, at the foot 
of Pennington Street. Mayor R. N. Leatherwood presided, but turned the office 
of toastmaster over to Col. Chas. D. Poston, who made the formal speech of- 
welcome. The other speeches listed in the Tucson Star were by Col. Ben Morgan, 
Gen. E. A. Carr, Hugh Parley, F. H. Goodwin, Professor Cox, Roland M. Squire, 
Mexican Consul Manuel Prieto, Carlos Velasco, Thomas Fitch, Frank M. Pix- 
ley, Chief Justice French and William Oury. 

On the date of the arrival of the railroad. Mayor Robt. N. Leatherwood, in 
his official capacity sent out a number of telegrams, to the President of the 
United States, to Governor Fremont and the mayors of several coast cities. In 
this connection Leatherwood accepted a suggestion to advise the Pope that Tuc- 
son at last had been connected by bands of steel with the outside world. At the 
banquet an alleged reply was read, about as follows : 

His Holiness the Pope acknowledges with appreciation receipt of your telegram informing 
him that the ancient city of Tucson at last has been connected by rail with the outside world 
and sends his benediction, but for his own satisfaction would ask, where in hell is Tucsonf 

(Signed) Antonelli. 

Tom Fitch acknowledges some responsibility for the almost blasphemous re- 
ply and in a late letter states that "Hugh Farley, W. H. Horton and I forged the 
message and suborned a telegraph messenger to carry it to Bob. ' ' 

The accuracy of this pioneer understanding is disputed, however, by Dr. M. 
P. Freeman of Tucson, who is of the opinion that the dispatch to the Pope was 


written in good faith by none other than Charles D. Poston, who at the time 
originated the expression, so well known, of "Ancient and Honorable Pueblo." 
According to Doctor Freeman, the text of the telegram was as follows : 

Tucson, Arizona, March 17, 1880. 
To His Holiness, the Pope of Eome, Italy. The mayor of Tucson begs the honor of 
reminding Your Holiness that this ancient and honorable pueblo was founded by the Spaniards 
under the sanction of the church more than thiee centuries ago, and to inform Your Holiness 
that a railroad from San Francisco, California, now connects us with the Christian world. 
K. N. Leatherwood, mayor. Asking your benediction, J. B. Salpointe, Vic. Ap. 

A very material point is that it was taken to Bishop J. P. Salpointe, who 
added his signature, asking the benediction of the Pope. According to this ac- 
count, nothing in the least disrespectful was sent or intended, though it is not 
known whether the message was dispatched or whether a real answer was 

Another special train came May 6, bearing a group of Southern Pacific offi- 
cials, including Assistant General Superintendent E. C. Fellows, General Freight 
Agent J. C. Stubbs, and Chief Engineer S. S. Montague. The party returned 
from the front in the evening and, according to the Star, then "were greeted by 
many of our best citizens." According to Stubbs, who in later years became 
traffic manager of all the Harriman lines, that evening's entertainment was to 
be remembered with awe, for he told that so fast was the champagne consumed 
the waiters were instructed to pour it out in buckets. 

About this time Tucson was enjoying large prosperity, being the forwarding 
point and market place for the great mining discovery at Tombstone, as well as 
for scores of other lively mining camps that then were scattered all over Southern 
Arizona. The trade with Sonora was so large that Mexican silver dollars were 
the basis of mercantile exchange and at that time had not descended below the 
general value of 90 cents in American currency. Never was there such gambling 
known in Arizona, and prosperity was at its highest tide. 


September 24, 1891, occurred an incident that in years later was given even 
greater publicity than at the time. It was the killing of Dr. J. C. Handy by Frank 
Heney, a young lawyer, who later attaijied prominence as a prosecutor in Cali- 
fornia, especially in connection wtih graft investigations in the northern part of 
the state and in briberj^ trials that tarred practically all the civic administration 
of San Francisco. Heney in 1891, already very much involved in democratic 
politics and already showing the aggressiveness that later led to high success at 
the bar, had taken the case for the defense in a divorce suit filed by Handy 
against his wife. The doctor's ante-morten statement was to the effect that 
Heney had rushed from his office and had thrust a revolver against Handy 's body 
and fired. Though Handy had a revolver it was not drawn. About the only 
near witness was Heney 's stenographer. Heney claimed that Handy had abused 
him for months because of his protection of Mrs. Handy, even after the verdict 
had been given against Heney 's client and Handy had secured possession of his 
five children, and swore also that at the time of the encovmter Handy was the 
aggressor and had cursed him and tried to seize him before Heney 's shot was 

William C. Greene 

Jiulge Charles H. ileycr Thomas Gates 



fired. Heney was discharged on preliminary examination and still later an in- 
dictment against him was refused by a grand jury. 


Early in 1900 the military plaza in Tucson was "jumped" by a number of 
squatters headed by Dr. George Martin, who claimed that the city had never 
been granted the land. The courts finally decided in favor of the municipality 
and the squatters were ejected. 

In August, 1900, Tucson purchased the local water service system for 

In its earlier days Congress Street, the main thoroughfare of the city, was 
narrow and inadequate. In 1902 it was widened by the razing of a long block 
of low adobe buildings that lay within what was called the wedge. 

The worst casualty ever known in the annals of southwestern transportation 
was the train wreck at Esmond station near Tucson in February, 1903, with 
more than a score of passengers killed. Two heavy trains, running at high speed, 
crashed into each other, the locomotives crumpling like cardboard and the blazing 
oil tanks sending a fiery stream down the roadbed. More than a score of pas- 
sengers were killed, nearly all of them in the forward coaches, from which 
eighteen charred bodies later were taken. The blame was laid on a young oper- 
ator at Vail station, who had failed to deliver an order. 

The Old Pueblo Club, the city's principal social organization, in June, 1908, 
occupied its handsome clubhouse, built and furnished at a cost of nearly $80,000. 

Following the discharge of a number of trainmen for various causes, in June, 
1909, the home of Division Superintendent Whalen of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad was almost destroyed by an explosion of dynamite in the early morn- 
ing. After the dynamiting, four attempts were made to fire the railroad shops. 
Colonel Randolph and Superintendent Whalen sharply called the community in 
general to account in a statement that it seemed almost impossible for the South- 
ern Pacific to get a conviction in the county for crimes against its property. So 
the business men of Tucson at once formed a good-government league for the 
suppression of anarchy. 

In the fall of 1909 the city council took extraordinary action in requesting 
Mayor Ben Heney to resign, following a long-drawn-out quarrel with the city 
council over charges made by the mayor against the city marshal. 

May 5 is a holiday in Mexico. On that day in 1862 the French were defeated 
by General Zaragosa at Puebla. The date therefore was deemed most appro- 
priate for a celebration, 1910, on the opening of the railroad entering Tucson 
from Nogales and thus connecting it with Sonora and the west coast of Mexico. 

Another joyful occasion of the same sort Avas the greeting extended to the El 
Paso and Southwestern System when it entered Tucson in November, 1912. 

Tucson had subscribed about $60,000 towards the purchase of a right of 
way and station grounds for the Southwestern, but the railroad company, an 
annex of the great Phelps-Dodge corporation, showed a large spirit of generosity, 
after reaching Tucson in returning the money to the committee that had raised 
it. Manager Walter Douglas suggesting tliat it might served as a nucleus for a 
building for the use of the Young Men's Christian Association. This suggestioii 


was accepted and as a result iu December, 1914, on a site once occupied by a 
gambling palace, was opened a Y. M. C. A. building that had cost $100,U00. 

In the past year Tucson has been trying the experiment of civic operation 
under a city manager. Though only general permission could be found in 
the city charter for such a step, a manager was appointed in the person of C. K. 
Clark, a railroad construction engineer. This action was taken by a new city 
administration headed by former Postmaster J. Knox Corbett. 

Tucson is a notably strong city financially. Her banking in pioneer days 
mainly was done by the firm of Lord & Williams. In January, 1879, the Pima 
County Bank was opened by TuUy & Jacobs Bros. 


The story of the beginnings of Tombstone and of the rougher features that 
accompanied its "boom" days will be found on other pages. The camp had only 
about ten years of active life and only half of those years were eventful. Then 
came a period of rejuvenation, when the Murphy-Gage interests tried to conquer 
the How of underground water and now is being experienced a third stage of 
prosperity, backed by the large, thougli conser\'ative. mining operations of the 
Phelps-Dodge Company. 

The first settlement was at Watervale, a couple of miles distant from the 
Tough Nut mines; Tombstone itself was not much of a place when first seen in 
October, 1879, by Judge Duncan, when he came up from Watervale just in time 
to see a man murdered. The deed seemed to be taken with indifference by the 
community, in which bloodshed was commou. Then the settlement comprised 
forty house tents and cabins, possibly with a population of 100. Mike Gray 
offered the visitor lots on Allen Street for $5 each. "Pie" Allen had a store at 
Fourth and Allen and Landlord Bilicke, who in after years built the Alexandria 
Hotel in Los Angeles, had erected the Cosmopolitan Hotel, the most imposing 
building in the camp. 

A year thereafter the camp had about 1,000 residents, the population rising 
soon to about 14,000, according to one estimate. Its newspaper history, elsewhere 
related, had many entertaining features. Next to mining, the principal industry 
without doubt was gambling. Drinking saloons took up most of the space on the 
business streets. Fourteen faro banks never closed. 

In 1881 no less than 110 liquor licenses were paid in Tombstone. This did 
not exactly mean open saloons, for liquor was sold in almost any mercantile 
establishment in those days. Over the collection of the county liquor and mer- 
cantile licenses there was a deal of scandal. One old-timer said, with emphasis, 
that he was sure that as much as $200,000 disappeared during the boom period 
of the camp, and he wouldn't take one red cent from the amount. But little was 
cared, for the whole tendency of the times was happy-go-lucky. All that money 
was made for was to spend. According to Judge Duncau, the financial muddle 
the county soon fell into was more or less due to the business incapacity of the 

In its earlier days, Tombstone was embraced within Pima County. In 1881. 
County Recorder W. S. Carpenter at Tucson was understood to be making money 
at the rate of about $3,000 a week mainly from mining fees from Tombstone, 
which at times sent down as many as 100 locations a day. In those happy days 


all fees went to the officials. Sheriff R. H. Paul had an office about as lucrative, 
but both Carpenter and Paul died poor. 

Cochise County was organized by the Territorial Legislature of 1881, despite 
strong objection from Tucson. The name should have been "Cachise," but the 
bill was otherwise engrossed and the measure had passed under such circum- 
stances, of moral and other kinds of suasion, largely financial, that its backers 
consoled themselves with the thought that nobody knew how to spell an Indian 
name anyway, and let the en-or pass. 

The first session of court was May 9, 1881, with Judge W. H. Stillwell pre- 
siding and the first business transacted was the admission of Marcus A. Smith 
to practice as an attorney. 

Tombstone was incorporated about the same time she became a county seat. 
There were disastrous fires in 1881 and 1882, but soon an ample supply of water 
was piped in from the Iluachuca Mountains, securing against recurrence of 
such disasters. 

"When the Grand Central and Contention hoists burned and water flooded 
the lower workings of the mines, Tombstone began to disintegrate. Her popula- 
tion drifted to other camps and nine-tenths of her buildings were deserted. 
Property values became almost nil. Hundreds of the frame houses were torn 
down, their material going to nearby camps, such as Pearce. Such experiences 
frequently have been known in Nevada, but rarely in Arizona. 

When Bryan made his first race for the presidency, Mayor A. "Wentworth 
of Tombstone made a vow that he would not have his hair cut till Bryan sat in 
the White House. The election of Wilson sufficed, however, and Wentworth' 
thereafter was a patron of barber shops. 


Bisbee as a town started in the summer of 1880, when the Board of Super- 
visors of Pima County appointed Jas. F. Duncan justi'je of the peace and William 
Penton constable. A postoffiee was established September 7 of the same year, 
with Horace C. Stillman as postmaster. The camp had been named after Judge 
DeWitt Bisbee, father-in-law of John Williams, one of the three Williams broth- 
ers, and a member of the San Francisco mining firm of Bisbee, Williams & Com- 
pany. The first election held was on November 2, 1880, and in December Judge 
Duncan performed his first marriage ceremony, incidentally the first in the camp, 
that of Benjamin IMorgan and Miss Jessie Dunton. In 1881 the Warren Mining 
District was formed, with Horace Stillman as secretary. 

About the time that Bisbee was established with many miners from the 
Comstock and California points, there was much anti-Chinese agitation along 
the coast. This prejudice was brought by the men to Arizona and so in the 
early days of the camp a rule was established that no Chinese might remain 
over night. To this day, darkness is never supposed to overtake a Chinese 
vegetable peddler or wash man within the city limits of Bisbee. Of course, any 
enforcement of the regulation would have no legal sanction, but it has proved 
effective, just the same. 

In 1906 an attack was made upon the surface holdings, a considerable part 
of the townsite claimed by ^Martin O'Hare and othere under mineral filings. 


A decision was made against the claimants in the general land office and later 
by the secretary of the interior. 

Growing out of labor union troubles, the office of the Bisbee Review iu 
August, 1909, was invaded by a former employee, W. A. Pffankuch, who appar- 
ently had intention of slaying every workman therein. The first task of the 
murderer was to kill two linotype operators, Asa T. Hoy and William Bockholt. 
"When the assassin had exhausted the contents of his revolver, he was captured 
and taken to Tombstone in order to avoid a probable lynching. When tried, 
there developed an apparent mental deficiency and the assassin's neck was 

Street car communication was established from the business section of Bis- 
bee to the suburbs of Warren in March, 1908. 

In October, 1908, Bisbee suffered a destructive fire with a gross loss of $500,- 
000 and insurance of two-fifths of that amount. The flames swept the business 
section, its progress almost unchecked owing to the lack of a proper water sup- 
ply. Finally the fire was stopped at the edge of a broad space that had been 
cleared by dynamite. 

The main business streets of Bisbee were laid out at the bottom of Tombstone 
Canon and Brewery Gulch, which join at the old smelter site, into Mule Pass. 
Though the water-shed above is not a large one, on a number of occasions rather 
serious floods have menaced the lower parts of the city. Early in the history of 
the camp a substantial wooden gate was built near the head of the business 
section in Tombstone Caiion, to be closed in time of flood and thus deflect storm 
waters from the main street. A wooden viaduct was built to the eastward of 
the main street and later a much more substantial "subway" carried the flood 
along the base of the steep hills to the westward. A statement of the minor 
floods that have caused inconvenience and some loss would be a reeapitidation 
of events of the wet years. In the early days these floods almost were welcome, 
for they scoured the hillsides and carried away the old cans and refuse that at 
times had disagreeable prominence in the local landscape. In a flood in the 
summer of 1908 there swept down thousands of tons of earth from the western 
hillside, a part of the debris bursting into the local postoffice, burying fixtures 
and mail many feet deep. 


Bisbee was deeply concerned early in June, 1906, over trouble at Cananea 
that involved danger to hundreds of Americans, many of them prior residents 
of Arizona towns along the border. Several thousand Mexican miners, led by 
political agitators, struck for higher wages and terrorized the camp. A mob 
of 1,000 marched down from Ronquillo, the smelter town, to the American settle- 
ment on the mesa and killed the Lletcalf brothers, managers of the company 
lumber yards, thereafter firing the stored timber. Though Superintendent 
Kirk had hundreds of well-armed Americans in Cananea, a force of 270 Ameri- 
cans, nearly all from Bisbee, went to the rescue, headed by Captain Bynning of 
the Arizona Rangers. At Naco the Americans had a little encounter with 
Mexicans across the line, wholly due to misapprehension, resulting in several 
Mexican casualties and in the wounding of an officer of the Bisbee Y. M. C. A. 
The Americans were met at the line by Governor Ysabal, who invited them 

SANTA tKlZ torXTV unKTHorsK, X()(iAI-i:s 
decorated with Arizona virgin gold, of which considerable quantities have been 
found in the vicinitv of Nogales 


"as individuals," on this ground later defending his action before the 
Mexican national authorities. It is not improbable that his action is wholly 
due to the fact that the Americans would have come over anyhow, invited or not. 
They proceeded to Cananea where conditions were found not nearly as serious 
as liad been reported and returned within a few hours, without firing a shot. 

Only five Americans were killed at Cananea in the fighting, but the casualties 
were heavy on the Mexican side. Governor Ysabal reported the names of twenty- 
three Mexicans who had died, but it is claimed that no less than twenty -six were 
killed in a single charge made by the Mexicans on a hillside where 100 Ameri- 
can miners had intrenched themselves. General Luis Torres and Colonel Koster- 
litsky were promptly on the ground with rurales and troops and shared in the 
forced pacification of the camp. 


At Douglas the first townsite location was made in August, 1900, by Alfred 
Paul, Park Whitney, C. A. Overlock and J. A. Brock, who had had information 
that several Phelps-Dodge representatives had been looking over the ground, 
apparently determining upon a location for the long-projected Copper Queen 
smelter. This information proved true, and the quartet beat the Phelps-Dodge 
Company in the race to the land office. The location first was homesteaded and 
later paid for with land scrip. All interests afterwards were conjoined in the 
International Land & Improvement Company. Lots went on the market in 
March, 1901, a couple of months after the Arizona Southeastern Railroad came. 
The branch to Naeozari was started about the same time. The postoffice was 
established that summer, with Overlock as postmaster, he represented, how- 
ever, by Renwick White, who struggled through the first years of the marvelous 
growth of the town. Business lots at first sold for from $150 to $300; now are 
worth up to $15,000. The town was incorporated in 1904, with Overlock as 

On the whole Douglas has had a rather peaceful existence, latterly broken by 
the border troubles of the Mexicans, wherein bullets for days were showered 
across the line and where Mexican battles, seen through field glasses, furnished 
a dangerous diversion for the American populace. 

Willcox, which started as a cattle shipping point and as the forwarding 
station for Fort Grant and Globe, now ranks as an agricultural center, fed by 
the products of hundreds of land holdings in the Sulphur Springs Valley, a 
district favored by plentiful underground water. A reward offered by the 
Legislature of 1875 for the first artesian well was paid in 1883 to W. J. Sander- 
son of Sulphur Springs Valley, who found flowing water at slight depth. Even 
a better artesian development has been made at San Simon, near the New IMexi- 
can line, where the wells are much deeper. The San Pedro Valley of Cochise 
County was cultivated around Spanish haciendas many years ago and had perma- 
nent American settlement as early as 1865. Latterly the valley above Benson 
has been peopled mainly by industrious Mormon farmers. Bowie, near the old 
Fort Bowie, at first was a small Mexican settlement, said to have borne the name 
of Tres Cebollas (Three Onions), following the first trade made on the site of 
the village, now the junction point of the Globe branch of the Southern Pacific. 
Naco, on the border, forwarding point for Cananea, was not named after 


Nacozari, as would seem apparent. The name is a combination of the last two 
letters in the words "Arizona" and "Mexico." 

In 1909 there was general expectation that in the Courtland-Gleeson district 
was about to arise a second Bisbee. With this impression the Southern Pacific 
and the El Paso & Southwestern systems both made haste to enter Courtland, 
the former from Cochise on the north and the latter from Douglas. There was 
the usual clash of conflicting railroad interests with regard to rights-of-way 
and crossings. Courtland had two townsites and boomed for a while in a manner 
pleasing to real estate dealers, but eventually declined with the mines. The 
two railroads, with Pearce as the only important point on either line, now serve 
principally as a shortcut connection between the main lines of the rival systems. 
At the start, in February, 1909, Courtland was a lively place and at the town- 
site lot sale the line of would-be purchasers was several blocks long and in it 
leading places were sold for as high as $200. Some within the line had stood 
all night. Two local newspapers were distributed on the day of the sale. The 
first Sabbath of the new town was celebrated by a terrific gale that blew down 
most of the tents and sheet-iron structures that had been erected. 


Nogales as a town is a comparatively late settlement, dating back only to 
about October, 1882, to about the time of the arrival of the New Mexico & Ari- 
zona Railroad, built from Benson southwest. The railroad company intended 
to have its division terminus at Calabasas, a few miles northward, but the 
Mexican government decreed that all trains should start at the international 
boundary. So the railroad, a Santa Fe annex, perforce had to move its division 
terminus to the line. 

There was a town on the line when the railroad came It comprised two rows 
of tents and had been named Isaacville, after the keeper of one of the saloons. 
There were rough days around the time of construction, with a population that 
contained desperadoes from both sides of the line in rather undue proportion. 
Sentiment changed when tents were displaced by good buildings and the rough 
element disappeared. "When Nogales was founded it was under a clouded title, 
its land claimed as a part of the Caraou-Elias land grant. It was later shown 
by Engineer Henry 0. Flipper, an expert on Spanish titles, that this grant did 
not come as far south as the international line and in 1896 a Supreme Court 
decision found the Camou claims invalid. So the title doubly was made good 
and Mayor Overton, as trustee, soon was able to issue deeds. 

Capt. L. W. Mix, later the honored mayor of the town, was one of the very 
first residents. His first visit was in October, 1882, while en route from San 
Francisco to Sonora. The Sonora Railroad had been built from Guaymas north- 
ward almost as far as Nogales and from the north the Benson road had been 
completed to the line. The engineer in charge of the construction work of the 
Sonora road was Thos. J. Morley, whose name now is borne by the principal 
business street of Nogales. Mrs. Morley drove the final spike, one of silver, 
October 29. At that time the border town was only a camp ; the railroad station 
was a box ear. There was one adobe building at the very edge of the territorial 
line, built by D. Snyder. All other buildings were either frame "shacks" or 


tents. The town grew fast as soon as it was understood that it was to be a 
division poi;it. 

One of the early buildings was that erected by John T. Briekwood, along 
the international line. "When the final boundary survey was made by a joint 
American-Mexican army party, it became necessary to cut a niche in the south 
wall of Briekwood 's structure to permit placing of a line monument. Several 
times thereafter, fugitives chased by Mexican police found sanctuary in this 
same niche, though with only a blank wall behind them. 

Briekwood had an international sort of business house. His bar was m Ari- 
zona, but all cigars were sold in ]\lexieo. Across the sidewalk to the southward, 
on an awning post, was a large locker. When a customer wanted a cigar or a 
few cigars, he and the barkeeper stepped out of the south door into Mexico, 
where the cigars weve sold and the payment of tariff thus avoided. Later this 
happy custom had to be eliminated, for a clear space sixty feet from the inter- 
national line was opened through the town at the instance of both governments, 
to discourage smuggling. 

Arizona was made a separate customs district in 1892, with headquarters at 
Nogales, under George Christ, collector. The office of collector of customs at 
Nogales has had an unhappy history. Several collectors were dropped under 
charges, while Collectors Doan and MeCord died in office. McCord was suc- 
ceeded by Con O'Keefe, a well-known Arizonan, who held office until succeeded 
in the latest democratic administration by Chas. E. Hardy. 

Con O'Keefe in early days was a prospector and then a storekeeper, until 
he amassed wealth through the sale of mines. Of O'Keefe old timers love to 
tell that he was the only man ever known who succeeded in "deadheading" 
live stock on an Arizona railroad. O'Keefe and a partner, on their way to 
Jerome, wanted to get from Benson to Maricopa without making the journey on 
foot. Cash they had none and they were further handicapped by the possession 
of a burro, one most highly esteemed by both. So they found an empty freight 
car on an eastbound train and into it introduced not only themselves but the 
burro. They were discovered somewhere west of Tucson by a train crew 
that could take a joke. As a result, the trio rode through to Maricopa, where 
the trainmen helped in building a little bridge of railroad ties, that the burro 
might safely be landed. 

An ugly bank failure was that of the Nogales International Bank in January, 
1904. Though the receiver found that $200,000 had been deposited, mainly by 
local residents, in the vaults were only $40 in American money and $396 in 
Mexican money. The greater part of the money appeared to have been loaned 
to officers of the bank who had screened themselves by the organization of other 
companies, which appeared as debtors. The items chargeable to the management 
aggregated $117,773. There was intense excitement within the town over the 
report of the looting and three of the officials were placed in jail for a time. 
John Dessart, president of the bank, was adjudged insane and transferred to 
the territorial asylum at Phoenix. Cashier Swain, released on bonds, fled to South 


Nogales ever since her establishment has realized much profit from her posi- 
tion on the border, which gave her exceptional advantages for trade with the 


rich Mexican State of Sonora. Business was sadly disturbed, however, at the 
beginning of the revolution that followed the deposition of President Porfirio 
Diaz. Several times Mexican revolutionary factions carried the war into the 
very streets of the Mexican Town of Xogales, with bullets whistling far over 
into the northern settlement- 

Nogales again saw warlike conditions, the culmination of a period of disorder 
that had continued on the Mexican side through the years from 1911 to 1916. 
The town was one of the important border points to be garrisoned by the United 
States, which at times had as many as 4.000 soldierj- there stationed. The cul- 
minating scenes, in so far as they affected Nogales. have been described by Mr. 
Braey Curtis, a Xogales banker : 

Many incidents oec-nrre-3 to disturb the reaee and to endanger the lives of the inhabitants 
near the line. Xeeessity for a demand that the United States boundary territory be respected 
came on November i;6, 1915. about 10 o'clock a. m. when CoL 'Wm. H. Sage, in command of 
the Twelith V. S. Infantry, gave the order to return the fire of ViUa soldiers who were just 
about to evacuate Xogales, Sonora. Mexico. 

The efficiency, courage and discipline of the United States army was a marvel to civilians. 
Privates were ordered to take prone positions on International Street, facing Mexico, ready 
for action, awaiting the offensive from the Mexican side of the line. Col. Wm. H. Sage and 
his ofncers unflinchingly remained in a standing position back of their men, giving commands 
and instructing the men to pick only those firing or attempting to fire on Americans from 
Mexico, and to take due care to shoot no bystanders nor noncombatants, while American 
sharpshooters were plac-ed on building tops on the lookout for snipers. 

A vigorous fire continued for about thirty minutes. The American army demonstrated 
wonderful marksmanship, for not a single noncombatant, woman or child on the Mexican side 
of the line had been shot. 

One remarkable incident was in the case of a VUla officer. He was with two women, 
apparently members of his family, who were using every effort to prevent him from shooting, 
but in the struggle he succeeded in raising his rifle to his shoulder and fired the signal shot and 
his comrades continued the fire. Some American sol;iers dropped him immediately. The 
two women by his side remained uninjured, and this same care and accuracy followed through 
the whole battle. During the heaviest of the fire the Carranza-Obregon forces, opposing the 
ViUa faction, appeared from the east and west from over the h ills surrounding Xogales, 
Sonora. Those coming from the west, not recognizing the American soldiers, opened fire on 
them, killing one and wouniing two. The fire was returned with heavy effect, but as soon as 
the mistake was discovered firing ceased. Gen. Obregon and CoL Sage met on the inter- 
national line and proper apolc^cs and salutations were extended. Since then all has been 
peaceful en the Une. 

As a result of the fire returned by the TiUistas soldiers. Private Stephen Little of 
Company L, Twelfth Infantry, whose home was in Fairmont, X. C, was killed, and two 
men were woundei. The death toU on the Mexican side was estimated from seventy-five to 
one hundred. The sequence was that the TiUistas, who have cast slurs and insults at the 
President of the United States, the United States army and Amerijans in general, were 
taught to have a wholescme re^^ct for the United States army and United States citizenship. 


Calabasas in 1S&4 was found by Browne ''a fine old ranch" abandoned by 
Sef-or Gandara, a former governor of Sonora, who was met by Browne and 
Poston on their journey into Arizona. He had a small party, mounted on mules 
and burrcs. and was making his way to California, almost destitute, driven out 
by an adverse political faction. The Calabasas ranch about that time was 
occupied by a stout-hearted frontiersman. James Pennington, with a family of 
five sons and daughters, who helped their father, rifle in hand, to guard their 

Ready to fight fire 
Deadly American bullet 
Deployed against Villistas 

Funeral of a sold 

Twelfth Infantry Camp 
killed in action 


homestead and their fields against the frequent incursions of the Apaches. Pen- 
nington stubbornly refused to leave the country — said he had as much right to 
it as the infernal Indians and said he would live there in spite of all the devils 
out of hell. One of the daughters, Mrs. Page, lived after an experience in which 
she was the only survivor of a party ambushed by Indians, finally rescued by 
whites after sixteen days of hiding in the hills, subsisting on roots and berries. 
Pennington moved to Tucson where one of the principal streets later was named 
after him. Browne describes him as a man eccentric, yet of excellent sense, 
large and tall, with a large face and athletic frame. He and a son were killed 
by Apaches near Crittenden in 1869. 

Calabasas originally was a IMexican military post with well-built houses of 
stone and adobe. In 1856-57 it was occupied for about a year by a squadron 
of the First Dragoons under Ma.jor Steen. Fort Mason, of Civil War days, was 
a short distance south of Calabasas. 

About the time of the railroad's coming, Calabasas had great hopes. What 
was considered a large hotel was erected, a townsite was laid off and advertis- 
ing matter was scattered far and wide. Especially is remembered an elaborate 
pamphlet on which was an illustration of the townsite of Calabasas, filled with 
large business blocks, where in reality only was a brushwood thicket. At the foot 
of the slope flowed a lordly river, the Santa Cruz, bearing majestic steamboats 
upon its tide. It is to be noted also that the prospectus indicated that the river 
outlined upon the map flowed southward into the Gulf of California, instead of 
the northward to sink into desert sands. The boom of Calabasas was short-lived 
and Nogales (Sp. — walnuts) sprang into being near the site of the old Spanish 
rancho and presidio of Los Nogales. 


The first white settlement of Gila County was a tent colony of miners at the 
Ramboz silver claims, ten miles north of Globe. It cost 25 cents for each letter 
brought up from San Carlos by Indian runners, to be delivered from a volunteer 
sort of postoffice. 

The first house in Globe was built in the summer of 1876 of adobe, by Robert 
Metcalfe and Chas. M. Shannon, who are better known in the Clifton country. 
There their names are preserved in the Town of Metcalfe and in the nearby 
Shannon Hill, wherefrom the Shannon Mining Company draws its ore. Dr. T. 
C. Stallo had the first store, in a tent near the hangman's tree, but the first real 
merchandising establishment of the camp was started in the early fall in the 
Metcalfe-Shannon house by A. M. Pierce. "Billy" Ransom, still a resident of 
the camp, tells a story that the early merchants, lacking authority for the sale of 
liquor, evolved a scheme for selling potatoes at a dollar apiece. To the purchaser 
of two went a flask of whiskey as a gift. But saloons never were long coming in 
an Arizona mining camp. 

Among the early business men were S. Klein, J. J. Vosburg, Morrill & 
Ketchum (later succeeded by E. F. Kellner), W. S. Duryea, D. J. Webster, W. 
Fred Westmeyer, G. S. Van Wagenen, Harley Hitchcock, E. 0. Kennedy, Jack 
Eaton and Alonzo Bailey (the firm of Eaton & Bailey now is the Old Dominion 
Commercial Company), Dr. S. C. Heineman, B. G. Fox, Al Kinney, M. W. 
Bremen, Dave Henderson and the Pascoe brothers. 


' ' Jerry ' ' Vosburg, later express agent and now a Los Angeles capitalist, was 
the first postmaster, with his office in Klein's store. By 1881 a schoolhouse had 
been built in the southern part of the camp, placed in charge of a highly-edu- 
cated, typical Irishman named McGinuis, who enforced discipline with a heavy 
hand. Elsewhere in this volume will be found details of the camp's Indian ex- 
periences and of the lynching of 1882, while its mines have been given separate 

Globe's first editor. Judge Aaron H. Hackney, died in December, 1899. For 
twenty years he had not been beyond the town limits of Globe and since 1857 he 
had been on the frontier, most of the time in Southern New Mexico, where he 
long was associated in business with Stephen J. Elkins. In the faU of 1899 Judge 
Hackney had retired, at the age of 84, from his management of the Silver Belt. 

Globe was regularly incorporated in May, 1900, though there had been organ- 
ization before that date. In the mayor's chair was placed Geo. W. P. Hunt, 
already thrice representative of his county in the Territorial Legislature and 
later to occupy the high position of first governor of the State of Arizona. 

June 9, 1894, Globe was swept by a fire that wiped out almost every business 
house along the main street. In July, 1901, again was a destructive fire, after the 
fire department had disbanded for lack of support and following a temporary 
disincorporation of the town. 

In August, 1904, a cloudburst swept Pinal Creek and did much damage, six 
residents being drowned at a point where the water was backed up by the 
slag dump of the Old Dominion Company. A number of buildings were floated 
down the torrential stream and much of the Gila Valley Railroad grade was 
torn away. 

Early in the '90s Globe had much labor trouble. A body of miners marched 
to the office of Superintendent Parnall of the Old Dominion Company and threat- 
ened to hang him unless he rescinded some small administrative regulation. 
Parnall resigned soon after, stating that his position had no further interest 
when he found he had about 400 superioi-s. There was a deal of boycotting also 
and everybody found with a copy of the local newspaper was fined $2.50 a week. 
The troubles continued for a number of years. One bright light was the action 
of Sheriff J. H. Thompson ("Rim Rock"), who stopped a socialist procession on 
the main street and at the point of a revolver compelled the elimination of a 
red flag. As a general result, the Old Dominion Copper Company closed down 
its mines on several occasions merely in order to demonstrate its own right to 
handle its own property. Globe for most of its histoi-y has been a stronghold of 
the miners' union. This organization in 1901 was especially interested in push- 
ing an eight-hour bill in the Legislature wherein a Globe representative was Wm. 
H. Beard, who failed to vote for tlie measure. Beard on his return was seized 
by his neighbors and ridden out of town on a rail. When released he secured 
a brace of revolvers and then proceeded to march down the main street, in pic- 
turesque language defying the community. 

The Old Dominion mine closed down in the latter part of January, 1909, 
fcllowing the action of a walking delegate who entered the shaft house and pulled 
a non-union miner from the cage as it was about to drop with him to his station. 
The other large mines of the camp joined in a silent protest and about 2000 men 
were paid off. The matter was a most serious one, for within the town the mer- 



chants had feared just such a result. The walking delegate finally was sent out 
of camp, an action considered as sustaining the views held by the mining com- 
panies, who thereupon resumed work. 

In January of 1915, at Miami, about 1600 miners and building trades em- 
ployees of three corporations went on strike. The trouble was of short duration, 
the men going back on assurance that wages would be raised in the near future. 
This was done about the same time that a general raise of wages was made by 
the copper producing corporations of Arizona, on the basis of a rise in the value 
of their product. 

The Miami townsite was purchased in November, 1908, by Cleve W. Van- 
Dyke, who had come from laying out the townsite of Warren, near Bisbee, and 
the building of the Warren electric railway. He sold a lot in December to John 
H. Fitzpati'iek, though the formal opening of the townsite did not occur tiU 
October 11, 1909. Pitzpatrick built the first house of the new town, of concrete, 
for which the water used in construction had to be hauled from miles away and 
cost 50 cents a barrel. 



Chas. D. Poston — Wm. H. Kirkland — Peter R. Brady^Frilz Conizen — Eslevan Ochoa 
— Samuel Hughes — Thomas Hughes — L. C, Hughes — S. R. DeLong — /. B. Allen 
—Fred G. Hughes— C. B. Stocking— R. N. Leaihenvood—S. H. Drachman—E. 
N. Fish — /. S. Mansfeld — W. C. Greene — Col. Kosterlitsk^ — Pauline Cushman— 
Pioneer Society). 

Within the third volume of this work will be found a wealth of biography, 
from which can be learned much more of the personal features of life in Arizona 
within the past forty years than has been set forth in preceding pages. It has 
been the editor's good fortune to have known many of these pioneers, most of 
them now passed away. They came to Arizona when it possessed few features 
that would make a land habitable and when rare pluck was needed to sustain 
life against adverse conditions of nature and of humanity. No saints were to be 
found among these men, yet even their lives were at the disposal of a friend, 
or even of the stranger who might be beset by savages on the road. Often arose 
questions why they came and why they remained. It is probable that few of 
them appreciated a fact now undisputed, that there had arisen in their breasts 
a love for the country itself, with a relative degree of contentment that could 
not have been reached elsewhere. Of the work and character of some of these 
pioneers it has been thought well worth while to present a few notes. It is not to 
be expected that these will be found more than fragmentary in themselves or that 
they will cover omissions in personal reference heretofore made. The names 
mainly are of people personally known to the writer and their selection has 
been made almost casually, generally suggested in the consideration of events 
dealt with heretofore. 


Most notable among the pioneers of the Southwest was Charles D. Poston, 
to whom in later years came the enduring title of "Father of Arizona." His 
life was full of official honor and activity. His mental endowment, education 
and training all contributed to place him high among his fellow men. He was 
industrious in forwarding his own ambitions. His service to the territory had 
been acknowledged by legislative resolutions and by the granting even of a 
pension. Yet his death, June 24, 1902, in Phcenix, was on the floor of an adobe 
hut, wherein he had lived for several .years, solitarj' and under most squalid 
conditions. His burial was at the expense of a number of friends, all of them 


Arizona pioneers. His body lies in the cemetery at Phoenix where the Daughters 
of the American Revolution in 1906 erected a small headstone. 

Poston was born in Hardin County, Kentucky, April 20, 1825. Orphaned 
at 12 years of age, he was reared by relatives. He studied law and was ad- 
mitted to practice at Nashville and also practiced at Washington. Some time 
after the acquisition of California, he went to San Francisco to employment as a 
custom house clerk. His advent in the Southwest was in 1854, leading a com- 
pany of thirty men for exploration. The party landed at Navachista in Jan- 
uary of that year and journeyed through upper Sonora and through Arizona 
south of the Gila to Fort Yuma. With specimens of the mineral wealth he had 
found he returned to California and thence went by way of the Isthmus to New 
York, Kentucky and Washington, where he spent the following year enlisting 
the support of capital. 

In 1856, backed by an organized company, he entered Arizona again from 
the east with a party largely German in constitution, and started mining near 
Tubac. In 1857 he was relieved of his position as manager by General Heintzel- 
mau and was transferred to the company's office in New York. He was back 
again in Arizona later in charge of the company's business, and he was serving 
as recorder for Doiia Ana County, New Mexico, which county then embraced all 
of lower Arizona. For a part of that time Tubac had a newspaper to which 
Poston was a contributor. He had to flee for his life, however, together with 
Prof. R. Pumpelly and a number of American miners, when troops were with- 
drawn and Mexicans and Apaches alike descended upon the undefended mining 
camps. During the Civil war he served for a while as volunteer aid to his old 
friend, General Heintzelman, though his military title merely was one of 

Poston was very active in the work leading up to the organization of the 
new Territory of Arizona in 1863. Those men who secured the offices in the new 
subdivision seem to have been the ones who had helped most in putting through 
the congressional act of establishment. He did not enter Arizona with the 
official party, however. He went overland to San Francisco by the northern 
stage route and thence, in company with J. Ross Browne, made his way into 
the new territory through Yuma. According to Browne, Poston knew every 
foot of the country, talked Spanish like a native, believed in the people and 
climate, had full faith in the silver, implicitly relied upon the gold and never 
doubted that Arizona was the grand diamond in the rough ; withal he talked and 
acted like a man perfectly sane. He admitted, however, that while Arizona was 
prolific in reptiles and the precious metals, it was painfully destitute of every- 
thing for the convenience of civilized man. 

His services as Indian commissioner were short, for at the first election he 
was chosen delegate to Congress and forthwith departed for his field of duty at 
Washington, taking the Panama route, with a mileage charge of $7,000. That 
he had accomplished something is indicated by the fact that the First Legisla- 
ture tendered its thanks to him "for the earnest, able and efficient manner in 
which he has discharged the duties of superintendent of Indians." No record 
is at hand of Poston 's service as delegate, but it would appear that he did not 
view with equanimity his retirement from Congress. 


Late in 1866, the Legislature passed a concurrent resolution reciting that 
information had been received that "Hon. Chas. D. Poston, late delegate to 
Congress from this territory, has circulated in Washington a report that Hon. 
John N. Goodwin, delegate-elect to Congress from this territory, was elected 
through fraud and misrepresentation and that said Hon. Chas. D. Poston has 
further announced his determination to contest the seat of Hon. John N. Good- 
win in Congi-ess upon grounds as aforesaid." The Legislature thereupon for- 
mally declared "That we firmly believe the election of Hon. John N. Goodwin 
to have been, in all respects, regular, and that he was honestly and fairly elected 
by a majority of all the legal votes case in this territory, for delegate, and that 
no fraud or undue influences were used by said Hon. John N. Goodwin, or his 
friends, to procure such election ; that we regret exceedingly, and must condemn 
without reserve, as most detrimental to our interests, the position taken by said 
Hon. Chas. D. Poston, having, as we conceive it does, a direct tendency to place 
Hon. John N. Goodwin, our delegate, in a false position before Congress, lessen- 
ing his influence therein. ' ' 

Poston himself, in his little poetical volume, "Apache Laud," thus made 
reference to a subsequent failure, when he ran for delegate against Governor 
McCormick : 

The Tucson people were quite elate, 

They'd swapped the capital for a delegate; 

All for this exalted honor itch, 

And would swap the devil for a witch; 

The governor has this condition. 

He signs the delegate 's commission, 

And for the honor and the pelf, 

He always signs it for himself. 

The Washington folks here might learn 

Advantage of the count to turn. 

After his reluctant retirement from ofSce he visited Europe, saw the Paris 
Exposition in 1867 and wrote a book called "Europe in the Summertime." 
Returning to Washington he reentered the practice of law. 

Poston dropped into official position again about the time of the Burlingame 
Treaty with China and was commissioned by Secretary of State Seward to 
visit Asia to study irrigation and to bear dispatches from the Chinese Embassy 
to the Emperor of China. On his voyage across the Pacific he was a member 
of the party of his old friend J. Ross Browne, who had been appointed Minister 
to China. On this trip Poston visited many countries of the Par East and therein 
found much to his liking. In India he gained a smattering of Brahminism that 
continued in his thoughts for the rest of his life, and his writings thereafter 
preferably turned toward the oriental rather than covering the Arizona field, in 
which his information was so valuable. When he returned to Arizona it was 
to again hold public office, to be register of the Arizona Land Office at Florence. 

He interested himself in a study of the remains of the ancient races, evolving 
a theory that they were sun worshippers, a cult toward which he, for the time 
being, rather inclined. Across the river from Florence is a round hill to this 
day known as Poston Butte. Around and up this hill at considerable personal 
expense in 1878 Poston built a wagon road. Upon the summit, where he raised 


a sun flag, it was his dream to erect a temple where the deity should be wor- 
shipped with solemnity on the uprising of the sun, a glorious manifestation of 
celestial omnipotence. Financially he was hardly able to do more than build 
the road, so, to secure the necessary funds, Poston wrote a lengthy letter to the 
Shah of Persia, reciting all the alleged facts he had secured concerning the 
ancient races and urging upon the monarch the religious duty and high advisa- 
bility of reestablishing on the Western Continent the faith of Zoroaster, after 
the years of darkness that had followed the suppression of the sun cult as found 
by the Spaniards. It is told that the Shah, through diplomatic channels, ex- 
tended to Colonel Poston his felicitations and best wishes, but no money was 
returned ; and now the road is only a ruin, like the rough stone watch tower on 
the summit that had given Poston his idea. It was Poston 's wish that he be 
buried on the summit of this butte and possibly a sentimental State Legislature 
some day may make provision for this and for the erection thereon as well of a 
memorial shaft whei*efrom may be reflected to the people below the first rays 
of the rising sun. 

He wrote in rather bitter strain conceiming his official position, which paid 
only $500 a year, ' ' a recompense for my arduous pioneering and the loss of an 
ample estate by confiscation and robbery." He had an extra allowance of $100 
a year for contingent expenses and rent, but acknowledges that there was little 
or no business in the office. So he filled in his time at Florence by the writing 
of an allegorical sort of work in verse entitled "Apache Land," published in 
San Francisco in 1878. By no means was it his best work, but it is valuable 
today as giving an outline of his travels and explorations, both in the South- 
west and the Orient. For a number of years later he retained official position, 
though in a modest way, serving as consular agent at Nogales, Mexico, and aS 
governmental agent at El Paso. In May, 1882, in Tucson, irritated by news- 
paper attacks upon him, he fired a pistol shot at J. A. Whitmore, editor of the 
Tucson Citizen, fortunately missing his mark. 

He returned to Washington, where for five years he had some connection 
with the Interior Department, again coming back to Arizona as agent of the 
Agricultural Bureau, with station at Phoenix. This employment ceased and 
Poston practically was destitute for a time, till by the Twentieth Legislature he 
was granted a pension of $25 a month, later increased to $35. The pension bill 
recited at length Poston 's personal history and acknowledged a sense of grati- 
tude for his services to the Southwest, telling that in pioneer times he had been 
pre-eminently the moving spirit and "in fact may be truly said to be the Father 
of Arizona." He was the second Arizona pensioner, the first having been John 
Dobbs, a wounded Indian fighter. His mind was active to the very last and he 
was a valued contributor to the Phoenix newspapers. From the old Lemon Hotel 
he moved to the place wherein he died, on Monroe Street, near Second, his 
dilapidated domicile marked by an old Mexican molino, a stone handmill, that 
later decorated the entrance to the territorial capitol. 

Colonel Poston was married twice. His first wife died early. For a while 
his sole support was from a daughter, the wife of Lieut. -Col. B. F. Pope, of the 
United States Medical Corps. Colonel Pope died in the Philippines. His wife 
started back with the body and died on the ocean. The second marriage, at 
American Flag, about 1881, was to Miss Mattie Tucker, daughter of a pioneer 


Arizona family resident near Phoenix. This marriage, with material disparity 
of ages, did not seem to have been successful, for Mrs. Poston left her husband 
very soon. 

His stories were not freely told, yet were many. A favorite topic was his 
reign as alcalde of Tubac, wherein he had control of a half-dozen Americans 
and of hundreds of Mexican miners. He tried to better the condition of his 
people in every way possible, but found his task rather a hard one owing to the 
natural thriftlessness of the Mexican. On one point he was scaudalized. Prac- 
tically none of the Mexican couples within the camp had been legally married. 
The tale continued: 

There was no priest nearer than Altar, and you know that love-making proceeds as 
merrilj in the wildest desert as in the most romantic vale. Though self-appointed as head of 
the civil government, I proceeded to exercise magisterial functions and formally wedded all 
couples who presented themselves. This proceeding became popular, for I charged no fee and 
gave the bride five silver dollars as a dot. So all was merry, and among the many dirty and 
almost naked urchins that played on the thoroughfares of the little pueblo there were many 
that had been named or renamed in honor of me. Later there came the reaction. I had 
intruded my American ideas into Mexican customs and had to stand the consequences. I was 
met with scowls and curses instead of smiles. A priest had arrived, had learned of the 
matrimonial peculiarities of the camp and immediately had excommunicated the wliole bunch 
from the offices of the church. The women particularly were wild. I squared it, though it 
cost me about five hundred dollars. I had the priest remarry them and topped it all off with a 
holiday and with a grand baile in honor of the happy brides and grooms, not excluding their 

To the day of his death Poston was ever cheerful and hopeful, ever seeing 
the silver lining of the blackest cloud and ever looking forward to the day 
when riches and prosperity would smile upon liim in the fullest. Rarely did 
he yield to any captious criticism of his fellow men and his writings generally 
had his own personal note of optimism. His spare time, and he had much of 
it, was spent largely in writing poetry for publication or for his own enter- 
tainment. So much of his work was poetical, it is felt that this review of his 
life would hardly be complete if no perpetuity was given to what is considered 
to have been one of his sweetest songs, "The Syrian Dove," with particular 
reference to the "palomita" of Sonora and Arizona: 

The dove of the ark was fleet of wing, 

But the Syrian dove is the one to sing ; 

'Tis as sweet on the limb of a cotton-wood tree. 

As it was on the banks of the deejj Galilee 

When Jesus walked on the waters there 

And led the Apostles in holy prayer. 

How came you hither, my sweet coo-eoo? 
And how did you cross the ocean bluef 
Did you perch on top of the Pinta 's mast, 
When Columbus sailed on his ocean task? 
Or came you away from the old world 's fret 
On the Mayflower, hid in the Pilgrim 's netf 


Where'er you are found, my sweet coo-coo, 
It is sure that love will be found there, too ; 
For as breath departed from the paraclete, 
It entered the body of the dove so sweet — 
Which sings on the Jordan, sings on the Nile, 
And sings on the Santa Cruz erewhUe. 

The coo of the turtle is heard in the spring, 

Whenever the voices of nature sing — 

On the earth, in the trees, in the ambient air, 

The voice of the turtle makes the world more fair, 

For its song has forever one refrain. 

And that is that springtime will come again. 

The dove of the ark brings the olive leaf, 

As a gage of peace in its dainty teeth ; 

As a pledge that the world shall be drowned no more. 

But the Syrian dove from another shore, 

Sings a song in the springtime far more sweet — 

'Tis the plaintive voice of the paraclete. 


One of the most interesting of the pioneers was "Wm. H. Kirkland, dis- 
tinguished as the American who raised the first American flag in Arizona, at 
the time Tucson was abandoned by Mexican troops. He died in Winkelraan, 
Arizona, in January, 1911, aged 78. According to a writer in the Prescott 
Journal-Miner, in 1907: 

Of all his acts or experiences in the territory, which he first entered in 1854, he is proudest 
of the fact that he was the man who raised the fiist Old Glory to the skies in Arizona, on the 
occasion of the evacuation of Tucson by the Mexican troops, February 20, 1856. Before the 
Mexican troops marched out of the town on that memorakla occasion, after the Gadsden 
Purchase, he climbed to the roof of one of the adobe buildings and floated to the breeze a flag 
given him by an ex-government teamster, who had it securely hidden away in the mess box 
for many years. The officer in command of the Mexican troops objected to the Americans 
flying their flag until he had his men out of the town, but despite his protestations the seventeen 
sturdy Americans present refused to pull it down. He was the first settler in Kirkland Valley, 
which bears his name, and in his career has assisted in laying out the towns of Tenipe and 
Safford, besides naming Solomonville. He was the first man to raise a barley crop in Yavapai 
County, on the place now owned by Grant Carter, in the Kirkland Valley, but he says that while 
the crop was a great success he secured no benefit from it, as the Indians, who were monarchs 
of all they surveyed at the time, harvested his crop for themselves, and drove away with them 
twenty-three head of his pack animals. He was assisted in building at Kirkland the first 
water wheel for an arastra ever seen in this part of the territory by Joseph Ehle. 

Kirkland, a Virginian by birth, arrived in Tucson January 17, 1856. The 
following year he stocked the Canoa Ranch, forty miles south of Tucson, with 
200 cows he had bought in Mexico. This herd he claimed was the first ever 
brought into Arizona by any white man not of Spanish ancestry. According 
to a Tucson authority, he married in 1859, the bride a Miss Bacon, who had 
started from the East with her parents for California. This was the first 
American marriage in Tucson. February 28, 1861, was the birth of a daughter, 
now Mrs. Thomas Steele, the first American child born in Tucson 



Peter R. Brady, who died in Tucson in 1902, aged 77, was one of the dis- 
tinguished pioneers of the Southwest. In his youth, he had been appointed 
from his home City of Washington to the position of midshipman in the navy. 
In 1815, seeking adventure he went to Texas, where in 1846 he joined Capt. 
W. P. Crump's Company of Texas Rangers, serving on the boundary until the 
close of the Mexican war, thereafter living for several years in Jalisco, Mexico. 
Returning to Texas, he served again in the rangers until 1853, when he started 
to Arizona in the expedition of Col. A. B. Gray on the survey of the first Pacific 
railroad. In July, 1854, he organized in San Francisco the first mining com- 
pany to operate in Arizona, the same which took possession of Ajo mine near 
the Mexican border. For a number of terms he served in the Arizona Legis- 
lative Council. Personally, Brady was one of the most companionable of men, 
fortunate being those who have heard him tell of his experiences on the frontier 
when connected with the Arizona Mining and Trading Company. 


Dating back to 1855 was the Arizona experience of Fritz Contzen, who died 
at his home in Tucson in May, 1909. He was a German by birth, but had been 
in Texas a number of years. He joined one of the surveying parties of the 
United States Boundary Commission, which was running a new line between 
the United States and Mexico. For a while he had been a member of "Big 
Foot" Wallace's ranger company, in which Peter R. Brady was also interested. 
When Contzen came to Arizona Pete Kitchen was found in the upper Santa 
Cruz Valley and there were some Germans at Calabazas and Tubac, while at 
Fort Yuma he met Solomon Warner, who later became a merchant of Tucson. 
A brother, Julius Contzen, had come to Arizona a year before with Henry 
Ehrenberg. The brothers in 1855, while on their way to Hermosillo to buy 
supplies, were attacked by Apaches, of whom they killed not less than twelve; 
however, at the expense of severe wounds to themselves and the loss of three 
horses and equipment. With them were a couple of Papagoes, who did good 
service in bringing out a strong party of men from Imuris and saving the 
beleagured men. Less than two years later Julius died at San Xavier of the 
effect of his wounds. Another Indian experience was when the Indians in 
1861 drove all his cattle from his ranch at Punta de Agua, three miles south 
of San Xavier. With him at the time was Bill Kirkland. 


Estevan Ochoa, though a Mexican by birth, became an American citizen of 
whom Americans were proud. When the Confederate column arrived in Tuc- 
son, one of the first acts of the commanding officer was to send for Ochoa, who 
had been reported to him as a Yankee sympathizer of a pernicious sort. The 
merchant was informed curtly that the Confederates had come to stay and 
that Ochoa was expected to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy and 
that in default of so doing he could expect exile for himself and confiscation 
of his property. Ochoa was courteous in his reply, but positive. He stated 
that his property and life he considered at the disposition of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, from which he had received many favors. So he was allowed to take 


one of his own horses, with saddlebags, rifle and ammunition and was escorted 
out of the pueblo with his face pointed toward the east. Through the Apache- 
infested country he made his way safely 250 miles to a Union post on the Rio 
Grande. When the Union troops came back, Don Estevan was with them with 
added prestige. He soon regained a degree of wealth, though later heavily 
stricken by both Apaches and an approaching civilization for which he was not 
prepared. The Indians drove ofl: all the draft oxen of Tully, Ochoa & DeLong 
and the carcasses later were found where the animals had been killed and their 
flesh dried on a high mesa north of Salt River, that to-day bears the name of 
Jerked Beef Butte. His great freighting business and his stores both suffered 
when the railroad came and the old-time firm that had borne so large a part in 
pioneer days then went to the wall. 


In a Welsh family of ten children, three eventually became pioneers to 
Southern Arizona and rose to high distinction. The first of the trio, Samuel 
Hughes, now ranks as the dean of Arizona pioneers. His residence dates back 
to 1858, when, after years of interesting personal experience, mainly in the 
West, he was compelled to leave Northern California to seek a milder climate. 
That the climate of Arizona did all that was expected is shown by the fact 
that he is still relatively hearty at the advanced age of 87. It is notable that 
he also has had a family of ten, all save one still living. He helped in the 
organization of Tucson and was one of the councilmen for seven years. He 
also served as territorial and county treasurer. He was an organizer of the 
Arizona Pioneers' Society and for a while was president. In Tucson he is 
depended upon as the locality's best historian, his wonderful memory retaining 
details of rare interest concerning the early days wherein he was one of the 
very few "Americanos." 


Another distinguished member of the Hughes family died November 7, 1907, 
Thomas Hughes, a resident of Tucson since 1868. He had been a gallant soldier 
in the Civil war and had been brevetted colonel of volunteers for meritorious 
services during the War of the Rebellion and the Indian wars of Western 
Kansas. For twelve years after coming to Arizona, he farmed in the Sonoita 
Valley, near Crittenden, and the tale of his trials and losses in that locality 
are to be found elsewhere in this work. In 1880, he was in Tucson, thereafter 
employing himself as a merchant, as territorial auditor, president of the board 
of trade, postmaster of Tucson and treasurer of Pima County. 


A third brother, former Governor L. C. Hughes, died at his home in Tucson 
November 24, 1915, aged 73. It is probable that he considered his life work 
well accomplished, for two things he had fought for, prohibition and woman 
suffrage, had been adopted in Arizona, wherein he had been their first male 
advocate. Following a Civil war experience as one of the volunteers from his 
native state, Pennsylvania, he studied law for a while, and in 1871, seeking the 
betterment of his health, he came to Arizona, to Tucson. Successively, he was 


probate judge, ex-officio county school superintendent, district attorney, terri- 
torial attorney general, court commissioner, member of the Chicago World's 
Fair Commission and delegate to the democratic national conventions in 1884 
and in 1892. The Arizona Star was edited and published by him for thirty 
years, and he took pride in the fact that he was the first president of the Arizona 
Press Association on its organization in 1892. He was governor for three 
years, from April 1, 1893. Three years before coming to Arizona, he was 
married in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Two children are living, State Senator 
John T. Hughes and Mrs. Gertrude "Woodward. 


One of the prominent men in the history of Tucson died November 29, 1914, 
Sidney R. DeLong, who had served as president of the Society of Arizona 
Pioneers, as commander of the local post of the Grand Army and as the first 
mayor of Tucson. He came to Arizona in 1862 as a member of the California 
Column, under General West. He was post trader at Fort Bowie for fifteen 
years and was connected with the pioneer freighting and merchandising firm 
of Tully & Ochoa. His connection with the Camp Grant raid is told elsewhere 
in this work. He served as a member of the Territorial Legislature and he 
served also as receiver of the land office, county supervisor, county treasurer, 
city councilman and superintendent of schools. Locally his best service was 
in 1872 as the first mayor of Tucson, when he acted as trustee in the purchase 
of an addition of 1,280 acres. He devoted much time to the work of the Society 
of Arizona Pioneers, writing a small history of Arizona and many articles of 
historical interest. 


Among the unique features that attended the life of John B. Allen was a 
gift made to him and gratefully received, in April, 1899. It was a tombstone, 
presented him as an old customer and valued friend by Zeckondorf & Com- 
pany, inscribed "John B. Allen. Born 1818. Died 1899. Territorial Treasurer 
six years, 1865-1871. Mayor of Tucson two terms. A man without an enemy." 
Allen at the time was suffering from a malignant abscess of the ear and was 
looking forward entirely without fear toward death that soon closed his suffer- 
ing. He appreciated his novel present as the kindest testimony of esteem that 
could have been given, somewhat in the way of proffering flowers before the 

To old timers he generally was known as "Pie Allen," with reference 
to the fashioning by him of some wonderful dried-apple pies when he came to 
Arizona, at Calabazas. He was a merchant at Tubac and also at Tombstone, 
but during his latter years lived in Tucson, i 


One of the most remarkable of southwestern pioneers was Fred G. Hughes, 
of English birth, but of fifty years of Arizona residence. A professional faro 
dealer, he yet repeatedly was elected to office and ranked as a leader of his 
political party. In 1860 he was a member of the Ormsby expedition from 
Washoe, Nevada, against the Piutes, escaping from what was known as the 


"Washoe Massacre," in which about sixty whites were slain. In December, 
1861, he came to Arizona in the California Column. October 16, 1863, he left 
Fort Craig, New Mexico, in a military party that was to escort the new terri- 
torial officials. The officials being delayed, the column moved on. December 
18, Hughes was left with a dozen men at the San Francisco Springs, near the 
site of Flagstaff, to guard a cache of supplies, while the military party went 
on to the Chino Valley Camp, where the first official seat of government soon 
after was established, which Hughes did not reach till March 1, 1864. 

Five times Hughes was elected from Pima County to be a member of the 
Territorial Council, and in the Tenth, Sixteenth and Nineteenth sessions he 
further was honored by selection to the post of president of the Council. 
Latterly he was clerk of the board of supervisors, residing in Tucson. He was 
president of the Arizona Historical Society, and as such wa« made custodian 
of an appropriation of $3,000, given the society by the Legislature in 1897 for 
the compilation of the records on file. One night an attempt was made to 
burn up the courthouse in Tucson. In an investigation that followed, it was 
found that Clerk Hughes was far behind in his accounts and the charge was 
made that he had set fire to the building in order to wipe out the records of 
his peculations. Then it was discovered that the Historical Society's coin was 
gone. It had been gambled away. The Pima County supervisors, two of them 
old pioneer friends of Hughes, made up the shortage to the county. For the 
embezzlement of the society funds he was sent to the penitentiary. For a 
while Hughes sought to evade arrest, fleeing to Randsburg, California, and 
then into Mexico, but he finally surrendered himself for trial. He had many 
friends, who believed him simply careless and not criminal. A petition pre- 
sented to the governor asking pardon was described as little short of a copy of 
the great register of Tucson. Hughes was paroled by Governor Murphy from 
the territorial penitentiary in December, 1900, and would have had liberty 
earlier had he not chosen to consider himself a martyr and a man unjustly 
restrained. His death was most tragic. At the age of 74 he had returned to 
the placer camp of Greaterville, of which he ranked as founder. On a Septem- 
ber evening, while sitting in the door of his adobe house, he was struck by 
lightning and instantly killed. He was survived by a wife, seven daughters 
and three sons. 


Clark B. Stocking, widely known as the "Old Guard," now, in peace, a 
resident of Los Angeles, came to Arizona with the California Column in the 
Fifth Infantry, and served five years in the Southwest. This service was 
unique in that most of it was spent as an express rider, carrying messages 
between the various army posts and commanders, usually through a country 
swarming with Indians, where the lone courier was in danger almost every 
mile. At Oatman Flat, 1862, he was a member of the detail that hewed out 
poles to make a fence around the graves of the Oatman family, and at Oatman 
also he helped to dig trenches against the expected coming of a Confederate 
force that later proved only a raiding party. After his southwestern experi- 
ence, he became a plainsman and army scout and then a contractor, who fur- 
nished elk and antelope meat to railroad graders and secured no small fame 


as a stage messenger, in one Wyoming affair MUiag two bandits. In 1869 he 
was a boss packer in the Wheeler survey in the Grand Canon region. He 
appeared to travel from one danger to another, as a hunter, messenger, Lead- 
ville mine guard and as a buUion guard in Sonora. About 1880 he was in 
Tucson a deputy sheriff and deputy marshal, and was in one fight at Silver 
Lake near that city where he shot the leader of a band of four Mexican robbers 
and helped in the capture of the three others, the same who later, when con- 
victs, led in the attack on Superintendent Tom Gates at Yuma and were killed 
by Guard Hartley. It is probable that Stocking would prefer as an epitaph, 
"I did my duty as I saw it." 


A noted old timer is R. N. Leatherwood, best known as "Bob" despite his 
honorable accumulation of years. He came to Tucson in 1869 and served vari- 
ously as city councilman and mayor, county treasurer, twelve years as sheriff, 
three times as member of the Legislature. He was a member of the company 
that built the gravity water supply for Tucson in 1883 and served as superin- 
tendent of the Arizona exhibit of the St. Louis Fair. 


Samuel H. Drachman died in Tucson in December, 1911, after residence in 
that city since 1867. For thirty years he had been in the tobacco business, but 
when he first came, au immigrant from Russia, he cut hay, for sale to the 
Government, within the present corporate limits of Tucson. 


Edward N. Fish died at his home in Tucson, December 19, 1914, aged 87. 
He came to Arizona in 1864, entered into business at Tubac and other points 
as a member of the firm of Pish & Garrison. He started a mercantile business 
in Tucson in 1877, at times making large profits and again losing much on 
account of Indians. In 1874 he was married to Miss Maria Wakefield, who 
was the second American woman to teach a public school in Arizona, and who 
came to Tucson in 1873 from Sacramento, California. 


Ranking with the pioneer newspaper men of Arizona was I. S. Mansfeld, 
who in 1870 established in Tucson the first book store and news stand in Ari- 
zona. Mansfeld became one of the most active members of the Society of 
Arizona Pioneers and very entertainingly has told his early experiences in the 
distribution of literature. Times were very dull' in those days and money was 
in circulation only on military pay days. It took two weeks to bring news- 
papers in by mail, the mail buckboard coming only twice a week from Yuma. 
No reliance could be placed upon the mails, however. Sometimes there were 
lapses of three weeks. Mansfeld 's first Christmas goods did not arrive until 
the middle of the following February, though ordered in October. This, he 
said, however, was taken in good nature. The people were so used to such 
things. There were only about two hundred Americans and no social lines 
were drawn. They yearned for the news of the outside world, for at that time 


only meager information was to be had locally. There were only two news- 
papers in the territory, one each in Tucson and Prescott and only three towns 
of any size. There was only one place of worship, the Catholic Church and a 
primary school. \ 


One of the most picturesque characters ever known in the Southwest was 
Wm. C. Greene, who rose from a most humble beginning to be a capitalist, at 
one time rated at $30,000,000, who lived his life in strenuous excitement, which 
he seemed to like better than peace, and who died what he would have con- 
sidered poor, but still defiant of fate. He came to Arizona in 1877 ; prospected 
a mine in the Bradshaw Mountains with George Burbank as partner; went to 
Tombstone in the boom days, and worked as a miner; cut fire wood in the 
Dragoon Mountains and sold it for $14 a cord; married and settled on a San 
Pedro Valley ranch near Hereford. About this time be formed Mexican min- 
ing connections that afterward dominated his life's work. While ranching, 
Greene's neighbor on the San Pedro was Jim Burnett, a man of violence, who 
long was justice of the peace at the nearby Town of Charleston. One day 
Greene's dam across the river was blown up and in the resultant flood, Greene's 
daughter Helen and a girl playmate were drowned, as they were playing on 
the bank of the stream. Though Burnett was not in the vicinity, Greene be- 
lieved him responsible for the destruction of the dam, hunted him down at 
Tombstone and slew him on the public street, thereafter declaiming. ' ' Vengeance 
is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord." Sheriff Scott White did his duty, but 
when Greene came to trial he was acquitted more on account of the personality 
of the defendant than on account of the jury's belief that Burnett had really 
blown up the dam. It is told that long thereafter, nearly every man connected 
with that case who had shown any friendliness, including the sheriff and other 
peace officers and the members of the jiu-y, were given good jobs in some one of 
Greene's enterprises. It is commonly said that 'Bill Greene never forgot a 
friend. ' ' 

Greene's interest in Mexican mines led him into a number of encounters 
with the Apaches from which he escaped alive and with credit, but these 
affairs were of small importance relatively to those in which he afterwards 
engaged with Wall Street bankers and brokers. 

In 1898 Greene had an option on a half-dozen Mexican mining claims in 
the Cananea district, conditioned upon the payment of about $47,000, for 
which amount he had to go beyond his own means. There resulted the forma- 
tion of the Cobre Grande Copper Company, M'ithin which Greene was to 
receive $250,000 and a one-twelfth interest in the company, for his claims, for 
other property he was to add and for his assistance in promoting the enter- 
prise. Largely through the assistance of George Mitchell, a well-known Jerome 
smelter man, the necessary money was raised, mainly in Arizona, and the com- 
pany formally was organized in Cananea ]May 26, 1899. Thenceforward for 
years, litigation, trouble of many sorts and even bloodshed filled the history 
of the enterprise. A 200-ton smelting furnace was started in May, 1899, but 
produced only about a third of the camp's running cost. An "angel" wa.s 
found in July, 1899, in J. H. Costello, a Pennsylvania capitalist, who bought 


31,000 shares of stock, with the proviso that he be put in charge. Costello's 
management lasted till October, when Greene, Mitchell and their mining engi- 
neer. Prof. Geo. A. Treadwell, took forcible possession of the property. Con 
O'Keefe of Jerome, was displaced as superintendent, forced out by order of a 
Mexican court with which Greene had large influence and soon thereafter the 
property was transferred by Greene, acting upon his original claims, to the 
Cananea Consolidated Copper Company. 

As early as 1905, Greene's activities had resulted in the establishment of 
a community of over 20,000 people in the Cananea ilountains, with 4,000 men 
employed in the mines and smelter. Greene had been fighting his way through 
the courts of Mexico, of Arizona, New York and other states. He had entered 
the great Wall Street game and only his tremendous pluck and known willing- 
ness to kill saved, on one occasion, stock valued at several millions of dollars 
taken by him from a desk which he had broken open in the office of one of his 
associates, whom he then awaited, revolver in hand. This wild-western way 
of playing the game was the only one known to him and for a time succeeded. 
In Arizona and Sonora he had gathered around him scores of men upon whom 
he could rely to the death, and there were times when the mines were held in 
defiance of IMexican law processes. One of his lieutenants. Foreman Massey, 
in his loyalty even disobeyed orders and insisted on sinking on the Capote 
property long after he had been ordered to quit and thus ran into the greatest 
body of copper ore ever encountered in the Cananea Mountains, worth many 
millions of doUars. 

Greene's Mexican corporation, the Cananea Consolidated Copper Company, 
was represented in the United States by the Greene Consolidated Copper Com- 
pany, which afterward, with Amalgamated support, in the course of a Wall 
Street fight, in which Thomas Lawson was an active enemy, became the Gi-eene- 
Cananea Consolidated Copper Company. Greene in the meantime had bought 
a large part of Northern Sonora as a cattle range, had purchased mines and 
holdings in the timbered Sierra Madre Mountains, with the controlling interest 
in a railroad that tapped the timber district, had built a railroad from Naco to 
Cananea, as well as a twelve-mile line to tap the mines of his corporation, he had 
invested in smelters at various points and had backed several mining companies 
of large claims, from which came small results. He provided against the 
future by walking into an insurance office and buying a $100,000 policy for 
.$66,000 cash. About this time his private car used to be attached in aliuost 
every state in which it traveled under a judgment secured by a firm of New 
York bullion brokers. Wherever there was a faro game Greene loved to tarry, 
and to bet blue chips, with the ceiling as the limit. A man of large physique 
and tremendous strength, he busied himself continually. In speculation he 
was gambling on the largest of scales. On several occasions only his personal 
influence at Cananea soothed the anger of IMexican mobs composed of striking 

It is probable that Greene considered his never-ending litigation very luueh 
as he would a game of poker. He usually managed to employ about all the 
able lawyei-s in sight, and about a score of attorneys in Southern Arizona, 
mainly in Tucson, rose to affluence through his patronage. It used to be said 
that even his leading lawyer, W. H. Barnes, didn't know all of Greene's litiga- 


tion, and that the only man on earth who could write the full story of the 
various trials was Editor William Spear of the Phoenix Republican, who had 
rather specialized on the subject. 

Naturally such a career as this had a dramatic ending. Greene's end was 
after he had lost nearly all of his wealth, save a competency secured to his 
family. He died at Cananea, August 5, 1911, through accident, thrown from 
a carriage by runaway horses. 


Early in 1913 revolutionists in overpowering numbers forced across the 
line a command of loyal Mexican troops commanded by Col. Emilio Koster- 
litsky. This force was taken for internment to Fort Rosecrans on the San 
Diego Bay, and about the same time a large number of refugees from the more 
eastern points along the border were sent to Fort Wingate, New ilexico. 

Colonel Kosterlitsky, still living, a resident of Southern California, has 
had a romantic career. A Pole of good birth and an officer in his own land, he 
was driven to America by political changes and enlisted in the United States 
army. Here it has been told that he became a corporal at Fort Wingate in a 
troop of the Sixth Cavalry, commanded by Capt. Adna R. Chaffee, and the 
tale continues that he was so severely treated by Chaffee that he left the army 
for Mexico, where he readily found congenial employment as an officer of the 
rurales of the frontier guard, under Col. Juan Fenoehio. Chaffee, regretful 
of his actions, is said to have been instrumental in removing any stigma that 
might have attached to his ex-corporal's departure. Kosterlitsky soon rose to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel and later to full colonel. It is believed that no 
man could have done more than he to put down the disorder that was so com- 
mon in Sonora. His methods were sharp and decisive and a known criminal 
rarely ever was left to the delay and doubtful justice of the courts. The 
rurales, with the full approbation of the central government, usually resorted 
to "la ley fuga" and the criminal was left in a shallow grave. He participated 
with distinction and success in a number of expeditions jointly with American 
troops and his services especially were appreciated by the very officers with 
whom he had served in the United States Cavalry. 

Possibly it would be well to insert here an alternative story of the way he 
joined the Mexicans. It is to the effect that he deserted from the Russian navy 
at New York, preferring service in the saddle. He took an American vessel to 
Guaymas, where he enlisted in the Mexican army, in which he had service of 
forty years. 


One of the notable women of the latter pioneer days of Arizona was Pauline 
Cushman, who lived in Casa Grande for many years, the wife of Jere Fryer, 
who served a term as sheriff of Pinal County, and who kept a hotel and corral 
near the Casa Grande Station. Before marrying Fryer, she had managed 
hotels and eating houses in several southwestern camps. Before the Civil war 
she was an actress in New Oiieans and is said to have been the first woman 
who ever played the part of Mazeppa in the United States, a daring innovation 
in the early days of the theatrical business. During the Civil war she became 


a Federal spy and did such good work that she was at least brevetted, and is 
said to have been commissioned, to the rank of major. About that time she is 
said to have been a remarkably beautiful woman of Creole type. About 1881 
she left Casa Grande for Oakland, California. Thence she made two trips to 
Alaska and she was back in Arizona in the fall of 1895, rather inclined toward 
settlement in Mexico. In a copy of the Tucson Citizen of twenty years ago 
has been found this appreciation of her character: "Miss Cushman is one of 
the best-known women on the Pacific Slope, having been at one time or another 
boardinghouse keeper in every prominent mining camp this side of the Rockies. 
Among the miners she has a world of friends, for no man was ever turned from 
her door, whether he had means or not. It is said that she grubstaked more 
than a thousand prospectors in her time, but still the long-looked-for bonanza 
has not been struck." She died in Oakland, where she was buried by the 
Grand Army with military honors. Fryer died in Tucson a few years later. 


The Arizona Pioneer Society was organized January 31, 1884, at a meeting 
at the old Palace Hotel in Tucson. At that time the date of admission was set 
at 1870, though there have been modifications of this rule since that time. A 
large number of the pioneers were men who came in the California Column, 
but an unexpectedly large number dated their residence before the Civil war. 
On the admission date fixed, the settlement at Prescott had been only six years 
old and that at Phoenix only a little over a year, though many at Yuma were 
eligible. The original membership roll herewith is reproduced, with year of 
arrival annexed: 

Chas. D. Poston ]854 Thomas Steele 3867 

Hiram S. Stevens 1854 Wm. Zeckendorf 1867 

Peter Kitehen 1854 e. Bruner 1863 

Samuel Hughes 1858 Ferdinand Franco 1862 

Michael McKenna 1856 Henry Gibson 1862 

Wm. S. Oury 1856 J. McC. Elliott 1852 

N. B. Appel 1854 Chas. H. TuUy 1867 

Jas. H. Toole 1862 Wm. H. H. Burpee 1854 

F. M. Martin 1862 Thomas Burke 1864 

P. M. Smith 1853 G. F. Foster 1864 

Wm. J. Osborn 1863 M. 6. Samaniego 1869 

Geo. O. Hand 1862 Palatine E. Burke 1859 

I. H. C. Waltemath 1865 Edward N. Fish 1865 

A. Lazard 1858 P. E. Tully 1858 

Thomas Gates 1865 Dr. J. C. Handy 1866 

Isaac Goldberg 1863 T. G. Eusk 1855 

George Martin 1855 PhOip Drachman 1863 

Leopoldo Carrillo 1859 A. G. Buttner 1865 

Wm. C. Davis 1869 S. H. Drachman 1867 

W. A. McDermott :868 Chas. T. Etchell 1864 

E.I.Smith 1869 D. T. Harshaw 1862